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    4329 results match your criteria Pharyngitis Bacterial

    1 OF 87

    Defining Host Responses during Systemic Bacterial Infection through Construction of a Murine Organ Proteome Atlas.
    Cell Syst 2018 May 16;6(5):579-592.e4. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Center for Microbiome Innovation, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:
    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) remains one of the top 10 deadliest human pathogens worldwide despite its sensitivity to penicillin. Although the most common GAS infection is pharyngitis (strep throat), it also causes life-threatening systemic infections. A series of complex networks between host and pathogen drive invasive infections, which have not been comprehensively mapped. Read More

    Clinical Impact of a Rapid Streptococcal Antigen Test on Antibiotic Use in Adult Patients.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Adult pharyngitis is rarely attributable to group A streptococci. Utilization of a rapid streptococcal antigen test (RADT) may improve appropriate prescribing for bacterial pharyngitis.

    Methods: Clinic 1 performed RADTs with subsequent Group A DNA probe test (GADNA) from November 2014-March 2015 and November 2015-March 2016 while Clinic 2 was the control clinic, then implemented the RADT with a GADNA from November 2015-March 2016. Read More

    [Dynamics of staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones in vitro in patients with overweight].
    Wiad Lek 2018 ;71(2 pt 1):301-305
    Department of Therapy and Family Medicine, Faculty of Postgraduate Education and Pre-University Training, Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine.
    Objective: Introduction:S. aureus is the main pathogen of skin, soft tissue and otorhinolaryngological infections as well as the cause of osteomyelitis, meningitis and endocarditis. In recent years the importance of S. Read More

    Protective immunity induced by an intranasal multivalent vaccine comprising 10 Lactococcus lactis strains expressing highly prevalent M-protein antigens derived from Group A Streptococcus.
    Microbiol Immunol 2018 Apr 28. Epub 2018 Apr 28.
    Millennium Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.
    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes diseases ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe invasive infections. The N-terminal fragment of streptococcal M protein elicits protective antibodies and is an attractive vaccine target. However, this N- terminal fragment is hypervariable: there are more than 200 different M types. Read More

    Asymptomatic intrathyroidal pyriform sinus fistula mimicking thyroid cancer: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(16):e0488
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Rationale: There have been many reports of non-thyroidal lesions which can be mistaken for thyroidal lesions on ultrasound (US) examination. However, it is not known that pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) can manifest as an incidental thyroid nodule and cause serious complication on fine-needle aspiration (FNA).

    Patient Concerns: We present a 34-year-old man with PSF incidentally detected on US. Read More

    How to avoid the inappropriate use of antibiotics in upper respiratory tract infections? A position statement from an expert panel.
    Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 May - Jun;84(3):265-279. Epub 2018 Feb 25.
    Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP), Departamento de Oftalmologia, Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Bacterial resistance burden has increased in the past years, mainly due to inappropriate antibiotic use. Recently it has become an urgent public health concern due to its impact on the prolongation of hospitalization, an increase of total cost of treatment and mortality associated with infectious disease. Almost half of the antimicrobial prescriptions in outpatient care visits are prescribed for acute upper respiratory infections, especially rhinosinusitis, otitis media, and pharyngotonsillitis. Read More

    Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis and pharyngeal carriage: A meta-analysis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 19;12(3):e0006335. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    University of Otago Wellington, Newtown, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Objective: Antibiotic treatment of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is important in acute rheumatic fever (ARF) prevention, however clinical guidelines for prescription vary. GAS carriers with acute viral infections may receive antibiotics unnecessarily. This review assessed the prevalence of GAS pharyngitis and carriage in different settings. Read More

    Streptococcal pharyngitis and rheumatic heart disease: the superantigen hypothesis revisited.
    Infect Genet Evol 2018 Jul 9;61:160-175. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Western University, London, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Canada. Electronic address:
    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific and globally prominent bacterial pathogen that despite causing numerous human infections, this bacterium is normally found in an asymptomatic carrier state. This review provides an overview of both bacterial and human factors that likely play an important role in nasopharyngeal colonization and pharyngitis, as well as the development of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. Here we highlight a recently described role for bacterial superantigens in promoting acute nasopharyngeal infection, and discuss how these immune system activating toxins could be crucial to initiate the autoimmune process in rheumatic heart disease. Read More

    Corticosteroid use in management of pediatric emergency conditions.
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2018 Mar 1;15(3):1-16. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics; Section Chief, Pediatric Emergency Medicine; Medical Director, Upstate Poison Center, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY.
    Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Read More

    Corticosteroid use in management of pediatric emergency conditions [digest].
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2018 Mar 1;15(3 Suppl):1-2. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    Chief Resident, Emergency Medicine ; Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Read More

    A 25-Year-Old Male with Orogenital Ulcers, Rash, and Difficulty Swallowing.
    Dermatopathology (Basel) 2017 Jan-Dec;4(1-4):7-12. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    A 25-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with new-onset odynophagia, rash, and orogenital ulcers. Despite treatment with antibiotics for presumed bacterial pharyngitis, the patient remained symptomatic, with abnormal vital signs and laboratory values. Upon dermatology consultation and histopathologic correlation, he was diagnosed with Behçet disease. Read More

    Adherence to guidelines for testing and treatment of children with pharyngitis: a retrospective study.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 9;18(1):43. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Background: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most common bacterial etiology of pharyngitis but is difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. There are benefits to early antibacterial treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but administering antibiotics to children with viral pharyngitis is ineffective and costly. We evaluated adherence to guidelines that were developed to help clinicians distinguish between viral and GAS pharyngitis and guide management. Read More

    Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome Toxin Uses a Novel KELED Sequence for Retrograde Transport and Subsequent Cytotoxicity.
    MBio 2018 Jan 23;9(1). Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    is an atypical bacterium that causes respiratory illnesses in humans, including pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It has also been directly linked to reactive airway disease, asthma, and extrapulmonary pathologies. During its colonization, expresses a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin designated ommunity-cquired espiratory istress yndrome (CARDS) toxin. Read More

    Deletion of from Streptococcus pyogenes. Results in Hypervirulence in a Mouse Model of Sepsis and is LuxS Independent.
    Pol J Microbiol 2017 Mar;66(1):17-24
    Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, and Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases ranging from pharyngitis to life-threatening streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Recently, several global gene expression analyses have yielded extensive new information regarding the regulation of genes encoding known and putative virulence factors in GAS. A microarray analysis found that transcription of the GAS gene M5005_Spy_1343 was significantly increased in response to interaction with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Read More

    Analysis of the tonsillar microbiome in young adults with sore throat reveals a high relative abundance of Fusobacterium necrophorum with low diversity.
    PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0189423. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America.
    Fusobacterium necrophorum (Fn), a gram-negative anaerobe, is increasingly implicated as an etiologic agent in older adolescents and young adults with sore throat. Inadequately treated Fn pharyngitis may result in suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess and Lemierre's syndrome. Data from the literature suggest that the incidence of life-threating complications in these age groups from Fn pharyngitis (Lemierre's syndrome) in the United States exceeds those associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis (acute rheumatic fever). Read More

    Polish Physicians' Attitudes Towards Antibiotic Prescription and Antimicrobial Resistance.
    Pol J Microbiol 2017 Sep;66(3):309-319
    Department of Epidemiology and Clinical Microbiology, The National Reference Centre for Susceptibility Testing, National Medicines Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. Read More

    Evaluation of Simplexa Group A Strep Direct Kit Compared to Hologic Group A Streptococcal Direct Assay for Detection of Group A Streptococcus in Throat Swabs.
    J Clin Microbiol 2018 Mar 22;56(3). Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of group A (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture, but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e. Read More

    A 2-year follow-up study of patients with pharyngotonsillitis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 01 2;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Background: Longtime follow-up studies on patients with pharyngotonsillitis are rare. We aimed to describe the patterns of new visits for a sore throat, complications and tonsillectomy during 2 years in a cohort of patients with pharyngotonsillitis and non-infected controls.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on a cohort of patients with acute sore throat (n = 207), and non-infected controls (n = 108). Read More

    Antimicrobial treatment of ENT infections.
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec;24(12S):S9-S16
    Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique de la Société Française de Pédiatrie, Saint-Maur des Fossés, France; Université Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris 6, France; Service de pédiatrie générale et aval des urgences, Hôpital Armand-Trousseau, Paris, France.
    ENT infections are the most common childhood infections and the leading causes of antibiotic prescriptions. These infections are mainly due to viruses and most of them (even if bacterial species are implicated) resolve spontaneously. Therefore, the first message is to not prescribe antibiotics in the following situations: common cold, non-streptococcal pharyngitis, laryngitis, non-purulent otitis media, etc. Read More

    Subdural empyema caused by Peptostreptococcus sp.: a complication of acute pharyngitis.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Dec 21;59:e83. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, United States.
    Subdural Empyema (ESD) is the collection of purulent fluid that develops between the exterior "dura mater" layer and the middle "arachnoid mater" layer that covers the brain. ESD can be caused by a primary infection located in the paranasal sinuses. In many aerobic and/or anaerobic bacterial cases, hearing or traumatic processes serve as the causative agent. Read More

    Diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis and associated complications [digest].
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2017 Dec 21;14(12 Suppl Points & Pearls):1-2. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Chief Resident, Emergency Medicine & Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Although group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents, many viral and bacterial infections mimic the symptoms of GAS pharyngitis. Emergency clinicians must recognize the symptomatology of GAS pharyngitis and use appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment to promote good antibiotic stewardship. This issue reviews the signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis, as well as associated complications, and provides recommendations for appropriate treatment that focuses on reducing the severity and duration of symptoms, reducing the incidence of nonsuppurative complications, and reducing transmission. Read More

    Association of Broad- vs Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics With Treatment Failure, Adverse Events, and Quality of Life in Children With Acute Respiratory Tract Infections.
    JAMA 2017 12;318(23):2325-2336
    Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Importance: Acute respiratory tract infections account for the majority of antibiotic exposure in children, and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections is increasing. It is not clear whether broad-spectrum treatment is associated with improved outcomes compared with narrow-spectrum treatment.

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment for acute respiratory tract infections in children. Read More

    Crystalline lens dislocation secondary to bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis.
    Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2017 Sep 8;7:149-152. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI, United States.
    Purpose: To present an unusual case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to Group A (GAS) that resulted in dislocation of the crystalline lens.

    Observations: An immunocompetent 51-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms and painful right eye. He was diagnosed with URI and viral conjunctivitis and discharged on oral azithromycin and polytrim eyedrops. Read More

    Diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis and associated complications
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2017 12 1;14(12):1-20. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
    Although group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents, many viral and bacterial infections mimic the symptoms of GAS pharyngitis. Emergency clinicians must recognize the symptomatology of GAS pharyngitis and use appropriate means of diagnosis and treatment to promote good antibiotic stewardship. This issue reviews the signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis, as well as associated complications, and provides recommendations for appropriate treatment that focuses on reducing the severity and duration of symptoms, reducing the incidence of nonsuppurative complications, and reducing transmission. Read More

    Deep neck infections: review of 263 cases.
    Otolaryngol Pol 2017 Oct;71(5):37-42
    Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Rīga, Latvia.
    Objectives: In patients hospitalized due to deep neck infections (DNIs), to investigate the association between demographic parameters, etiology, and localization of abscesses and/or phlegmons, complications, comorbidities, treatment, and bacterial cultures.

    Methods: We analyzed data of 263 patients that were hospitalized from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015, due to deep neck space phlegmons and/or abscesses. We performed statistical analysis with the SPSS 22. Read More

    Duration of Group A Streptococcus PCR positivity following antibiotic treatment of pharyngitis.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Feb 12;90(2):105-108. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Background: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of group A streptococcus (GAS) in throat swabs and is routinely used for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis at our institution. Herein we defined the natural history of throat swab GAS PCR and culture positivity during and following treatment of GAS pharyngitis.

    Methods: Fifty children with a PCR positive GAS throat swab were recruited for participation. Read More

    Novel Genes Required for the Fitness of in Human Saliva.
    mSphere 2017 Nov-Dec;2(6). Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Diseases Research, Houston Methodist Research Institute, and Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.
    (group A streptococcus [GAS]) causes 600 million cases of pharyngitis each year. Despite this considerable disease burden, the molecular mechanisms used by GAS to infect, cause clinical pharyngitis, and persist in the human oropharynx are poorly understood. Saliva is ubiquitous in the human oropharynx and is the first material GAS encounters in the upper respiratory tract. Read More

    [The specific features of the past medical history and etiology of pharyngeal abscess in the children].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017;82(5):12-14
    Morozovskaya City Children's Clinical Hospital, Moscow Health Department, Moscow, Russia, 119049.
    The present study was undertaken for the purpose of elucidating the specific features of the past medical history and the etiological factors responsible for the development of tonsillogenic pharyngeal abscesses in the children. We performed the retrospective analysis of the medical histories of 291 children presenting with this condition who had been admitted for the treatment to the ENT Department of the Morozovskzya City Children's Clinical Hospital during the period from January till December 2015. The study has demonstrated the following most common shortcomings of the outpatient treatment of the patients suffering from chronic tonsillitis at the stage preceding formation of paratonsillar abscess: inadequate antibacterial therapy of acute chronic tonsillitis or its exacerbation and limited indications for tonsillectomy at the level of the outpatient treatment. Read More

    Influenza vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 10 17;10:CD010089. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Family Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, 16150.
    Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. It has been reported that 64% of infants have an episode of AOM by the age of six months and 86% by one year. Although most cases of AOM are due to bacterial infection, it is commonly triggered by a viral infection. Read More

    Life-threatening parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal abscess in an infant.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 9;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
    Severe extensive deep neck abscess in an infant is uncommon. We share the case of a previously well 4-month old infant who was referred for a 4-day history of fever, lethargy and left lateral neck swelling. Contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a large 5. Read More

    Towards developing a vaccine for rheumatic heart disease.
    Glob Cardiol Sci Pract 2017 Mar 31;2017(1):e201704. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Division of Cardiovascular Research, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.
    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious manifestations of rheumatic fever, which is caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS or ) infection. RHD is an auto immune sequelae of GAS pharyngitis, rather than the direct bacterial infection of the heart, which leads to chronic heart valve damage. Although antibiotics like penicillin are effective against GAS infection, improper medical care such as poor patient compliance, overcrowding, poverty, and repeated exposure to GAS, leads to acute rheumatic fever and RHD. Read More

    Quality of antibiotic prescribing of Swiss primary care physicians with high prescription rates: a nationwide survey.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Nov;72(11):3205-3212
    Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital Basel, and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Objectives: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing of Swiss primary care physicians with high prescription rates.

    Methods: In January 2015, we mailed a structured questionnaire to 2900 primary care physicians in Switzerland. They were included in a nationwide pragmatic randomized controlled trial on routine antibiotic prescription monitoring and feedback based on health insurance claims data. Read More

    Group A streptococcal pharyngitis: Immune responses involved in bacterial clearance and GAS-associated immunopathologies.
    J Leukoc Biol 2018 Feb 29;103(2):193-213. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism. Read More

    Streptococcus pyogenes CAMP factor promotes bacterial adhesion and invasion in pharyngeal epithelial cells without serum via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
    Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 23;20(1):9-18. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, 2-5274, Gakkocho-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8514, Japan; Research Center for Advanced Oral Science, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, 2-5274, Gakkocho-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8514, Japan. Electronic address:
    Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium that causes systemic diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome, via oral- or nasal-cavity infection. S. pyogenes produces various molecules known to function with serum components that lead to bacterial adhesion and invasion in human tissues. Read More

    Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes.
    Medicines (Basel) 2017 May 1;4(2). Epub 2017 May 1.
    Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada.
    Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. Read More

    Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections.
    Nat Commun 2017 09 19;8(1):599. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    23andMe, Mountain View, CA, 94041, USA.
    Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry. We detect 59 genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10) associations in genes with key roles in immunity and embryonic development. Read More

    A programme to increase appropriate usage of benzathine penicillin for management of streptococcal pharyngitis and rheumatic heart disease in Zambia.
    Cardiovasc J Afr 2017 Jul/Aug;28(4):242-247
    University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Rheumatic heart disease is highly prevalent and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in many resource-poor areas of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. Primary and secondary prophylaxis with penicillin has been shown to significantly improve outcomes and is recognised to be the standard of care, with intra-muscular benzathine penicillin G recommended as the preferred agent by many technical experts. However, ensuring compliance with therapy has proven to be challenging. Read More

    In vitro assessment of the ability of probiotics, blueberry and food carbohydrates to prevent S. pyogenes adhesion on pharyngeal epithelium and modulate immune responses.
    Food Funct 2017 Oct;8(10):3601-3609
    Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Italy.
    Group A streptococci (GAS) cause 20-30% of pediatric pharyngitis episodes, which are a major cause of ambulatory care visits. Therefore, a strategy to prevent GAS dissemination in children could significantly benefit public healthcare. Contextually, we assessed the possibility of employing alternative food-grade strategies to be used with the oral probiotic L. Read More

    Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 09 7;9:CD004417. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Discipline of General Practice, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4029.
    Background: Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. Read More

    Functional characterization of T-cells from palatine tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(9):e0183214. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.
    The palatine tonsils, localized in the oropharynx, are easily accessible secondary lymphoid tissue in humans. Inflammation of the palatine tonsils, local and chronic in case of chronic tonsillitis (CT) or acute in the presence of a peritonsillar abscess (PTA), ranks among the most common diseases in otolaryngology. However, the functionality of tonsillar immune cells, notably T-cells, in the context of these immune pathologies is poorly understood. Read More

    Throat swabs have no influence on the management of patients with sore throats.
    J Laryngol Otol 2017 Nov 6;131(11):977-981. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Academy for Postgraduate Medical Education,Great Western Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,Swindon,UK.
    Background: Throat swabs are neither specific nor sensitive for micro-bacteria causing sore throat symptoms; however, current guidelines suggest they are still useful in some cases.

    Method: Retrospective and prospective analyses were conducted of throat swabs requested within the months of January 2016 and August 2016, respectively.

    Results: The study comprised 247 patients. Read More

    Unexplained Dyspnea in a Young Adult with Epstein-Barr Virus Infectious Mononucleosis: Pulmonary Involvement or Co-Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia?
    J Clin Med 2017 Sep 4;6(9). Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Infectious Disease Division, Winthrop-University Hospital Mineola, NY 11501, USA.
    Clinically, in young immunocompetent adults, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) usually manifests as infectious mononucleosis (IM). Typical clinical findings of EBV IM include fever, profound fatigue, pharyngitis, bilateral posterior cervical adenopathy, and splenomegaly. Respiratory involvement with EBV IM may occur, but is distinctly rare. Read More

    Disseminated sepsis as presenting diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinaemia in a previously well 16-month-old child.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Aug 29;2017. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Jodphur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.
    We report a previously healthy 16-month-old child who presented to us with membranous pharyngitis and ecthyma gangrenosum. In this patient, was isolated from throat swab, cerebrospinal fluid, skin swab, urine, blood and synovial fluid in a single admission. In further workup, this child was diagnosed as a case of X-linked agammaglobulinaemia. Read More

    Acanthamoeba castellanii interactions with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Dec 17;183:128-132. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Malaysia.
    Among the genus Streptococcus, S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae are the major causes of pharyngitis, impetigo, pneumonia and meningitis in humans. Read More

    Incremental Contributions of FbaA and Other Impetigo-Associated Surface Proteins to Fitness and Virulence of a Classical Group A Streptococcal Skin Strain.
    Infect Immun 2017 11 18;85(11). Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA
    Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains with a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene was found to be present in most skin specialist strains but largely absent from a genetically related subset of pharyngitis isolates. Read More

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