5,254 results match your criteria Pharmacotherapy[Journal]


Impact of Sofosbuvir-Based Therapy on Liver Transplant Candidates with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Sofosbuvir use in patients with decompensated cirrhosis may be associated with reduced liver transplant waitlist mortality and reduced need for transplant.

Methods: Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were linked with a national database of pharmacy claims. All adult patients on the liver transplant waiting list on January 1, 2014, or added to the list during 2014, with hepatitis C virus as reason for listing were identified (total n = 2009). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2237DOI Listing
February 2019

Proton pump inhibitors and risk of acute and chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cohort study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Buffalo, NY.

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been linked to acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, current evidence has only been evaluated in a small number of studies with short follow-up periods. This study examined the association between PPI use and risk of incident AKI and CKD in a large, population-based health-maintenance organization (HMO) cohort.

Methods: Patients aged 18 years or older, without evidence of pre-existing renal disease, started on PPI therapy, and continuously enrolled for at least 12 months between July 1993 and September 2008 were identified in an HMO database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2235DOI Listing
February 2019

Glucagon for Relief of Acute Esophageal Foreign Bodies and Food Impactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

Background: Glucagon is frequently utilized for the relief of esophageal impactions. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucagon for acute esophageal foreign body and food impactions.

Methods: PubMed, CINAHL, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to March 1, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2236DOI Listing
February 2019

Continuous Infusion Ketamine for Adjunctive Analgosedation in Mechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice and Administrative Sciences, James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, 234 Goodman Street, Cincinnati, OH, 45219.

Objective: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with emerging evidence assessing its use as a continuous infusion agent to provide concomitant analgesia and sedation. The role of ketamine as adjunctive therapy in mechanically ventilated patients is unclear. This study sought to investigate the impact of adjunctive continuous infusion ketamine on concomitant analgesic and sedative dosing while providing goal comfort in mechanically ventilated patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2223DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Conversion from Vancomycin Trough Concentration-Guided Dosing to Area Under the Curve-Guided Dosing Using Two Sample Measurements in Adults: Implementation at an Academic Medical Center.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Study Objective: The optimal pharmacodynamic parameter for prediction of efficacy of vancomycin is the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and current published data indicate that dosing based on vancomycin trough concentrations is an inaccurate substitute. In this study, our objective was to compare the achievement of therapeutic target attainment after switching from a trough-based to an AUC-based dosing strategy as a part of our institution's vancomycin-per-pharmacy protocol.

Design: Prospective, observational, quality assurance study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2234DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
2.662 Impact Factor

Acute Blood Pressure Management in Neurocritically Ill Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.

Optimal blood pressure management is controversial in neurocritically ill patients due to conflicting concerns of worsening ischemia with decreased blood pressure versus cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure with elevated blood pressure. In addition, there is a lack of high-quality evidence regarding optimal blood pressure goals in patients with most of these conditions. This review summarizes guideline recommendations and examines the literature for blood pressure management in patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2233DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effectiveness of Once-Daily Dolutegravir plus Boosted Darunavir as a Switch Strategy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected, Heavily Treated Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Infectious Diseases Department. Vall d', Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Objective: Dual therapy with once-daily dolutegravir (DTG) plus boosted darunavir (DRV/b) may be a suitable and effective strategy with a high genetic barrier to resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of DTG plus DRV/b (DTG+DRV/b) as a switch strategy in HIV-infected patients, irrespective of their history of virologic failure (VF).

Design: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/phar.2227
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2227DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Use of Newer Anticonvulsants for the Treatment of Status Epilepticus.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chicago, IL.

Status Epilepticus (SE) has a high mortality rate and is one of the most common neurological emergencies. Fast progression of this neurological emergency and lack of response to traditional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in most cases has challenged clinicians to use new agents. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AEDs released to the market after 2000 for SE, refractory SE (RSE), and super refractory SE (SRSE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2229DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Periprocedural Neuroendovascular Antiplatelet Strategies for Thrombosis Prevention in Clopidogrel-Hyporesponsive Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Patients undergoing neuroendovascular procedures such as cerebral aneurysm coiling and intracranial stent deployment are frequently treated with antiplatelet agents to prevent thrombotic complications. The combination of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor such as clopidogrel is often initiated days prior to elective procedures or as loading doses for emergent procedures; however, some patients may still experience thrombotic complications. Patients identified as clopidogrel hyporesponders are more likely to experience poor outcomes and may require changes to their regimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2228DOI Listing
February 2019

Augmented Renal Clearance.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy - Pharmacy Practice and Science, Lexington, Kentucky.

Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a phenomenon in critically ill patients characterized by increased creatinine clearance and elimination of renally-eliminated medications. Patients with severe neurologic injury, sepsis, trauma, and burn have been consistently identified as at risk for ARC, with mean creatinine clearances ranging from 170 ml/min to over 300 ml/min. Several potential mechanisms may contribute to the occurrence of ARC including endogenous responses to increased metabolism and solute production, alterations in neurohormonal balance, and therapeutic maneuvers such as fluid resuscitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2231DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Ventilatory and Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies for Management of Adult Patients on Extracorporeal Life Support.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY.

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can provide mechanical support for patients with severe, life-threating cardiac or respiratory failure. ECLS is a complex therapy that has increased in use over several decades owing to advances in technology. In concert with this growth, there is an increased need to understand the complexity of this technology to augment the effectiveness of ECLS and minimize complications such as ventilator-induced lung injury, bleeding, thrombosis, infections, and inadequate drug dosing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2230DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

International Consensus Guidelines for the Optimal Use of the Polymyxins: Endorsed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), International Society for Anti-infective Pharmacology (ISAP), Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), and Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP).

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan;39(1):10-39

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The polymyxin antibiotics colistin (polymyxin E) and polymyxin B became available in the 1950s and thus did not undergo contemporary drug development procedures. Their clinical use has recently resurged, assuming an important role as salvage therapy for otherwise untreatable gram-negative infections. Since their reintroduction into the clinic, significant confusion remains due to the existence of several different conventions used to describe doses of the polymyxins, differences in their formulations, outdated product information, and uncertainties about susceptibility testing that has led to lack of clarity on how to optimally utilize and dose colistin and polymyxin B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2209DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of neuromuscular blocking agents on sedation requirements in trauma patients with an open abdomen.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Nashville, TN.

Introduction: The appropriate level of sedation in patients with an open abdomen following damage control laparotomy (DCL) is debated. Chemical paralysis with neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) has been used to decrease time to abdominal closure. We sought to evaluate the effect of NMBA use on sedation requirements in patients with an open abdomen and to determine the effect of sedation on patient outcomes. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2225
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2225DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Scoping Review of Interventions Associated with Cost Avoidance able to be Performed in the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Department.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL.

A framework for evaluating pharmacists' impact on cost avoidance in the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department (ED) has not been established. This scoping review was registered (CRD42018091217) and conducted to identify, aggregate, and qualitatively describe the highest quality evidence for cost avoidance generated by clinical pharmacists on interventions performed in an ICU or ED. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2224DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Impact of Macrolide Antibiotics on Hospital Readmissions and other Clinically Important Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Study Objective: To assess whether a macrolide-based antibiotic treatment strategy reduces in-hospital mortality, decreases hospital readmissions, or improves other clinically important outcomes compared with a non-macrolide antibiotic treatment strategy in critically ill patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).

Design: Propensity score-matched pharmacoepidemiologic cohort study.

Data Source: Premier's Perspective Hospital Database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2221DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Effectiveness of Melatonin for the Prevention of Intensive Care Unit Delirium.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

University of California San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA.

Study Objective: Intensive care unit (ICU) delirium is an acute brain dysfunction that has been associated with increased mortality, prolonged ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and development of post-ICU cognitive impairment. Melatonin may help to restore sleep and reduce the occurrence of ICU delirium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin for the prevention of ICU delirium in critically ill adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2222DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Vasoactive Agent Use in Septic Shock: Beyond First-Line Recommendations.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Shirley Ryan Ability Lab, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Septic shock is a life-threatening disorder associated with high mortality rates requiring rapid identification and intervention. Vasoactive agents are often required to maintain goal hemodynamics and preserve tissue perfusion. However, guidance regarding the proper administration of adjunct agents for the management of septic shock is limited in patients who are refractory to norepinephrine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2220DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Use of Cangrelor as a Bridge to Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in a Patient with a Recent Drug-Eluting Stent who Developed Acute Tirofiban-Related Thrombocytopenia.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.

Current guidelines emphasize the need for at least 6-12 months of oral dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor following drug-eluting coronary artery stent implantation. In patients with recently implanted coronary artery stents who require urgent cardiac or noncardiac surgery, the benefits of maintaining oral dual antiplatelet therapy must be carefully weighed against the risks of excessive bleeding, and current practice is largely guided by individual surgeon preferences. When the effects of a second oral antiplatelet agent are undesirable during the perioperative period, the use of a short-acting intravenous antiplatelet agent as "bridge" therapy that can be discontinued shortly before surgery has been associated with a reduced occurrence of adverse clinical events in patients with recently implanted coronary stents requiring urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2219
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2219DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Pharmacotherapy Rounds: When Old Drugs Require New Guidelines.

Authors:
C Lindsay DeVane

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 13;39(1):4-6. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2206DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Use in the Nordic Countries from a Cardiovascular Risk Perspective, 2000-2016: A Drug Utilization Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 13. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Study Objective: Evidence on the cardiotoxicity of nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly diclofenac and the newer selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, has accumulated over the last decade. Our objective was to examine whether the use of NSAIDs in the Nordic countries changed with the emerging evidence, regulatory statements, and clinical guidelines advocating caution for the use of specific NSAIDs.

Design: Drug utilization study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2217
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2217DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Potentially Unsafe Chronic Medication Use among Older Adult Chronic Opioid Users.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 13. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Institute of Therapeutic Innovations and Outcomes (ITIO), The Ohio State University Colleges of Pharmacy, Columbus, Ohio.

Study Objectives: To assess chronic potentially unsafe medication use among older adults using opioids chronically versus those who did not, to assess the likelihood of chronically using medications to treat adverse effects associated with chronic opioid use, and to characterize the differences in chronic potentially unsafe medication use at three morphine equivalent dose (MED) levels/day (<50MED, 50-90MED, and >90MED).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

Data Source: Prescription claims data from a national telehealth Medication Therapy Management (MTM) provider for the year 2015. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2218DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

ARB Superiority Over ACE Inhibitors in Coronary Heart Disease: An Alternative Viewpoint.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2216DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Optimal Use of the Polymyxins Before Their Time Is Up.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 8;39(1):7-9. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Anti-Infective Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2207DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Use of a Bioinformatics-Based Toxicity Scoring System to Assess Serotonin Burden and Predict Population-Level Adverse Drug Events from Concomitant Serotonergic Drug Therapy.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kasiska Division of Health Sciences, Idaho State University, 1311 East Central Drive, Meridian, ID, 83642, USA.

Study Objective: Numerous medications interact at serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptors directly or through off-target interactions, causing mild to severe serotonergic adverse drug events (ADEs), particularly among the elderly. Our objective was to develop a novel molecular-based toxicity scoring system to assess serotonergic burden resulting from concurrently administered drugs. Quantitative methods to assess serotonergic burden may provide a useful clinical tool for improving pharmacotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2215DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment and Resistant Starch Supplementation on Gut Microbiome Composition in a Cohort of Patients with Bipolar Disorder or Schizophrenia.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Study Objective: Previous studies identified shifts in gut microbiota associated with atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment that may link AAPs to metabolic burden. Dietary prebiotics such as resistant starch may be beneficial in obesity and glucose regulation, but little is known mechanistically about their ability to modify gut microbiota in AAP-treated individuals. This investigation was undertaken to delineate mechanistically the effects of AAP treatment and resistant starch supplementation on gut microbiota in a psychiatric population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2214DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Influence of Polypharmacy on the Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 31. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy, Storrs, Connecticut.

Study Objective: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) often have multiple comorbidities requiring concomitant medications in addition to their oral anticoagulant (OAC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of polypharmacy on the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in patients with NVAF managed in routine clinical practice.

Design: Retrospective claims analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2213DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of Prophylactic Heparin Dosage Strategies and Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in the Critically Ill Patient.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 28. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in critically ill patients without heparin prophylaxis. Although heparin prevents VTE, VTEs occur frequently despite prophylaxis. A higher heparin dosage may be more effective for preventing VTE. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2212
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2212DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of β-Lactamase Inhibitors.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Novel β-lactamase inhibitors have extended the reach of new and existing β-lactams against multidrug-resistant bacteria expressing β-lactamases. The efficacy of these combination therapeutics relies on a complex two-component pharmacodynamic (PD) system where the β-lactamase inhibitor inactivates the bacterial β-lactamase enzyme and frees the companion β-lactam to act against its penicillin-binding protein target. Despite considerable investigation into the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of β-lactams, the pharmacology of their companion β-lactamase inhibitors has only recently been rigorously explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2210DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of Statin Therapy on the Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Korean Patients with Hyperlipidemia.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Division of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

Study Objective: Statins are widely used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Several large randomized trials have suggested that statins might increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); studies have also shown interethnic variability in responses to statins. This study aimed to determine the association between statin use and the risk of ICH in patients with hyperlipidemia among a Korean population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2211DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Ustekinumab, Infliximab, or Adalimumab for the Treatment of Moderate-Severe Crohn's Disease in Biologic-Naïve Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, USC/Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Study Objective: Ustekinumab was recently approved by the United States U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2208DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Contemporary Management of Direct Oral Anticoagulants During Cardioversion and Ablation for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 11;39(1):94-108. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee.

As overall prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) continues to rise, the number of patients who undergo ablation, or electrical/chemical cardioversion, to restore normal sinus rhythm continues to increase as well. As direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have continued to be incorporated into clinical practice for long-term anticoagulation for AF, experience with how best to manage use of DOACs during electrophysiologic procedures is evolving. This review is intended to provide health care providers with a summary of current evidence regarding the use of DOACs during cardioversion and catheter ablation and provide key considerations for their use during such electrophysiologic procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2205DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

TLR9 rs352139 Genetic Variant Promotes Tacrolimus Elimination in Chinese Liver Transplant Patients During the Early Posttransplantation Period.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 8;39(1):67-76. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: There are limited markers that could facilitate individualized tacrolimus treatment in the early posttransplantation period. Genetic factors have been found to play critical roles in determining tacrolimus pharmacokinetics.

Objective: We aimed to examine the association of donor and recipient Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms with tacrolimus elimination and the potential mechanism for TLR gene polymorphism-mediated tacrolimus metabolism. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/phar.2204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2204DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Patient-Level Medication Regimen Complexity in an Adolescent and Adult Population with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Biostatistics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently experience polypharmacy. However, there is limited understanding of how to quantify medication complexity in this vulnerable population.

Objectives: This study examined medication administration difficulty using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) tool in adolescents and adults with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2202DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read
2.662 Impact Factor

Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Critically Ill Adults.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remain high across intensive care units in the United States despite national efforts to decrease this escalating health care burden. Most published literature and guidelines address treatment rather than prevention, yet this approach may be too downstream to limit morbidity and mortality from the disease and its complications. Mechanisms to prevent CDI successfully include reducing modifiable risk factors and minimizing horizontal transmission of C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2200DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Duration of Exposure to Antipseudomonal β-Lactam Antibiotics in the Critically Ill and Development of New Resistance.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Louis College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, Missouri.

Study Objective: Minimizing the duration of broad-spectrum antimicrobial exposure in the critically ill is a commonly used strategy aimed at preventing resistance. Our objective was to correlate the duration of exposure to antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotics with the development of new resistance in critically ill patients.

Design: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2201DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Catecholamine Vasopressor Support Sparing Strategies in Vasodilatory Shock.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Shock syndromes are associated with unacceptably high rates of mortality in critically ill patients despite advances in therapeutic options. Vasodilatory shock is the most common type encountered in the intensive care unit. It is manifested by cardiovascular failure, peripheral vasodilatation, and arterial hypotension leading to tissue hypoperfusion and organ failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2199DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads
2.662 Impact Factor

Plazomicin: A Next-Generation Aminoglycoside.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 8;39(1):77-93. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

The University of Texas at Tyler Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, Tyler, Texas.

Plazomicin is a novel aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, thus inhibiting protein synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Plazomicin displays a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic gram-negative bacteria including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and organisms with aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. In a large phase III clinical trial, plazomicin was shown to be noninferior to meropenem in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) with respect to the coprimary efficacy end points of the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat composite cure rate at day 5 (plazomicin 88% [168/191 subjects] vs meropenem 91. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2203
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2203DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

A Rare Case of Levetiracetam and Drug-Induced Idiopathic Aseptic Meningitis in a Pediatric Patient.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 11;39(1):109-113. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Hovnanian Children's Hospital at Hackensack Meridian Health, Hackensack, New Jersey.

Levetiracetam (LEV) is a pyrrolidine derivative antiepileptic medication used for the treatment of seizures in pediatric and adult patients. We report a case of probable LEV-induced aseptic meningitis in a 13-year-old girl. The patient received LEV for a generalized seizure disorder and presented with symptoms 5 days after medication initiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2198DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Discontinuation and Nonadherence to Medications for Chronic Conditions after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A 6-Year Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 4;39(1):55-66. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomic Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Introduction: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established curative option for patients with hematological malignancies and other life-threatening conditions. Evidence on nonpersistence and nonadherence to oral medications for chronic conditions among patients following HCT is lacking.

Objectives: This study aims to examine patterns of oral medication use for chronic conditions following HCT in the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2197DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Abacavir Hypersensitivity Reaction Reporting Rates During a Decade of HLA-B*5701 Screening as a Risk-Mitigation Measure.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 11;39(1):40-54. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Global Medical Sciences, ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Introduction: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701 screening identifies patients at increased risk for abacavir (ABC) hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). Screening was adopted in GlaxoSmithKline and ViiV Healthcare clinical trials in 2007 and human immunodeficiency virus treatment guidelines in 2008. Company meta-analyses of trials pre-HLA-B*5701 screening reported HSR rates of 4-8%. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2196
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2196DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Reappraisal of Contemporary Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles for Informing Aminoglycoside Dosing.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec;38(12):1229-1238

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York.

Therapeutic drug management is regularly performed for aminoglycosides in an effort to maximize their effectiveness and safety. The ratio of maximum plasma drug concentration to minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax/MIC) has long been regarded as the primary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index of clinical efficacy for aminoglycosides due to their concentration-dependent killing. In this review, however, we discuss why the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio may be a more reliable indicator of bacterial killing and clinical efficacy for these agents. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2193
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2193DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Adjunctive Use of Cidofovir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin to Treat Invasive Adenoviral Disease in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 26;38(12):1260-1266. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Infections with adenoviruses (ADVs) can result in considerable mortality and morbidity in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Standard therapy for ADV infections in transplant recipients is not established. At our institution, intravenous cidofovir and immunoglobulin have been used to treat disseminated or invasive ADV in SOT and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2194
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2194DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Cohort Study of Albumin versus Lactated Ringer's for Postoperative Cardiac Surgery Fluid Resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec;38(12):1241-1249

Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Purpose: A new postcardiac surgery fluid resuscitation strategy was implemented in our cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) to implement evidence-based practice. We transitioned from a primarily albumin fluid-based strategy to a lactated Ringer's fluid-based strategy. We sought to determine whether a new postoperative fluid resuscitation strategy significantly altered the fluid composition for postcardiac surgery patients and what effect that would have on fluid resuscitation costs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2195DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Impact of Central Nervous System Stimulant Medication Use on Growth in Pediatric Populations with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Oct 28. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, Colorado.

Central nervous system stimulants are a commonly used first-line treatment option for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants are generally well tolerated, with anorexia and insomnia the most common adverse effects. However, there are some concerns with long-term use of stimulants, such as potential growth delay. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2192
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2192DOI Listing
October 2018
11 Reads

Review and Validation of Bayesian Dose-Optimizing Software and Equations for Calculation of the Vancomycin Area Under the Curve in Critically Ill Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 23;38(12):1174-1183. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

School of Pharmacy, Pacific University, Hillsboro, Oregon.

Background: Vancomycin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) has been linked to efficacy and safety. An accurate method of calculating the AUC is needed.

Methods: Bayesian dose-optimizing software programs available for clinician use and first-order pharmacokinetic equations were evaluated for their ability to estimate vancomycin AUC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2191DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Drug Regimen Individualization for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Guidance for Methylphenidate and Dexmethylphenidate Formulations.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, College of Pharmacy, Memphis, Tennessee.

In 2000, the first biphasic modified-release (MR) formulation of methylphenidate (MPH) was approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An immediate-release (IR) MPH pulse (22% of the dose) facilitates rapid onset of stimulant action, while the remaining MR portion of the dose provides for day-long duration of efficacy. A wide array of oral MR-MPH products has subsequently been approved that also allows for once-daily dosing, though each product is characterized by distinctive exposure time courses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2190DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Intravenous Lidocaine for Acute Pain: A Systematic Review.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 9;38(12):1250-1259. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

This systematic review evaluates the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) lidocaine for the treatment of acute pain in adult patients. The PubMed database was searched for randomized controlled trials, retrospective cohort studies, case series, and case reports evaluating the use of IV lidocaine for the treatment of acute pain in adult patients, published between January 1970 and January 2018. The primary outcome was pain reduction via the Visual Analog Scale, Verbal Rating Scale, or Numeric Rating Scale among patients treated with IV lidocaine and placebo or active controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2189DOI Listing
December 2018
19 Reads

Population Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin in Neonates with Hypoxemic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Receiving Controlled Hypothermia.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Nov 24;38(11):1120-1129. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Identify population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of gentamicin in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing controlled hypothermia (CH).

Design: Prospective open-label pharmacokinetic study. Gentamicin concentrations were modeled and dosing regimens simulated for a 5000-patient neonatal population with HIE receiving CH using PMetrics, a nonparametric, pharmacometric modeling, and simulation package for R. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2186DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Clinical Utility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Screening for Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Review of Current Literature.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 29;38(12):1216-1228. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Seton Healthcare Family, Dell Seton Medical Center at The University of Texas, Austin, Texas.

Significant clinical and financial consequences are associated with both inadequate and unnecessary exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. As such, antimicrobial stewardship programs seek objective, reliable, and cost-effective tests to identify patients at highest or lowest risk for drug-resistant organisms to guide empirical antimicrobial selection. Use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal screening to rule out MRSA in lower respiratory tract infections has led to significant reductions in duration of vancomycin therapy. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2188
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2188DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads
2.662 Impact Factor

Pharmacokinetics of the Meropenem Component of Meropenem-Vaborbactam in the Treatment of KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Bloodstream Infection in a Pediatric Patient.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 9;38(12):e87-e91. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Meropenem-vaborbactam is a new β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination designed to target Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Meropenem-vaborbactam was United States Food and Drug Administration-approved for complicated urinary tract infections in patients 18 years of age or older. An understanding of the pharmacokinetics of meropenem when given in combination with vaborbactam is important to understanding the dosing of meropenem-vaborbactam. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/phar.2187
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2187DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads