5,274 results match your criteria Pharmacotherapy[Journal]


Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly versus Twice-Weekly Bortezomib in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Meta-analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology, First People's Hospital of Changde City, Changde, Hunan, PR China.

Study Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly and twice-weekly bortezomib therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies.

Design: Meta-analysis of 13 clinical or randomized controlled trials, with trial sequential analysis (TSA).

Patients: A total of 1567 patients with hematologic malignancies who received either once-weekly or twice-weekly bortezomib therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2267DOI Listing

Calcium Channel Blocker Use and the Risk for Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Division of Clinical Pharmacy, Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy and The David R. Bloom Center of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Introduction: Calcium channels play a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study investigates associations between calcium channel blocker (CCB) use and the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using the Clalit Health Services database. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/phar.2266
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2266DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Dr. Turner Responds to Dr. McLeay.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

School of Pharmacy, Pacific University, Hillsboro, Oregon.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2263DOI Listing

Critique of Vancomycin Dose-Optimizing Software Review.

Authors:
Robert C McLeay

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

DoseMe, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2264DOI Listing

Effects of Norepinephrine and Vasopressin Discontinuation Order in the Recovery Phase of Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Objective: The impact of vasopressin and norepinephrine discontinuation order in the recovery phase of septic shock remains controversial. This systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis were performed to determine the impact of vasopressin and norepinephrine discontinuation order on clinically significant outcomes in the recovery phase of septic shock.

Methods: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2265DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Association Between Time-in-Therapeutic Tacrolimus Range and Early Rejection After Heart Transplant.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Cardiology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut.

Background: Historically, there is perceived pressure to achieve therapeutic levels of tacrolimus quickly after heart transplant (HT). We evaluated the association between time within therapeutic tacrolimus range and time to therapeutic trough and rejection in the 30 days following HT.

Methods: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult HT patients receiving immunosuppression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2262DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A Review of Fixed-Dose Four-Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Vitamin K Antagonist Reversal: Does One Dose Fit All?

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Avera McKennan Hospital & University Health Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) has emerged as the preferred option for emergent reversal of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs); however, the optimal dosing strategy is unknown. Although several studies have attempted to determine the optimal dose of 4F-PCC using a variety of dosing regimens, no dosing strategy has been found to be superior. Many of these studies have evaluated a low, fixed-dose of 4F-PCC rather than individualized dosing as recommended in product labeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2261DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Prechemotherapy Levels of Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone and Its Sulfated Form as Predictors of Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Breast Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Study Objective: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEAS)-jointly referred to as DHEA(S)-are neurosteroids known to regulate brain development and function that have been found to be positively correlated with cognitive function. It is unknown whether prechemotherapy plasma DHEA(S) levels are associated with the onset of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an association exists between prechemotherapy plasma DHEA(S) levels and onset of CRCI in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2259DOI Listing

Evaluation of Clinical and Safety Outcomes Following Uncontrolled Tacrolimus Conversion in Adult Transplant Recipients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

Purpose: To compare clinical and safety outcomes of transplant recipients converted between different tacrolimus formulations to those patients who remained on a single formulation in an outpatient environment.

Methodology: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study at a large tertiary care medical center with an associated institutional outpatient pharmacy system. Adult transplant recipients with institutional pharmacy refill from August 1, 2009, to May 31, 2016, were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2260DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Prevention Strategies to Improve Outcomes in Critically Ill Adults.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 15;39(3):212-214. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Science and Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2232DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Risk of Gynecomastia with Users of Proton Pump Inhibitors.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Pharmacology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed for many gastrointestinal diseases. A number of case reports have linked PPIs to gynecomastia in men, but large epidemiologic studies are lacking.

Objective: To quantify the risk of gynecomastia with PPIs in male patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2245DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The Association Between Central Nervous System-Active Medication Use and Fall-Related Injury in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.

Objectives: To examine the association between central nervous system (CNS)-active medication use and the risk of fall-related injury in community-dwelling older adults following dementia onset. Further, to evaluate increased risk at higher doses or with a greater number of CNS-active medication classes.

Methods: Participants included community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older with a dementia diagnosis participating in the Adult Changes in Thought Study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2244
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2244DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Integrase Inhibitors: After 10 Years of Experience, Is the Best Yet to Come?

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, East Tennessee State University Gatton College of Pharmacy, Johnson City, Tennessee.

The era of the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection began with raltegravir in 2007. Since that time, several other INSTIs have been introduced including elvitegravir, dolutegravir, and, most recently, bictegravir, that have shown great utility as part of antiretroviral regimens in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. At present, antiretroviral guidelines fully endorse the INSTI class as part of all first-line treatment regimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2246DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Assessment of Ketamine Adult Anesthetic Doses in Pediatrics Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 27;39(4):454-462. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Background: Although few studies have used ketamine for induction and maintenance of pediatric anesthesia, official dosage recommendations are lacking. This study evaluates the outcomes of adult anesthetic doses in a pediatric population through pharmacokinetic modeling and computer simulations in an attempt to recommend an adequate ketamine dosing regimen.

Methods: Ketamine plasma concentration-time data in 19 children (age 8 months to 16 years; weight 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2243DOI Listing
April 2019
2.662 Impact Factor

Review of Real-World Implementation Data on Emtricitabine-Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate as HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in the United States.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 1;39(4):486-500. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

The antiretroviral combination of emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in individuals at high risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in July 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453722PMC

Lack of a Clinically Significant Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Etravirine and Raltegravir Using an Original Approach Based on Drug Metabolism, Protein Binding, and Penetration in Seminal Fluid: A Pharmacokinetic Substudy of the ANRS-163 ETRAL Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 1;39(4):514-520. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

IAME, UMR 1137, Sorbonne Paris Cité and INSERM, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Study Objective: The ANRS163-ETRAL study showed that etravirine 200 mg/raltegravir 400 mg twice-daily dual therapy was highly effective in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients older than 45 years, with virologic and therapeutic success rates at week 48 of 99.4% and 94.5%, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2242DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.662 Impact Factor

Synthetic Cannabinoid-Associated Multiple Organ Failure: Case Series and Literature Review.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 27;39(4):508-513. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: We describe a multicenter descriptive case series of six patients admitted with synthetic cannabinoid (SC) intoxication displaying similar symptoms and sequelae, all resulting in multiple organ failure.

Methods: Patients were included in this report if they presented with known SC use and experienced multiple organ failure between March 1, 2016, and July 19, 2016, to the intensive care units of three hospitals in Maryland. Patients were followed to either discharge or death, and complications related to SC were documented. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2241
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2241DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Tolvaptan for Volume Management in Heart Failure.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 1;39(4):473-485. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics, Madison, Wisconsin.

Volume management in acute decompensated and chronic heart failure (HF) remains a significant challenge. Although progress has been made in the development of mortality-reducing neurohormonal regimens in the reduced ejection fraction population, no clinical trial has yet demonstrated anything more than symptomatic relief or biomarker reduction with pharmacotherapeutic volume-based interventions made in the acutely decompensated individual or those with evolving outpatient congestion. As the number of patients with HF continues to grow, in addition to HF-related hospitalizations, identifying therapies that have the potential to aid in diuresis more safely and efficaciously is paramount to decreasing inpatient length of stay and preventing unnecessary admissions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2239DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Management of Self-injurious Behaviors in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Pharmacotherapy Overview.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), a group of disorders affecting ~1-2% of the general population, are caused by changes in brain development that result in behavioral and cognitive alterations, sensory and motor changes, and speech and language deficits. Neurodevelopmental disorders encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders including, but not limited to, Smith-Magenis syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan disease, cri du chat syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, pervasive developmental disorders, fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, and Down syndrome. Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are common in children with NDDs; depending on the specific NDD, the incidence of SIBs is nearly 100%. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2238
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2238DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Omadacycline Enters the Ring: A New Antimicrobial Contender.

Authors:

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 3;39(2):207. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2226
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2226DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Impact of Sofosbuvir-Based Therapy on Liver Transplant Candidates with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 2;39(4):424-432. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Sofosbuvir use in patients with decompensated cirrhosis may be associated with reduced liver transplant waitlist mortality and reduced need for transplant.

Methods: Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were linked with a national database of pharmacy claims. All adult patients on the liver transplant waitlist on January 1, 2014, or added to the list during 2014, with hepatitis C virus as reason for listing were identified (2009 patients). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2237DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 21;39(4):443-453. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been linked to acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, current evidence has only been evaluated in a small number of studies with short follow-up periods. This study examined the association between PPI use and risk of incident AKI and CKD in a large population-based health maintenance organization (HMO) cohort.

Methods: Patients aged 18 years or older, without evidence of preexisting renal disease, started on PPI therapy, and those continuously enrolled for at least 12 months between July 1993 and September 2008 were identified in an HMO database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453745PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Glucagon for Relief of Acute Esophageal Foreign Bodies and Food Impactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 1;39(4):463-472. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Glucagon is frequently used for the relief of esophageal impactions. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucagon for acute esophageal foreign body and food impactions. PubMed, CINAHL, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to March 1, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2236DOI Listing

Continuous Infusion Ketamine for Adjunctive Analgosedation in Mechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar;39(3):288-296

Department of Pharmacy Services, UC Health - University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Objective: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist with emerging evidence assessing its use as a continuous infusion agent to provide concomitant analgesia and sedation. The role of ketamine as adjunctive therapy in mechanically ventilated patients is unclear. This study sought to investigate the impact of adjunctive continuous infusion ketamine on concomitant analgesic and sedative dosing while providing goal comfort in mechanically ventilated patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2223DOI Listing
March 2019
17 Reads

Conversion from Vancomycin Trough Concentration-Guided Dosing to Area Under the Curve-Guided Dosing Using Two Sample Measurements in Adults: Implementation at an Academic Medical Center.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 18;39(4):433-442. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Study Objective: The optimal pharmacodynamic parameter for the prediction of efficacy of vancomycin is the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and current published data indicate that dosing based on vancomycin trough concentrations is an inaccurate substitute. In this study, our objective was to compare the achievement of therapeutic target attainment after switching from a trough-based to an AUC-based dosing strategy as a part of our institution's vancomycin-per-pharmacy protocol.

Design: Prospective observational quality assurance study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2234DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
2.662 Impact Factor

Acute Blood Pressure Management in Neurocritically Ill Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 11;39(3):335-345. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

Optimal blood pressure (BP) management is controversial in neurocritically ill patients due to conflicting concerns of worsening ischemia with decreased BP versus cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure with elevated BP. In addition, high-quality evidence is lacking regarding optimal BP goals in patients with most of these conditions. This review summarizes guideline recommendations and examines the literature for BP management in patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2233DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Effectiveness of Once/Day Dolutegravir Plus Boosted Darunavir as a Switch Strategy in Heavily Treated Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 22;39(4):501-507. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Infectious Diseases Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Study Objective: Dual therapy with once/day dolutegravir (DTG) plus boosted darunavir (DRV/b) may be a suitable and effective strategy with a high genetic barrier to resistance in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of DTG plus DRV/b (DTG+DRV/b) as a switch strategy in HIV-infected patients, irrespective of their history of virologic failure (VF).

Design: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/phar.2227
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2227DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Use of Newer Anticonvulsants for the Treatment of Status Epilepticus.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 11;39(3):297-316. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Status epilepticus (SE) has a high mortality rate and is one of the most common neurologic emergencies. Fast progression of this neurologic emergency and lack of response to traditional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in most cases has challenged clinicians to use new agents. This article evaluates the efficacy and safety of AEDs released to the market after 2000 for SE, refractory status epilepticus (RSE), and super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2229DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Periprocedural Neuroendovascular Antiplatelet Strategies for Thrombosis Prevention in Clopidogrel-Hyporesponsive Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 11;39(3):317-334. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Patients undergoing neuroendovascular procedures such as cerebral aneurysm coiling and intracranial stent deployment are frequently treated with antiplatelet agents to prevent thrombotic complications. The combination of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor such as clopidogrel is often initiated days before elective procedures or as loading doses for emergent procedures; however, some patients may still experience thrombotic complications. Patients identified as clopidogrel hyporesponders are more likely to experience poor outcomes and may require changes to their regimens. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/phar.2228
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2228DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Augmented Renal Clearance.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 11;39(3):346-354. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Practice and Science, Lexington, Kentucky.

Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a phenomenon in critically ill patients characterized by increased creatinine clearance and elimination of renally eliminated medications. Patients with severe neurologic injury, sepsis, trauma, and burns have been consistently identified as at risk of ARC, with mean creatinine clearances ranging from 170 ml/minute to more than 300 ml/minute. Several potential mechanisms may contribute to the occurrence of ARC including endogenous responses to increased metabolism and solute production, alterations in neurohormonal balance, and therapeutic maneuvers such as fluid resuscitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2231DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Ventilatory and Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies for Management of Adult Patients on Extracorporeal Life Support.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 11;39(3):355-368. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) can provide mechanical support for patients with severe life-threatening cardiac or respiratory failure. ECLS is a complex therapy that has increased in use over several decades owing to advances in technology. In concert with this growth, there is an increased need to understand the complexity of this technology to augment the effectiveness of ECLS and minimize complications such as ventilator-induced lung injury, bleeding, thrombosis, infections, and inadequate drug dosing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2230DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

International Consensus Guidelines for the Optimal Use of the Polymyxins: Endorsed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), International Society for Anti-infective Pharmacology (ISAP), Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), and Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP).

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan;39(1):10-39

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The polymyxin antibiotics colistin (polymyxin E) and polymyxin B became available in the 1950s and thus did not undergo contemporary drug development procedures. Their clinical use has recently resurged, assuming an important role as salvage therapy for otherwise untreatable gram-negative infections. Since their reintroduction into the clinic, significant confusion remains due to the existence of several different conventions used to describe doses of the polymyxins, differences in their formulations, outdated product information, and uncertainties about susceptibility testing that has led to lack of clarity on how to optimally utilize and dose colistin and polymyxin B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2209DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Effect of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents on Sedation Requirements in Trauma Patients with an Open Abdomen.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 27;39(3):271-279. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

The appropriate level of sedation in patients with an open abdomen following damage control laparotomy (DCL) is debated. Chemical paralysis with neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) has been used to decrease time to abdominal closure. We sought to evaluate the effect of NMBA use on sedation requirements in patients with an open abdomen and to determine the effect of sedation on patient outcomes. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2225
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2225DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

Scoping Review of Interventions Associated with Cost Avoidance Able to Be Performed in the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Department.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 4;39(3):215-231. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois.

A framework for evaluating pharmacists' impact on cost avoidance in the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department (ED) has not been established. This scoping review was registered (CRD42018091217) and conducted to identify, aggregate, and qualitatively describe the highest quality evidence for cost avoidance generated by clinical pharmacists on interventions performed in an ICU or ED. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2224DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Impact of Macrolide Antibiotics on Hospital Readmissions and Other Clinically Important Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar;39(3):242-252

Colorado Pulmonary Outcomes Research Group (CPOR), University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Study Objective: To assess whether a macrolide-based antibiotic treatment strategy reduces in-hospital mortality, decreases hospital readmissions, or improves other clinically important outcomes compared with a non-macrolide antibiotic treatment strategy in critically ill patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).

Design: Propensity score-matched pharmacoepidemiologic cohort study.

Data Source: Premier's Perspective Hospital Database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445270PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Effectiveness of Melatonin for the Prevention of Intensive Care Unit Delirium.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar;39(3):280-287

University of California San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, California.

Study Objective: Intensive care unit (ICU) delirium is an acute brain dysfunction that has been associated with increased mortality, prolonged ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and development of post-ICU cognitive impairment. Melatonin may help to restore sleep and reduce the occurrence of ICU delirium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin for the prevention of ICU delirium in critically ill adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2222DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Vasoactive Agent Use in Septic Shock: Beyond First-Line Recommendations.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 7;39(3):369-381. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Shirley Ryan Ability Lab, Chicago, Illinois.

Septic shock is a life-threatening disorder associated with high mortality rates requiring rapid identification and intervention. Vasoactive agents are often required to maintain goal hemodynamics and preserve tissue perfusion. However, guidance regarding the proper administration of adjunct agents for the management of septic shock is limited in patients who are refractory to norepinephrine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2220DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Use of Cangrelor as a Bridge to Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in a Patient with a Recent Drug-Eluting Stent Who Developed Acute Tirofiban-Related Thrombocytopenia.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Apr 4;39(4):521-525. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Current guidelines emphasize the need for at least 6-12 months of oral dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor following drug-eluting coronary artery stent implantation. In patients with recently implanted coronary artery stents who require urgent cardiac or noncardiac surgery, the benefits of maintaining oral dual antiplatelet therapy must be carefully weighed against the risks of excessive bleeding, and current practice is largely guided by individual surgeon preferences. When the effects of a second oral antiplatelet agent are undesirable during the perioperative period, the use of a short-acting intravenous antiplatelet agent as "bridge" therapy that can be discontinued shortly before surgery is associated with a reduced occurrence of adverse clinical events in patients with recently implanted coronary stents requiring urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2219
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2219DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Pharmacotherapy Rounds: When Old Drugs Require New Guidelines.

Authors:
C Lindsay DeVane

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 13;39(1):4-6. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2206DOI Listing
January 2019
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Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Use in the Nordic Countries from a Cardiovascular Risk Perspective, 2000-2016: A Drug Utilization Study.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 8;39(2):150-160. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Study Objective: Evidence on the cardiotoxicity of nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly diclofenac and the newer selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, has accumulated over the last decade. Our objective was to examine whether the use of NSAIDs in the Nordic countries changed with the emerging evidence, regulatory statements, and clinical guidelines advocating caution for the use of specific NSAIDs.

Design: Drug utilization study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2217
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2217DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Potentially Unsafe Chronic Medication Use Among Older Adult Chronic Opioid Users.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb;39(2):140-149

Institute of Therapeutic Innovations and Outcomes (ITIO), The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Columbus, Ohio.

Study Objectives: To assess chronic potentially unsafe medication use among older adults using opioids chronically versus those who did not, to assess the likelihood of chronically using medications to treat adverse effects associated with chronic opioid use, and to characterize the differences in chronic potentially unsafe medication use at three morphine equivalent dose (MED) levels/day (less than 50MED, 50-90MED, and more than 90MED).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

Data Source: Prescription claims data from a national telehealth Medication Therapy Management (MTM) provider for the year 2015. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2218DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

ARB Superiority Over ACE Inhibitors in Coronary Heart Disease: An Alternative Viewpoint.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 4;39(2):204-206. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469961PMC
February 2019
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The Optimal Use of the Polymyxins Before Their Time Is Up.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Jan 8;39(1):7-9. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Anti-Infective Research Laboratory, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2207DOI Listing
January 2019
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Use of a Bioinformatics-Based Toxicity Scoring System to Assess Serotonin Burden and Predict Population-Level Adverse Drug Events from Concomitant Serotonergic Drug Therapy.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb;39(2):171-181

Kasiska Division of Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Meridian, Idaho.

Study Objective: Numerous medications interact at serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptors directly or through off-target interactions, causing mild to severe serotonergic adverse drug events (ADEs), particularly among older adults. Our objective was to develop a novel molecular-based toxicity scoring system to assess serotonergic burden resulting from concurrently administered drugs. Quantitative methods to assess serotonergic burden may provide a useful clinical tool for improving pharmacotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386632PMC
February 2019
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Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment and Resistant Starch Supplementation on Gut Microbiome Composition in a Cohort of Patients with Bipolar Disorder or Schizophrenia.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 3;39(2):161-170. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Study Objective: Previous studies identified shifts in gut microbiota associated with atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment that may link AAPs to metabolic burden. Dietary prebiotics such as resistant starch may be beneficial in obesity and glucose regulation, but little is known mechanistically about their ability to modify gut microbiota in AAP-treated individuals. This investigation was undertaken to delineate mechanistically the effects of AAP treatment and resistant starch supplementation on gut microbiota in a psychiatric population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386623PMC
February 2019
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Influence of Polypharmacy on the Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 28;39(2):196-203. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy, Storrs, Connecticut.

Study Objective: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) often have multiple comorbidities requiring concomitant medications in addition to their oral anticoagulant (OAC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of polypharmacy on the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in patients with NVAF managed in routine clinical practice.

Design: Retrospective claims analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2213DOI Listing
February 2019
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Evaluation of Prophylactic Heparin Dosage Strategies and Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in the Critically Ill Patient.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Mar 21;39(3):232-241. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in critically ill patients without heparin prophylaxis. Although heparin prevents VTE, VTEs occur frequently despite prophylaxis. A higher heparin dosage may be more effective for preventing VTE. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2212
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2212DOI Listing
March 2019
22 Reads

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of β-Lactamase Inhibitors.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 20;39(2):182-195. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Novel β-lactamase inhibitors have extended the reach of new and existing β-lactams against multidrug-resistant bacteria expressing β-lactamases. The efficacy of these combination therapeutics relies on a complex two-component pharmacodynamic (PD) system where the β-lactamase inhibitor inactivates the bacterial β-lactamase enzyme and frees the companion β-lactam to act against its penicillin-binding protein target. Despite considerable investigation into the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of β-lactams, the pharmacology of their companion β-lactamase inhibitors has only recently been rigorously explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2210DOI Listing
February 2019
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Effects of Statin Therapy on the Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Korean Patients with Hyperlipidemia.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 29;39(2):129-139. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Division of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

Study Objective: Statins are widely used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Several large randomized trials have suggested that statins might increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); studies have also shown interethnic variability in responses to statins. This study aimed to determine the association between statin use and the risk of ICH in patients with hyperlipidemia among a Korean population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2211DOI Listing
February 2019
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Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Ustekinumab, Infliximab, or Adalimumab for the Treatment of Moderate-Severe Crohn's Disease in Biologic-Naïve Patients.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 20;39(2):118-128. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, USC/Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Study Objective: Ustekinumab was recently approved by the United States U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2208DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads