245 results match your criteria Personality and individual differences[Journal]


Narcissism and Devaluing Others: An Exploration of Impaired Control Over Drinking as a Mediating Mechanism of Alcohol-Related Problems.

Pers Individ Dif 2019 Mar 9;139:39-45. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

University of Florida.

Devaluing or diminishing the worth of others is how many individuals destroy their relationships, such as by drinking beyond limits at inappropriate times and letting others down. Impaired control over drinking (IC) reflects consuming alcohol beyond predetermined limits. This investigation sought to determine whether facets of vulnerable narcissism (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296491PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Linguistic markers of moderate and absolute natural language.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Nov;134:119-124

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Clinical Languages, University of Reading, UK.

In social, personality and mental health research, the tendency to select absolute end-points on Likert scales has been linked to certain cultures, lower intelligence, lower income and personality/mental health disorders. It is unclear whether this response style reflects an absolutist cognitive style or is merely an experimental artefact. In this study, we introduce an alternative, more informative, flexible and ecologically valid approach for estimating absolute responding, that uses natural language markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085512PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Structural analysis of the PCL-R and relationship to BIG FIVE personality traits and parenting characteristics in an Hispanic female offender sample.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Jul 20;129:59-65. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

University of North Texas.

Valid measurement of psychopathic traits in females using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) continues to be an under researched topic. Previous latent variable and other psychometric studies have raised questions concerning the structure and predictive effects of psychopathic traits in females. New cross-cultural research finds good support for a four-factor model of psychopathy in females and the predictive effects of the psychopathy factors (Declercq, Carter, & Neumann, 2015; Neumann, Hare, & Pardini, 2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186447PMC
July 2018
1 Read

The Big Five, Everyday Contexts and Activities, and Affective Experience.

Pers Individ Dif 2019 Jan 29;136:140-147. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Northwestern University.

Prior research shows that personality traits predict time spent with different people and frequency of engagement in different activities. Further, personality traits, company, and activity are related to the experience of affect. However, little research has examined personality, context, and affect together in the same study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168084PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Associations Between Personality and Distress Tolerance Among Trauma-Exposed Young Adults.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Jan 12;120:166-170. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Low distress tolerance (DT) is related to negative mental health outcomes, particularly among trauma-exposed populations, who are at greater risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about potential etiological factors underlying the development of perceived (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978428PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

Events associated with stability and change in adult locus of control orientation over a six-year period.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 May;126:85-92

Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.

Although locus of control (LOC) has been the focus of thousands of studies we know little about how or if it changes over time and what is associated with change. Our lack of knowledge stems in part from the past use of cross-sectional and not longitudinal methodologies to study small numbers of participants from non-representative populations. The purpose of the present study was to use a longitudinal design with a large representative population to provide relevant information concerning the stability and change of adult LOC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5818169PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

Examination of the heterogeneity in PTSD and impulsivity facets: A latent profile analysis.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Apr 20;125:1-9. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Psychology Research Institute, Ulster University, Coleraine, Northern Ireland.

The experience of traumatizing events and resulting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology relates to a range of impulsive behaviors. While both PTSD and impulsivity are heterogeneous and multidimensional constructs, no research has used person-centered approaches to examine subgroups of individuals based on these response endorsements. Hence, our study examined PTSD-impulsivity typologies and their construct validity in two samples: university students ( = 412) and community participants recruited through Amazon's MTurk ( = 346). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881954PMC
April 2018
7 Reads

Neuroticism, rumination, negative affect, and sleep: Examining between- and within-person associations.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Mar 23;123:217-222. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

The Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, U.S.A.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877474PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Unmasking the Association between Psychopathic Traits and Adaptive Functioning in Children.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Apr 22;124:57-65. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Defense Center - Monterey Bay.

The appearance of positive adjustment is a theoretically relevant element of psychopathy, and is valuable for demonstrating its incremental validity over a broader antisocial orientation. We examined associations between psychopathic-like features and two measures of adaptive functioning: psychometric intelligence and (immunity to) internalizing problems. Ratings of psychopathy and behavioral problems were obtained in a community sample of children (=1210). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854408PMC
April 2018
5 Reads

Parental Educational Attainment and Offspring Subjective Well-being and Self-Beliefs in Older Adulthood.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Jul;128:139-145

Florida State University College of Medicine.

This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 (=10,827; =68.38; =9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839335PMC
July 2018
7 Reads

Association of Personality Profiles with Depressive, Anxiety, and Cancer-related Symptoms in Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Oct 4;117:130-138. Epub 2017 Jun 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University.

Background: This study identified latent classes of cancer patients based on Big Five personality dimensions and evaluated for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, depression, anxiety, and cancer-related symptoms.

Methods: Patients (n=1248) with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventories, NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS). Latent class profile analysis of NEO-FFI scores was used to identify patient subgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.05.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822738PMC
October 2017
5 Reads

Act-Frequency Signatures of the Big Five.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Oct 2;116:201-205. Epub 2017 May 2.

Oregon Research Institute.

The traditional focus of work on personality and behavior has tended toward "major outcomes" such as health or antisocial behavior, or small sets of behaviors observable over short periods in laboratories or in convenience samples. In a community sample, we examined a wide set (400) of mundane, incidental or "every day" behavioral acts, the frequencies of which were reported over the past year. Using an exploratory methodology similar to genomic approaches (relying on the False Discovery Rate) revealed 26 prototypical acts for Intellect, 24 acts for Extraversion, 13 for Emotional Stability, nine for Conscientiousness, and six for Agreeableness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5785942PMC
October 2017
5 Reads

A process-oriented perspective examining the relationships among daily coping, stress, and affect.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Jan 31;104:357-361. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Psychology Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, United States.

We assess the daily relationships between age, three functional coping strategies, and positive and negative affect while accounting for the individual's cognitive appraisal of the severity and controllability of their encountered stressor. We collected 56 days of daily data from participants in the Notre Dame Study of Healthy & Well-Being assessing affect, the most bothersome event experienced each day, and coping strategies used to deal with that event ( = 371; Age 44-87; = 67.41; = 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773060PMC
January 2017
5 Reads

Shame is bad and guilt is good: An examination of the impaired control over drinking pathway to alcohol use and related problems.

Pers Individ Dif 2018 Jan 28;121:62-66. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

University of Florida.

Tension Reduction Theory (Kushner et al., 1994) suggests alcohol is used as a means to alleviate negative affect (NA) such as shame and guilt. Shame is an internalized response in which blame is placed on the self, while guilt is not internalized and the blame is placed on the situation (Dearing et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5755601PMC
January 2018
6 Reads

Self-interest may not be entirely in the interest of the self: Association between selflessness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Oct 8;117:166-171. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

University of Utah.

The association between mindfulness and selflessness is firmly grounded in classical Indo-Sino-Tibetan contemplative traditions, but has received limited empirical attention from Western researchers. In Buddhism, the relationship between mindfulness and the self is of central concern to the cultivation of well-being. Mindfulness is believed to encourage insight into the truly insubstantial nature of the self, an understanding that is thought to encourage well-being. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01918869173038
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.05.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703599PMC
October 2017
10 Reads

The influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence: An fMRI study.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Nov;118:50-55

University of Maribor, Faculty of Philosophy. Koroška 160, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia.

The past decades have witnessed a huge interest in uncovering the neural bases of intelligence (e.g., Stelmack, & Houlihan, 1995; Stelmack, Knott, & Beauchamp, 2003). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700801PMC
November 2017
7 Reads

Unique and interactive effects of impulsivity facets on reckless driving and driving under the influence in a high-risk young adult sample.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Aug 30;114:42-47. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USA.

Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.03.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639912PMC
August 2017
6 Reads

Creature of Habit: A self-report measure of habitual routines and automatic tendencies in everyday life.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Oct;116:73-85

Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Our daily lives involve high levels of repetition of activities within similar contexts. We buy the same foods from the same grocery store, cook with the same spices, and typically sit at the same place at the dinner table. However, when questioned about these routine activities, most of us barely remember the details of our actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473478PMC
October 2017
15 Reads

Religiosity and the Motivation for Social Affiliation.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Jul 9;113:24-31. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.

Although universal, the motivation to affiliate can vary as a function of individual differences and of the characteristics of the target. Three studies explored the extent to which religious beliefs and identity are related to social affiliation motivation. Because most religions advocate affiliation and provide opportunities for frequent experiences of affiliation, we reasoned that religious people might show greater affiliation motivation in everyday attitudes and behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621743PMC
July 2017
6 Reads

Longitudinal and reciprocal relations between delay discounting and crime.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Jun 16;111:193-198. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

University of Kentucky.

Theorists argue that self-control failure is the underlying cause of criminal behavior, with previous research linking poor self-control to delinquency and drug use. The path from self-control to crime is well-established, but less is known about whether criminal behavior contributes to self-control deficits over time. We investigated bi-directional relations between self-control assessed via a delay discounting task and self-reported crime over a three-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621769PMC
June 2017
7 Reads

Are rash impulsive and reward sensitive traits distinguishable? A test in young adults.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 09 21;99:308-312. Epub 2016 May 21.

San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, CA 94102, United States.

Adolescents and young adults are characterized as prone to risky behavior with a wide range of traits identified as predictors of individual differences in this behavior. Here we test a crucial difference between traits that reflect , the tendency to engage in risky behavior without consideration of consequences, versus , the tendency to be attracted to novel and rewarding experience. To test the validity of this distinction, we examined the factorial structure of eight risk-related traits in a sample of 899 18 to 22 year-olds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573241PMC
September 2016
5 Reads

Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Jan 21;105:30-39. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States.

Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560504PMC
January 2017
11 Reads

The Social Anxiety and Depression Life Interference-24 Inventory: Classical and modern psychometric evaluations.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 08 8;98:16-24. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

The University of Texas at San Antonio, 1 UTSA Circle, Psychology Department, San Antonio, TX 78249, United States.

Two instrument validation studies broadened the research literature exploring the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity of scores on the Social Anxiety and Depression Life Interference-24 Inventory (SADLI-24; Osman, Bagge, Freedenthal, Guiterrez, & Emmerich, 2011). Study 1 (N = 1065) was undertaken to concurrently appraise three competing factor models for the instrument: a unidimensional model, a two-factor oblique model and a bifactor model. The bifactor model provided the best fit to the study sample data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5541895PMC
August 2016
12 Reads

Neuroticism is associated with challenging experiences with psilocybin mushrooms.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Oct 7;117:155-160. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Objectives: Classic hallucinogens (e.g. psilocybin and LSD) have substantial effects on perception, cognition, and emotion that can often be psychologically challenging, however we know very little regarding the source of significant individual variability that has been observed in the frequency and intensity of challenging experiences (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540159PMC
October 2017
8 Reads

Beliefs about savoring in older adulthood: Aging and perceived health affect temporal components of perceived savoring ability.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Jan 1;105:164-169. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

University of Kentucky.

The ability to savor positive life events is associated with higher emotional well-being; however, few studies have examined savoring ability in older adults. The present study used a longitudinal design to examine changes in perceived savoring abilities and associations with perceived health in older adulthood. Older adults (=131) reported on beliefs about savoring and perceived health at baseline and 2½ years later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.09.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5521279PMC
January 2017
21 Reads

Constraint is associated with earlier circadian phase and morningness: Confirmation of relationships between personality and circadian phase using a constant routine protocol.

Pers Individ Dif 2017 Jan 31;104:69-74. Epub 2016 Jul 31.

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA; Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Associations among personality, diurnal preference, and circadian phase were investigated using a constant routine laboratory protocol. One hundred and sixty-eight healthy participants aged 18-30 years (Women = 68) completed either a 30- or 50-hour constant routine under dim-light conditions (<3 lux), during which circadian phase was measured from core body temperature and melatonin. Prior to laboratory admission, self-report measures of personality and diurnal preference were also obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5313034PMC
January 2017
6 Reads

Predictors of Prosocial Behavior: Differences in Middle Aged and Older Adults.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 10 17;101:322-326. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

North Dakota State University, Human Development and Family Science, NDSU Dept. 2615, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050 United States.

Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5287708PMC
October 2016
9 Reads

Impulsivity increases risk for coping-motivated drinking in undergraduates with elevated social anxiety.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 01;88(1):45-50

Department of Psychiatry and Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, 6299 South St. Halifax, B3H 3J5, Nova Scotia, Canada.

According to theory, those high in social anxiety (SA) are at risk for drinking alcohol for coping and conformity motives, which in turn lead to alcohol use and related problems. Empirical tests of this risk pathway in non-clinical samples have produced mixed results. Although those high on SA may drink to cope with anxiety and to reduce the likelihood of social rejection, they may also avoid drinking for fear of embarrassing themselves when intoxicated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5218836PMC
January 2016
8 Reads

The Serotonin Transporter Promoter Variant, Stress, and Attentional Biases in Middle Childhood.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 09 20;101:371-379. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Western University.

Although evidence suggests that 5-HTTLPR variants may shape risk for depression, the influence is likely complex, and involves effects on endophenotypes. We examined associations between 5-HTTLPR and biases in attention to affective stimuli in a sample of girls and a sample of both boys and girls. Children with at least one short (S) variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had lower positive attentional bias scores in both samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5147753PMC
September 2016
11 Reads

Emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use in urban adolescents.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 09 20;99:200-205. Epub 2016 May 20.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States.

Anticipatory cortisol is associated with risk for substance use in adolescents. The present study extended prior literature by testing a model linking family emotional climate, emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use. Participants were 229 adolescents ( = 11. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5082236PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.011DOI Listing
September 2016
4 Reads

Addiction Vulnerability and Binge Eating in Women: Exploring Reward Sensitivity, Affect Regulation, Impulsivity & Weight/Shape Concerns.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 10 13;100:16-22. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Temple University - Department of Psychology, 1701 N 13 St, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA (DME, EYC, JA, MSM).

Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070664PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.084DOI Listing
October 2016
17 Reads

Reinforcement Sensitivity and Social Anxiety in Combat Veterans.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 08 18;98:171-175. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX USA.

Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that low behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity is associated with social anxiety in combat veterans.

Method: Self-report measures of reinforcement sensitivity, combat exposure, social interaction anxiety, and social observation anxiety were administered to 197 Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans.

Results: As expected, combat exposure, behavioral inhibition system (BIS) sensitivity, and fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) sensitivity were positively associated with both social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5619664PMC
August 2016
11 Reads

Relations of Naturally Occurring Variations in State Anxiety and Cognitive Functioning.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Aug;98:85-90

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia. Postal Address: 1023 Millmont St. Charlottesville, VA 22903.

Although effects of anxiety on cognitive performance have been extensively examined, anxiety-cognition relationships are often defined by between-person relationships. The current research investigated the effects of within-person variations in state anxiety on cognitive performance based on measures from three separate sessions in a sample of 1,769 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 99 years of age. Some of the adults in the sample exhibited a wide range of state anxiety across the three sessions, whereas others were fairly stable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861307PMC
August 2016
4 Reads

Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Jun;95:121-126

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, United States.

Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811627PMC
June 2016
10 Reads

Dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity: The critical role of nonjudgment.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Apr 26;93:125-129. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

;

The pain of rejection is a crucial component of normal social functioning; however, heightened sensitivity to rejection can be impairing in numerous ways. Mindfulness-based interventions have been effective with several populations characterized by elevated sensitivity to rejection; however, the relationship between mindfulness and rejection sensitivity has been largely unstudied. The present study examines associations between rejection sensitivity and multiple dimensions of dispositional mindfulness, with the hypothesis that a nonjudgmental orientation to inner experiences would be both associated with decreased rejection sensitivity and attenuate the impact of sensitivity to rejection on general negative affect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809056PMC
April 2016
4 Reads
1 Citation

Changes in negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking across adolescence.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Feb;90:332-337

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Box G-S121-4, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

The development and potential co-development of traits related to impulsivity and sensation seeking across adolescence has garnered substantial attention within the extant literature. Some prior research suggests that facets show distinct patterns of change across adolescence and that intraindividual changes in these traits may be unrelated. However, the extant literature is somewhat hampered by measurement issues and inconsistent findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772734PMC
February 2016
3 Reads

Personality, cognitive/psychological traits and psychiatric resilience: A multivariate twin study.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Mar 4;91:74-79. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the phenotypic relationships, and etiologic underpinnings, of cognitive/psychological traits with psychiatric resilience. Resilience was defined as the difference between the twins' total score on a broad measure of internalizing symptoms and their predicted score based on their cumulative exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Cholesky decompositions were performed in a large twin sample (n=7,500 individuals) to quantify the overlap in genetic and environmental factors between resilience and six traits (neuroticism, optimism, self-esteem, mastery, interpersonal dependency, altruism) in bivariate analyses, and in a multivariate model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5667653PMC
March 2016
19 Reads

Temperament disturbances measured in infancy progress to substance use disorder 20 years later.

Pers Individ Dif 2015 Aug;82:96-101

Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research (CEDAR), Pittsburgh, PA, USA; University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: This prospective study determined whether temperament before two years of age predicts transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) up to a decade later and SUD outcome in adulthood.

Method: Boys between 10 and 12 years of age ( = 482) were tracked to age 22. The previously validated (TLI) was administered at baseline, and temperament prior to two years of age was retrospectively rated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4758467PMC
August 2015
8 Reads

The Applied Mindfulness Process Scale (AMPS): A process measure for evaluating mindfulness-based interventions.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Apr;93:6-15

College of Social Work & Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah.

Objective: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) include the application of meditation and mind-body practices used to promote mindful awareness in daily life. Operationalizing the construct of mindfulness is important in order to determine mechanisms of therapeutic change elicited by mindfulness practice. In addition to existing state and trait measures of mindfulness, process measures are needed to assess the ways in which individuals apply mindfulness in the context of their practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742344PMC
April 2016
15 Reads

Individual Differences in Men's Misperception of Women's Sexual Intent: Application and Extension of the Confluence Model.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 May;94:16-20

Wayne State University.

Men are more likely than women to misperceive a cross-sex companion's degree of sexual interest. The current study extends previous research by using the confluence model (Malamuth et al., 1991) to examine how narcissism and impulsive sensation-seeking are directly and indirectly associated with men's misperception of women's sexual interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.12.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4730390PMC
May 2016
5 Reads

Associations of Neuroticism and Impulsivity with Binge Eating in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents in the United States.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Feb;90:66-72

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway Hampton House, Room 853 Baltimore, MD 21205, USA,

Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01918869153000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685732PMC
February 2016
8 Reads

Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction.

Pers Individ Dif 2015 Dec;87:24-29

Oxford Centre for Emotions & Affective Neuroscience, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK.

There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681093PMC
December 2015
7 Reads

Waiting with purpose: A reliable but small association between purpose in life and impulsivity.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 02;90:187-189

Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853.

Purpose in life contributes to health and wellbeing. We examine the link between purpose and behavioral impulsivity that may account for these benefits. In a community sample of 503 adults, we found a small yet reliable positive association between purpose and valuing future rewards on a delayed discounting task, a behavioral index of impulsivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668943PMC
February 2016
11 Reads

Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning.

Authors:

Pers Individ Dif 2015 Nov;86:6-14

Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels - a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630865PMC
November 2015
5 Reads

Uninstructed emotion regulation choice in four studies of cognitive reappraisal.

Pers Individ Dif 2015 Nov 17;86:455-464. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, United States.

In emotion regulation (ER) research, participants are often trained to use specific strategies in response to emotionally evocative stimuli. Yet theoretical models suggest that people vary significantly in strategy use in everyday life. Which specific strategies people choose to use, and how many, may partially depend on contextual factors like the emotional intensity of the situation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293975PMC
November 2015
1 Read

Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Jan;89:28-33

Department of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Psychology, 1 Brookings Dr., St. Louis, MO 63130.

The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4612349PMC
January 2016
10 Reads

Implicit versus Explicit Rejection Self-Perceptions and Adolescents' Interpersonal Functioning.

Pers Individ Dif 2015 Nov;86:390-393

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents' explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604605PMC
November 2015
6 Reads

Harsh Environments, Life History Strategies, and Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study of Oregon Youth.

Pers Individ Dif 2016 Jan;88:120-124

University of Connecticut.

We modeled the effects of harsh environments in childhood on adjustment in early emerging adulthood, through parenting style and the development of fast Life History Strategies (LHS; risky beliefs and behaviors) in adolescence. Participants were from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (N = 988; 85.7% White). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593070PMC
January 2016
9 Reads