401,401 results match your criteria Personality and individual differences[Journal]
J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychology.
Self-regulation describes the ability to control both behaviors and internal states against a backdrop of conflicting or distracting situations, drives, or impulses. In the cognitive psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are commonly measured with performance-based tests of executive functioning, whereas in the personality psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are typically assessed with report-based measures of impulse control, sustained motivation, and perseverance. The goal of this project was (a) to comprehensively examine the structure of associations between multiple self-regulatory constructs stemming from the cognitive and personality psychology traditions; (b) to estimate how these constructs, individually and collectively, related to mathematics and reading ability beyond psychometric measures of processing speed and fluid intelligence; and (c) to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors mediated the observed associations. Read More
J Fam Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Reports an error in "Marriage improves neuroticism in Chinese newlyweds: Communication and marital affect as mediators" by Wei Tong, Ping Li, Nan Zhou, Qiong He, Xiaoyan Ju, Jing Lan, Xiaomin Li and Xiaoyi Fang (, 2018[Oct], Vol 32, 986-991). In the original article, a funding source was unintentionally omitted from the author note. The omitted acknowledgement should have read "This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 31571157 to Xiaoyi Fang. Read More
Emotion 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
Within the study of emotions, researchers have increasingly stressed the importance of studying individual differences in emotion dynamics and emotional responding and the way these relate to more stable differences in well-being. However, there is no clear picture regarding affective reactivity to positive events and how different emotional reactions relate to differences in well-being, particularly higher levels of well-being. Theoretical work and empirical findings from different lines of research (e. Read More
Evolution 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley.
The social environment is expected to have substantial effects on behavior, and as a consequence its heritability and evolvability. We investigated these effects by exposing Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to either silence or recordings of male acoustic sexual signals. We used a combined pedigree and full-sib/half-sib breeding design to estimate the repeatability, heritability, and evolvability of behaviors related to boldness, exploration, and activity. Read More
Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 14:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.
ABSTRACTObjectives:Personality is known to be a reliable predictor of well-being. However, it is rather difficult to influence the personality of individuals in order to improve their well-being. Therefore, it is important to examine possible underlying mechanisms or indirect effects. Read More
Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul 2018 7;5:19. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
2Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
Background: Linehan (1993)'s biosocial model posits that borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms develop as a result of a transactional relationship between pre-existing emotional vulnerability and an invalidating childhood environment. Little work, however, has investigated cultural factors that may influence the relationship between childhood invalidation and BPD symptoms. The present study investigated the association between parental invalidation and BPD symptoms, and the role of conformity and self-construal as potential moderators of this association. Read More
Front Aging Neurosci 2018 28;10:380. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Neurology, Donostia Universitary Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain.
Many factors may converge in healthy aging in the oldest old, but their association and predictive power on healthy or functionally impaired aging has yet to be demonstrated. By detecting healthy aging and in turn, poor aging, we could take action to prevent chronic diseases associated with age. We conducted a pilot study comparing results of a set of markers (peripheral blood mononuclear cell or PBMC telomere length, circulating Aβ peptides, anti-Aβ antibodies, and ApoE status) previously associated with poor aging or cognitive deterioration, and their combinations, in a cohort of "neurologically healthy" (both motor and cognitive) nonagenarians ( = 20) and functionally impaired, institutionalized nonagenarians ( = 38) recruited between 2014 and 2015. Read More
Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13;8(1):274. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Mobile technologies offer new opportunities for prospective, high resolution monitoring of long-term health conditions. The opportunities seem of particular promise in psychiatry where diagnoses often rely on retrospective and subjective recall of mood states. However, deriving clinically meaningful information from the complex time series data these technologies present is challenging, and the current implications for patient care are uncertain. Read More
J Clin Med 2018 Dec 7;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain.
One of the trends in the current research in psychology is to explore how personal variables can determine a person's communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activities in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13562
Second Medical Department.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. Psychosocial stress is one of the pathogenic factors involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a validated questionnaire to analyze all aspects of occupational stress-a model involving sources of pressure, the mechanisms of coping, the personality, and the resulting effects of the interaction between these 3 elements. Read More
J Exp Child Psychol 2018 Dec 10;179:190-211. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Laboratory of Action, Perception, and Cognition, Faculty of Psychology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20132 Milano, Italy; Experimental Psychology Unit, Neuroscience Division, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
Previous research has documented systematic biases when adult observers judge the original speed of real-life video clips. What does the unfolding of events in videos-an increasingly pervasive "substitute reality"-look like as children grow up? The current study investigated the sense of speed during childhood and the relation with a number of performance and personality indexes. A group of 142 children aged 6-10 years adjusted the speed of video clips representing various scenes until reaching the apparent right speed. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0206905. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Center for Cognition and Communication, Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Moscow, Russia.
It has been demonstrated that nurturing and affiliative touch is essential for human emotional and physical well-being throughout our entire life. Within the last 30 years a system of low-threshold mechanosensitive C fibers innervating the hairy skin was discovered and described; this system is hypothesized to represent the neurobiological substrate for the affective and rewarding properties of touch. This discovery opens new perspectives for multidisciplinary research of the role of affiliative social touch in health and disease, and calls for establishing novel psychometric tools assessing individual differences in the domain of affective touch. Read More
Cancer Nurs 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Author Affiliations: Department of Liberal Arts, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India (Dr Chittem); and Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield (Dr Norman); and Department of Psychology, University of Sussex (Dr Harris), United Kingdom.
Background: Nondisclosure of cancer diagnosis continues to be practiced in India, with many family caregivers concealing it from patients in order to protect them from emotional distress.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore Indian primary family caregivers' reasons for, and experiences of, disclosure versus nondisclosure to patients about their cancer diagnosis.
Methods: Indian disclosing (n = 8) and nondisclosing (n = 7) primary family caregivers participated in semistructured interviews exploring their reasons for disclosure versus nondisclosure of cancer diagnosis to their patient. Read More
Z Psychosom Med Psychother 2018 Sep;64(3):222-236
Institute of Psychology University of Innsbruck Austria Institute of Psychology, University of Innsbruck.
Objectives: The study analyzed the interdependence of change in attachment representation and reflective functioning (RF) in psychotherapy.
Methods: RF data from 63 female borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients were analyzed with respect to change of attachment representation (from insecure to secure and from unresolved to resolved) fromthree angles: (1) RF as a moderator variable, (2) RF as an outcome variable, and (3) RF changes over one year of treatment.
Results: Patients who changed to a resolved attachment classification showed higher RF before treatment and at follow-up than patients who remained unresolved (RF = 3. Read More
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Section on Clinical Psychology, Department of Education, Psychology, Philosophy, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Background: Paranoid thoughts are relatively common in the general population and can increase the risk of developing mental health conditions. In this study, we investigate the latent structure of paranoia in a sample of young people.
Methods: Cross-sectional survey; 243 undergraduate students (males: 44. Read More
BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 12;18(1):309. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.
Background: Polypharmacy is a geriatric syndrome defined variously as the use of potentially inappropriate drugs and/or the concurrent use of multiple medications including prescription and over-the-counter drugs. An association has been shown between polypharmacy and physical health, increased morbidity and increased mortality. However, there is little information regarding the association between polypharmacy and physical disease, personality trait and mental health problems in elderly. Read More
J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
1 Department of Molecular Psychology, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University , Ulm, Germany.
Background And Aims: Despite indications that the dark triad of personality might be associated with Internet-use disorder (IUD), research about these associations is lacking.
Methods: Two studies were performed to grasp the links between these variables. In the first study, a sample consisting of N = 468 participants (n = 130 males) filled in the Short Dark Triad Questionnaire to assess scores in the dark triad of personality and the short Internet Addiction Test to assess tendencies toward unspecified IUD. Read More
J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 13:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
1 Department of Health Sciences, School of Psychology, University of Florence , Florence, Italy.
This commentary addresses Griffiths et al. (2018)'s sixth myth about work addiction. We agree that work addiction could also be spread in the school context, although we propose that problematic overstudying may be more similar to an obsession than to an addiction toward the study. Read More
Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2223. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.
While competition has become increasingly fierce in organizations and in the broader market, the research on competition at an individual level is limited. Most existing research focuses on trait competitiveness. We argue that employee competitiveness can be state-like and can be demonstrated as an attitude toward and behavior representative of competition. Read More
Front Psychiatry 2018 20;9:609. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Leipzig University Medical Center, IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig, Germany.
The personality trait neuroticism has been implicated in a poor response to stress, may relate to increased concentrations of cytokines and the development of depression. Inflammatory mechanisms may also be associated with the onset, severity and symptoms of depression. Both are related to poor antidepressant treatment outcome. Read More
Front Neurosci 2018 22;12:844. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education), Center of Studies for Psychology and Social Development, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
Visual crowding is the difficulty experienced in identifying a target flanked by other objects within the peripheral visual field. Despite extensive research conducted on this topic, the precise relationship between attention and crowding is still debatable. One perspective suggests that crowding is a bottom-up and pre-attentive process, while another suggests that crowding is top-down and attentional. Read More
Clin Drug Investig 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neuroscience, "Rita Levi Montalcini", University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical practice guidelines recommend antipsychotic monotherapy, including oral and long-acting formulations, in the treatment of schizophrenia. This open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia of once-monthly long-acting paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) compared with oral paliperidone extended release (ER), with a particular focus on satisfaction, subjective well-being, and service engagement.
Methods: Seventy-two consecutive outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-5) were randomly assigned for 6 months to: (1) PP1M (50-150 mg equivalent) or (2) paliperidone ER (6-12 mg/day). Read More
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 29;57(12):925-933.e3. Epub 2018 Sep 29.
Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.
Objective: Youth with psychiatric disorders distinguished by irritability, including depression and associated trait neuroticism, show deficits in the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion, particularly happiness. However, the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to this ability remains unknown. The present study examined this trait in twins to assess the genetic and environmental influences on face-emotion recognition abilities and their association with irritability, neuroticism, and depression. Read More
Psychol Health Med 2018 Dec 6:1-15. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
a Medical School , University of Thessaly , Larissa , Greece.
COPD is a disease that can adversely affect patients' psychology. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether COPD patients feel increased hostility, and if hostility is associated with socio-economic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 203 COPD patients in primary health care services in Greece, using the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire HDHQ. Read More
Korean J Med Educ 2018 Dec 1;30(4):339-346. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether non-cognitive student attributes such as learning style and personality type affected academic performance in a flipped learning classroom of a pre-dental undergraduate science course.
Methods: 'Biodiversity and Global Environment,' a 15-week, 3-credit course, was designed as a flipped class in Seoul National University School of Dentistry in 2017. Second-year pre-dental students were required to enroll in the course and to engage in online learning and in-class discussion. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209154. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
School of Humanities and Communication, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou, China.
Activity participation is essential to the wellbeing of aging adults. Divergent levels of activity participation within aging populations have been explained from diverse perspectives, but the interaction effects of key determinants, such as personality and health, are often ignored. This study examines the effects of extravert personality on aging adults' activity levels by addressing its interaction with perceived physical health and mental health. Read More
PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207408. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.
Interest in the individual differences underlying end user computer security behavior has led to the development of a multidisciplinary field of research known as behavioral information security. An important gap in knowledge and the motivation for this research is the development of ways to measure secure and insecure cyber behavior for research and eventually practice. Here we report a study designed to develop a technique for assessing secure and insecure cyber behavior for broad research use. Read More
Psychiatr Hung 2018 ;33(4):359-373
Pecsi Tudomanyegyetem, Pszichologia Intezet, Pecs, Hungary, E-mail:
Nowadays there has been an increase of scientific interest related to the dark triad of personality: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism and subclinical psychopathy. In the last two decades several studies were published about the work related correlates of the dark personality traits. The aim of the current paper is to summarize and review these international and Hungarian research findings. Read More
Psychiatr Hung 2018 ;33(4):347-358
Szegedi Tudomanyegyetem Bolcseszettudomanyi Kar, Nevelestudomanyi Doktori Iskola, Szeged, Hungary, E-mail:
Background And Aims Of The Study: Anxiety related studies often investigate the personality factors and possible comorbid anxiety disorders that may underly trait anxiety. Women have higher prevalence rates across anxiety disorders, so we chose to examine the trait anxiety, perfectionism, self-efficacy and life satisfaction in a group of female participants.
Method: An online, self-reported questionnaire was used as an online method of data collection. Read More
Ups J Med Sci 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
a Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry , Uppsala University , Sweden.
Personality disorders (PDs) can be described as the manifestation of extreme personality traits that interfere with everyday life and contribute to significant suffering, functional limitations, or both. They are common and are frequently encountered in virtually all forms of health care. PDs are associated with an inferior quality of life (QoL), poor health, and premature mortality. Read More
EPMA J 2018 Dec 13;9(4):379-385. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
5Department of General and Clinical Psychology, Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University, 6/8 Lva Tolstogo Street, St. Petersburg, Russia.
This article centers on the relationship between psychological specifics of dental patients and their adherence to treatment. It describes clinical and personality specifics of periodontal patients and presents personality characteristics of patients with positive and negative dynamics of the therapy, as well as patients without periodontal diseases. The study findings highlight the importance of building confidential relationships with the patient and the need for a client-oriented approach to developing treatment plans and strategies for different types of dental patients. Read More
EPMA J 2018 Dec 25;9(4):355-365. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
1Transilvania University of Brasov, 29, Eroilor Street, 500036 Brasov, Romania.
Background: The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. It was identified in some professional categories, the most often being affected those in public health services.
Objectives: This study mainly aims to identify and analyze the value of the personality traits and work characteristics as predictive factors for the occurrence of the burnout syndrome in nurses, under the new approach of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. Read More
Curr Zool 2018 Dec 16;64(6):721-726. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Contact with environmental microbes are arguably the most common species interaction in which any animal participates. Studies have noted diverse relationships between hosts and resident microbes, which can have strong consequences for host development, physiology, and behavior. Many of these studies focus specifically on pathogens or beneficial microbes, while the benign microbes, of which the majority of bacteria could be described, are often ignored. Read More
Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2345. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, G. d'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
The State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA) is a widely used measure of state and trait anxiety that permits a specific assessment of cognitive and somatic anxiety. Previous research provided inconsistent findings about its factor structure in non-clinical samples (e.g. Read More
Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2325. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
Researchers have suggested that the link between personality traits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) could be a crucial factor in understanding the disorder's diatheses. The aim of our study was to contribute to research on personality differences (based on fine motor precision - a novel approach) in children with and without ADHD symptoms. The Children Sustained Attention Task (CSAT) and Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (DP-TC) were administered to children with an ADHD diagnosis and age-matched controls. Read More
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 23;14:3253-3257. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic,
Background: According to recent data, dissociation may play an important role in borderline personality disorder (BPD), nevertheless specific influences of psychotropic medication on dissociative symptoms in BPD and their therapeutic indications are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships of dissociative symptoms in BPD patients with levels of psychotropic medication and compare these results with a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia.
Materials And Methods: In this study, we investigated 52 BPD patients and compared the results with a control group of 36 schizophrenia patients. Read More
Soc Indic Res 2017 Jan 16;130(1):213-232. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
Texas A & M University.
The Day Reconstruction Method is a useful tool for evaluating short-term changes in emotional experiences over a variety of daily situations. However, traditional method of collecting DRM data can be time-intensive for both researchers and participants. In this paper we provide evidence that a random-sampling approach to DRM assessment can provide useful data that are largely consistent with previous research that used the full version of the DRM. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:438-445. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry/ School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:
Five-factor model of personality trait measures displays predictable associations with personality disorder features in both general and clinical populations. Facet-level measures such as the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire offer more detailed associations in these aspects. Recently, a short form of this questionnaire (ZKA-PQ/SF), with five traits and four facets under each trait, has been developed for further application of personality measures in a reasonable short time. Read More
Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (SWU), Ministry of Education, Chongqing, China.
Interoception involves the processing of a variety of different types of information ascending from the body. Accumulating evidence has indicated that interoception plays a fundamental role in cognitive and emotional processes, such as anxiety, but how different functional connectivity patterns contribute to emotions and visceral feelings during an interoceptive attention state is still unclear. In the present study, an interoceptive attention task was performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects, and the participants' subjective ratings of the intensity of interoception and feelings of anxiety were recorded. Read More
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Douglas Hospital Research Center.
Aims: Heterogeneity in the driving while impaired (DWI) offender population and modest outcomes from remedial programs are fueling interest in clarifying clinically significant DWI subtypes to better assess recidivism risk and target interventions. Previously, Brown et al. (2016) identified two putative behavioral phenotypes of DWI offenders with distinct behavioural, personality, cognitive and neurobiological profiles: 1) offenders primarily engaging in DWI (pDWI); and 2) offenders engaging in DWI and other traffic violations (MIXED). Read More
Tijdschr Psychiatr 2018 ;60(12):817-826
Background: Few data are available on predictors for the transition of individuals with mental illness to more independent forms of housing.
AIM: To analyse which variables predict the transition of individuals with severe mental illness from supported housing within the Dutch community housing programs (CHP) to more independent ways of living.
METHOD: Data of 1569 participants were analysed using Cox regression analysis. Read More
J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Centro de Investigación Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
In children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there are often discrepancies between direct assessment and third-party reports. We compared these children with groups with/without difficulties in interpersonal problem-solving skills in order to determine whether these discrepancies appear and if they could be a diagnostic indicator for ASD. There were 91 participants (ages 7-13): 28 children with ASD, 36 in a high family risk situation, and 27 typically developing children, all tested with direct measures and third-party reports. Read More
Behav Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
A statistical mediation model was developed within a twin design to investigate the etiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unlike conventional statistical mediation models, this biometric mediation model can detect unobserved confounding. Using a sample of 1410 pairs of Norwegian twins, we investigated specific hypotheses that DSM-IV personality-disorder (PD) traits mediate effects of childhood stressful life events (SLEs) on AUD, and that adulthood SLEs mediate effects of PDs on AUD. Read More
Oecologia 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829, Landau/Pfalz, Germany.
The role of generalist predators in biological control remains controversial as they may not only reduce pest populations but also disrupt biocontrol exerted by other natural enemies. Here, we focus on spiders as a model group of generalist predators. They are among the most abundant and most diverse natural enemies in agroecosystems. Read More