79,655 results match your criteria Personality Disorders


Zebrafish models of impulsivity and impulse control disorders.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

Impulse control disorders (ICD) are characterized by generalized difficulty controlling emotions and behaviors. ICD are a broad group of the central nervous system (CNS) disorders including conduct disorder, intermittent explosive, oppositional-defiant disorder, antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania, pyromania and other illnesses. Although they all share a common feature (aberrant impulsivity), their pathobiology is complex and poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14893DOI Listing

Comparing the Personality Traits of Patients with an Eating Disorder versus a Dual Diagnosis.

J Dual Diagn 2020 Jul 3:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Body Image Assessment and Intervention Unit, Department of Clinical Health and Psychology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

This cross-sectional study explored personality traits of individuals receiving treatment in a private clinic for an eating disorder (ED) compared to those receiving treatment for a dual diagnosis (DD; defined as an addiction to illegal drugs and/or alcohol along with a mental illness, in this case an ED). The aims of this study were to: (a) assess the personality profiles and differentiating traits between the ED and DD groups, (b) analyze differences in personality traits of restrictive ED versus bingeing ED profiles, and lastly (c) compare the individuals Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) results to their personality clusters as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5 edition (DSM-). The TCI-R is a self-report questionnaire consisting of seven scales, each with their own subscales, which provide a fuller understanding of each temperament and character trait evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15504263.2020.1782552DOI Listing

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Prisoners: Increased Substance Use Disorder Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

Eur Addict Res 2020 Jul 2:1-12. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, USA.

Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are overrepresented among incarcerated populations. We examined whether ADHD was associated with increased severity of comorbid SUD and with increased psychiatric comorbidity among prisoners.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of 500 randomly selected Latino male prisoners in the Puerto Rico Correctional System using validated diagnostic measures to assess Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) ADHD and SUD diagnosis, antisocial personality disorder (ASP) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508829DOI Listing

Evaluation of Motivation for the Treatment of Drug Addicts with Personality Disorders.

Span J Psychol 2020 Jun 16;23:e15. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Monash University (Australia).

Lack of motivation for the treatment of drug addiction is associated with dropout and relapses. Further, personality disorders (PD) have traditionally been linked to low motivation and therapeutic failure. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the structure of the Motivation for Treatment Questionnaire (MTQ-8), as well as to determine differences in motivation due to the presence of PD and the impact of psychological adjustment on motivation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/SJP.2020.13DOI Listing

Personality and Sleep Evaluation of Patients with Tinnitus in Japan.

Psychiatr Q 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

In Japan, there have been no examinations of tinnitus with respect to personality traits, and only a few studies have investigated sleep disorders in tinnitus. Understanding the association between these can aid in selecting and developing effective treatment options for patients with tinnitus. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between tinnitus severity, personality, and sleep disorders, in patients with chronic tinnitus in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-020-09794-7DOI Listing

Editorial: Psychosis and Personality Disorders: Do We Need Early Diagnosis for Successful Treatment?

Front Psychiatry 2020 16;11:584. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308528PMC

Dependent Personality in Depressed Older Adults: A Case Report and Systematic Review.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 Jul 1:891988720933361. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA.

Personality pathology in older adults is largely understudied. Here, we present a case report of an older adult who presented to an inpatient geriatric psychiatry unit with dependent personality traits in the context of chronic major depressive disorder, followed by a systematic review of the literature to identify research regarding the diagnosis and prevalence of dependent personality in depressed older adults. We identified 11 studies relevant to this topic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988720933361DOI Listing

Clinical and Neuropsychological Factors Associated with Treatment Response and Adverse Events of Atomoxetine in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2019 Mar;30(2):74-82

Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and neuropsychological factors associated with treatment response and adverse events of atomoxetine in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korea.

Methods: Children with ADHD were recruited at the Department of Psychiatry of Asan Medical Center from April 2015 to April 2018. Diagnoses of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were confirmed with the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.180030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289499PMC

Personality Traits and Traumatic Outcome Symptoms in Registered Nurses in the Aftermath of a Patient Safety Incident.

J Patient Saf 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

From the Oregon Health & Science University, School of Nursing, Portland, Oregon.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits (perfectionism and neuroticism) and the traumatic outcomes of reexperiencing, avoidance, and alcohol abuse severity of registered nurses (RNs) who have been involved with a patient safety incident (PSI). We hypothesized that higher scores for perfectionism and neuroticism would predict higher reexperiencing and avoidance symptoms in RNs in the aftermath of a PSI. Also, RNs with higher perfectionism and neuroticism sum scores would be more likely to abuse alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000740DOI Listing

Day hospital versus intensive outpatient mentalization-based treatment: 3-year follow-up of patients treated for borderline personality disorder in a multicentre randomized clinical trial.

Psychol Med 2020 Jun 30:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, The Netherlands.

Background: Two types of mentalization-based treatment (MBT), day hospital MBT (MBT-DH) and intensive outpatient MBT (MBT-IOP), have been shown to be effective in treating patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study evaluated trajectories of change in a multi-site trial of MBT-DH and MBT-IOP at 36 months after the start of treatment.

Methods: All 114 patients (MBT-DH n = 70, MBT-IOP n = 44) from the original multicentre trial were assessed at 24, 30 and 36 months after the start of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002123DOI Listing

Prospective study of stress, depression and personality in myasthenia gravis relapses.

BMC Neurol 2020 Jun 29;20(1):261. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Ellen and Martin Prosserman Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 5EC, Room 309 200 Elizabeth St, Toronto, ON, M5G 2G4, Canada.

Background: Psychopathology and personality traits may influence the course of autoimmune disorders. With this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we aimed to assess personality, stress and depression in myasthenia patients who relapse and those who remain stable or improve (non-relapsers).

Method: We collected data from 155 consecutive adult patients with confirmed MG attending the Neuromuscular Clinic, Toronto General Hospital, between March 2017 and July 2018, for this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01802-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322879PMC

[Psychosocial risk factors for cardiovascular disease: gender differences and 22-year dynamics among the population of Siberia (WHO MONICA-Psychosocial Program, HAPIEE)].

Ter Arkh 2020 Jan 15;92(1):15-24. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Institute of therapy and preventive medicine - Branch of the Federal Researcher center Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Aim: To determine the gender differentiation and dynamics for 22 years of psychosocial factors (PSF) of the risk of cardiovascular disease among the population aged 25-64 years in Russia / Siberia (Novosibirsk).

Materials And Methods: Representative samples of the population of the city of Novosibirsk under the program of the World Health Organization "MONICA-MOPSY" in 1994-1995 were examined. III screening (men - 657, women - 870, 25-64 years old); IV screening project HAPIEE in 2003-2005 (men - 576, women - 1074, 45-64 years old) and V screening in 2013-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.01.000249DOI Listing
January 2020

Sleep coaching: non-pharmacological treatment of non-restorative sleep in Austrian railway shift workers.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2019 Sep;70(3):186-193

Institute for Consciousness and Dream Research, Vienna, Austria.

Sleep coaching by Holzinger & Klösch™ is a new, Gestalt therapy-based holistic approach to non-pharmacological treatment of non-restorative sleep. It includes psychotherapeutic aspects which enable participants to improve their sleep quality by developing their own coping strategies as a daily routine. Dream work and relaxation techniques are also part of the programme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/aiht-2019-70-3244DOI Listing
September 2019

Effectiveness of Inpatient Psychotherapy for Patients With and Without Migratory Background: Do They Benefit Equally?

Front Psychiatry 2020 11;11:542. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Research on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy for migrant patients predominantly concludes that they have greater symptom severity at admission and benefit less from psychotherapy. This study aims to compare symptom severity and effects of psychotherapy regarding depression, somatoform disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of patients with and without migratory background (MB).

Methods: Symptom severity of 263 patients (T0, pretreatment) and 256 patients (T1, posttreatment) was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire somatization module (PHQ-15), depression module (PHQ-9), and general anxiety disorder module (GAD-7), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL-5). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300315PMC

Beliefs about Tic Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome in South Korea: An Online Panel Survey.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2019 Jul;30(3):109-115

Clinical Research Center, Mental Health Research Institute, National Center for Mental Health, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: This study investigates lay beliefs about the etiology and treatments of tic disorder and Tourette's syndrome, as well as identifying sociodemographic and personality variables affecting these beliefs among South Koreans.

Methods: In total, 673 participants (mean age 41.77±12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.190007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298894PMC

Therapeutic Implications Of Personality Disorders In Dermatology.

Dermatol Ther 2020 Jun 28:e13910. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

University of Guglielmo Marconi, Rome, Italy.

There is a significant psychiatric comorbidity that exists in multiple dermatological conditions, stemming from the patient's own psychological make up. This article reviews personality disorders and their types, which influence the course and prognosis of several psychodermatological disorders. Self-inflicted skin lesions, for example, are usually associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior, but they also share connections to Narcissistic and Borderline personality disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13910DOI Listing

Borderline patients have difficulties describing feelings; bipolar II patients describe difficult feelings. An alexithymia study.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Apparent similarities between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar II disorder (BIP-II) contribute to clinical difficulties in distinguishing between the disorders. Here, we aimed to explore how subjective Difficulties with the Identification and Description of Feelings (DIDF), a major constituent of the alexithymia construct and assessed as a part of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), are related to relationship problems and health complaints in these groups.

Methods: Twenty-two patients with BPD; 22 patients with BIP-II; and 23 healthy controls (HC) completed TAS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acps.13204DOI Listing

Neuropsychological function is related to irritable bowel syndrome in women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Background: There is increasing evidence demonstrating the co-occurrence of primary dysmenorrhea (PD), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in women. This study aimed to investigate whether women who have symptoms of IBS in addition to PD and PMS also report more severe or frequent menstruation-associated symptoms and psychological complications compared to women with PD and PMS alone.

Methods: The study group included 182 female University students aged 18-25 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05659-3DOI Listing

Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: a UK-wide surveillance study.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

The National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Liverpool, UK; Department of Clinical Infection Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection, Veterinary, and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; The Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Concerns regarding potential neurological complications of COVID-19 are being increasingly reported, primarily in small series. Larger studies have been limited by both geography and specialty. Comprehensive characterisation of clinical syndromes is crucial to allow rational selection and evaluation of potential therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30287-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316461PMC

INdividual Vocational and Educational Support Trial (INVEST) for young people with borderline personality disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Jun 26;21(1):583. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Orygen, 35 Poplar Road, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Background: The clinical onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD) usually occurs in young people (aged 12-25 years) and commonly leads to difficulty achieving and maintaining vocational (education and/or employment) engagement. While current psychosocial interventions lead to improvements in psychopathology, they have little effect upon functioning. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a client-driven model that assists individuals with severe mental illness to engage with education and/or employment appropriate to their personal goals, and that provides ongoing support to maintain this engagement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04471-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320570PMC

Substance use disorders and criminal justice contact among those with co-occurring antisocial and borderline personality disorders: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

Personal Ment Health 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

One variant of borderline personality disorder (BPD), frequently encountered in forensic and correctional samples, is the 'dissocial' subtype that combines borderline and antisocial traits. We tested the hypothesis that this subtype, defined by the co-occurrence of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and BPD (ASPD + BPD), would be associated with high rates of substance use disorder and contact with the criminal justice (CJ) system in a large nationally representative sample of North American adults (N = 36 309). Results suggested that the dissocial variant of BPD was associated with a high risk for substance use disorders and CJ contact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1491DOI Listing

Using Two-Step Cluster Analysis and Latent Class Cluster Analysis to Classify the Cognitive Heterogeneity of Cross-Diagnostic Psychiatric Inpatients.

Front Psychol 2020 10;11:1085. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

AUSL della Romagna, SPDC Psychiatric Emergency Unit, Cesena, Italy.

The heterogeneity of cognitive profiles among psychiatric patients has been reported to carry significant clinical information. However, how to best characterize such cognitive heterogeneity is still a matter of debate. Despite being well suited for clinical data, cluster analysis techniques, like the Two-Step and the Latent Class, received little to no attention in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299079PMC

Parkinsonian Syndrome with Frontal Lobe Involvement and Anti-Glycine Receptor Antibodies.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Atypical Parkinsonian syndromes with prominent frontal lobe involvement can occur in the 4R-taupathies progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Secondary forms of movement disorders may occur in the context of autoimmune encephalitis with antineuronal antibodies, such as anti-glycine receptor (anti-GlyR) antibodies, which are typically associated with Stiff-Person spectrum syndrome, or progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Overlaps between neurodegenerative and immunological mechanisms have been recently suggested in anti-IgLON5 disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060399DOI Listing

Pain-related attentional processes: A systematic review of eye-tracking research.

Clin Psychol Rev 2020 Jun 16;80:101884. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Department of Psychology, The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Biases in the way that people direct their attention towards or away from pain-related information are hypothesised to contribute to the onset and severity of pain-related disorders. This systematic review summarised 24 eye-tracking studies (N = 1424) examining effects of chronic pain, stimulus valence, individual differences in pain-related constructs such as fear of pain and pain catastrophising, and experimentally-induced pain or pain-related threat on attentional processing of visual stimuli. The majority of studies suggest that people with and without chronic pain do not differ in their eye movements on pain-related stimuli, although there is preliminary evidence that gaze biases vary across subtypes of chronic pain and may be evident only for certain stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101884DOI Listing

Reduced sensitivity to affiliation and psychopathic traits.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, University of North Texas.

Psychopathy is characterized by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Much research has been dedicated to understanding the impairments in reinforcement learning, fear conditioning, and sensitivity to threat, distress, or fear in others, which are thought to underpin psychopathic traits. Fewer studies have examined deficits in affiliative processes, which could provide insight into mechanisms giving rise to the impairments in social bonding, closeness with others, and cooperation that also characterize individuals high on psychopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000423DOI Listing

What makes a "successful" psychopath? Longitudinal trajectories of offenders' antisocial behavior and impulse control as a function of psychopathy.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology.

Psychopathy is a considerable risk factor for violent behavior. However, many psychopathic individuals refrain from antisocial and criminal acts. The mechanisms underlying the formation of this "successful" phenotype are uncertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000421DOI Listing

Positive schizotypy, maladaptive openness, and openness facets.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

Positive schizotypy includes magical beliefs and unusual perceptual experiences and is highly correlated with the cognitive-perceptual symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder. Increased openness to experience is associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, and it has been commonly thought that positive schizotypy might also be related to increased openness. However, much previous research has failed to identify a sizable association between positive schizotypy and openness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000407DOI Listing

Specific antisocial and borderline personality disorder criteria and general substance use: A twin study.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Mental Disorders.

Antisocial (ASPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased risk for substance use. They are "specific" risk factors among PDs in that they withstand adjusting for the other PDs, whereas the reverse does not hold. Specificity is a classic sign of causation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000404DOI Listing

General psychopathology factor and borderline personality disorder: Evidence for substantial overlap from two nationally representative surveys of U.S. adults.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics.

A general psychopathology factor reflects an underlying liability for a wide range of mental disorders. There is suggestive evidence that borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be strongly associated with the general psychopathology factor, but there are no detailed data on the degree of overlap between the general psychopathology factor and BPD or its individual symptoms. This study examined the overlap between the general psychopathology factor and BPD using cross-sectional survey data from two nationally representative samples of U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000405DOI Listing

Reward processing and psychopathic traits in children.

Authors:
Yu Gao Wei Zhang

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, New Jersey City University.

Growing evidence has suggested that the mechanisms underlying the 3 dimensions of psychopathic traits, including grandiose-manipulative, callous-unemotional, and daring-impulsive, are different. As yet, the neurobiological correlates of each dimension have not been fully understood. In this study, we examined if reward processing deficits were differentially associated with these traits, and whether social adversity moderated these relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000430DOI Listing

DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model traits as extreme variants of five-factor model traits in adolescents.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recognizes a developmental perspective on personality pathology owing to its proposal to conceptualize personality pathology in terms of maladaptive personality traits. Previous research has found that the DSM-5 maladaptive traits and the five-factor model (FFM) for normative personality traits share common underlying dimensions. Although the DSM-5 generally assumes DSM-5 traits to be extreme versions of FFM traits, empirical evidence is scarce in adolescents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000409DOI Listing

Sensation seeking, impulsivity, and aggression moderate sex effects on adolescent laboratory binging.

Psychol Addict Behav 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy.

Sex, comprising biological and gender-related distinctions, is a known risk factor for alcohol use disorders. Moreover, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and aggression have been found to predict binge drinking and to reflect behavioral disinhibition. We tested effects of these disinhibited traits on binging during intravenous alcohol self-administration (ivASA), a method that eliminates sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000651DOI Listing

Personality Disorders in the ICD-11: Spanish Validation of the PiCD and the SASPD in a Mixed Community and Clinical Sample.

Assessment 2020 Jun 25:1073191120936357. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

The International Classification of Diseases-11th revision (ICD-11) classification of personality disorders is the official diagnostic system that is used all over the world, and it has recently been renewed. However, as yet very few data are available on its performance. This study examines the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), which assesses the personality domains of the system, and the Standardized Assessment of Severity of Personality Disorder (SASPD), which determines severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120936357DOI Listing

Relationship Between Personality Disorders Scales, Pathological Personality Traits, and Six Domains of Functioning in Sample With Alcohol Use Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2020 5;11:498. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Centre for Military Medicine Research, Riga Stradiņš University, Riga, Latvia.

Background: Studies reveal a functional impairment in patients with personality disorders (PDs), but there is not enough information to form conclusions about this relation in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a personality disorders scales including pathological personality traits (PPTs) predict six domains of functioning in patients with AUD.

Methods: In total, 48 patients with AUD diagnosis, who were treated in the psychiatric clinics, aged 20 to 65 years [M = 37. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291949PMC

Chemosensory Anhedonia in Patients With Schizophrenia and Individuals With Schizotypy: A Questionnaire Study.

Front Psychiatry 2020 4;11:481. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Chemical Senses and Mental Health Lab, Department of Psychology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University (Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research), Guangzhou, China.

Anhedonia, the loss or decline of the ability to enjoy pleasure, is an important clinical characteristic of schizophrenia. Schizotypal traits refer to the appearance of subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia across normal people. Still, few studies have investigated chemosensory anhedonia in schizophrenia patients and schizotypy individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287037PMC

Empathic Accuracy in Clinical Populations.

Front Psychiatry 2020 3;11:457. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Psychology Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Empathy, broadly defined as the ability to understand the other and to share others' emotions, motivates prosocial behavior and underlies successful interpersonal relations. Dysfunctions in this ability may cause fundamental difficulties in social communication. Empathy has been measured in various ways, from self-report questionnaires to laboratory objective performance tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283465PMC

Huntington's Disease-An Outlook on the Interplay of the HTT Protein, Microtubules and Actin Cytoskeletal Components.

Cells 2020 Jun 22;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, 1a Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow, Russia.

Huntington's disease is a severe and currently incurable neurodegenerative disease. An autosomal dominant mutation in the Huntingtin gene () causes an increase in the polyglutamine fragment length at the protein N-terminus. The consequence of the mutation is the death of neurons, mostly striatal neurons, leading to the occurrence of a complex of motor, cognitive and emotional-volitional personality sphere disorders in carriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9061514DOI Listing

Advanced paternal age as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders: a translational study.

Mol Autism 2020 Jun 23;11(1):54. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, 35039, Marburg, Germany.

Advanced paternal age (APA) is a risk factor for several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. The potential mechanisms conferring this risk are poorly understood. Here, we show that the personality traits schizotypy and neuroticism correlated with paternal age in healthy subjects (N = 677). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00345-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310295PMC

Impulsivity, Emotional Dysregulation and Executive Function Deficits Could Be Associated with Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Eating Disorders.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 21;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, 08907 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Empirical data suggests a high comorbid occurrence of eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs), as well as neurological and psychological shared characteristics. However, no prior study has identified the neuropsychological features of this subgroup. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol and/or drug abuse (A/DA) symptoms in ED patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061936DOI Listing

Delineating the Psychic Structure of Substance Use and Addictions, from Neurobiology to Clinical Implications: Ten Years Later.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

PISA-School of Experimental and Clinical Psychiatry, 56100 Pisa, Italy.

The diagnosis of substance use disorder is currently based on the presence of specifically identified behavioral symptoms. In addition, other psychiatric signs and symptoms accompany addictive behavior, contributing to the full picture of patients' psychopathologic profile. Historically, such symptoms were confined within the framework of "comorbidity", as comorbid psychiatric disorders or personality traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061913DOI Listing

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Global Severity Profiles in Treatment-Seeking Patients with Substance Use Disorders.

Eur Addict Res 2020 Jun 22:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Psychiater Radboudumc, Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Afdeling Psychiatrie Wetenschappelijk, Nijmegen Institute for Scientist Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA), Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 15-25% of all patients seeking treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Some studies suggest that comorbid ADHD increases clinical severity related to SUDs, other psychiatric comorbidities, and social impairment, but could not disentangle their respective influences.

Objectives: To investigate whether comorbid adult ADHD in treatment-seeking SUD patients is associated with more severe clinical profiles in these domains assessed altogether. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508546DOI Listing

Exploring the links among borderline personality disorder symptoms, trauma, and pain in patients with chronic pain disorders.

J Psychosom Res 2020 Jun 1;135:110164. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, USA.

Objective: Chronic pain and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are commonly comorbid and jointly associated with increased symptoms of both disorders and clinical and functional impairment. Little is known, however, about specific links between these disorders. In a cross-sectional study of patients with chronic pain, we compared participants high or low on BPD symptoms on patterns of pain experience and types of child and adult traumas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110164DOI Listing

Linking narrative identity with schizotypal personality disorder features in adolescents.

Personal Disord 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Developmental Psychology, Tilburg University.

Adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) features such as odd thinking and bizarre fantasies may have difficulty developing effective life narratives. Their autobiographical memories likely will include aberrant, stressful experiences that are difficult to integrate into a cohesive, healthy sense of self. Moreover, these adolescents are likely to face relationship difficulties with both family members and peers who typically play an important role in narrative identity formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000414DOI Listing

Impact of Psychosocial Profile on Alopecia Areata in Pediatric Patients: A Case Control Study from A Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Indian J Dermatol 2020 May-Jun;65(3):183-186

Department of Dermatology, Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India.

Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common form of nonscarring alopecia characterized by patchy loss of hair from the scalp and body. It is a complex outcome of factors such as autoimmunity, genetic factors, infectious diseases, as well as psychological factors, such as stress, personality type, familial conditions. Around 20% of patients are in the pediatric age group, and 60% of the patients develop AA before the age of 20 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijd.IJD_378_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292469PMC

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Increases Nicotine Addiction Severity in Adults Seeking Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: The Role of Personality Disorders.

Eur Addict Res 2020 Jun 19:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

PhD Program in Clinical Psychology, Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico,

Aims: To examine the role of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and impulsive personality disorders in nicotine addiction severity among treatment-seeking substance use disorder (SUD) patients.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we examined data from the second International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence Study (IASP-2) on 402 adults in SUD treatment from Puerto Rico, Hungary, and Australia using diagnostic interviews for ADHD, antisocial (ASP) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders, and the self-report Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). We compared SUD patients with and without ADHD on nicotine addiction severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508545DOI Listing

Caught in a web of trauma: Network analysis of childhood adversity and adult mental ill-health.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 Jun 17;107:104534. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Current interventions for adverse childhood experiences have only limited effectiveness.

Objective: We sought to identify optimal targets for the development of new interventions against adverse childhood experiences (ACE), that is, ACEs that a) are so central in the network of childhood adversity that curbing them is likely to impact other types of adversity, too, and b) are so central to the link of childhood adversity and adult mental ill-health that curbing them is likely to prevent this negative long-term effect from developing.

Participants And Setting: 384 adult psychiatric inpatients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104534DOI Listing

Who becomes addicted and to what? psychosocial predictors of substance and behavioral addictive disorders.

Psychiatry Res 2020 Jun 11;291:113221. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel; Leslie and Susan Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, 760 Westwood Plaza (C8-746), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), California 90095, United States. Electronic address:

A multitude of psychological and social factors likely contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. As different people develop different addictions, it is important to understand whether psychosocial factors are related differently to different types of addictive disorders. In this study, we examined the unique interaction of personality traits, family environment, and life events in predicting substance (drugs, alcohol) and behavioral (gambling, sex) addictive disorders, among 207 participants suffering from an addictive disorder and 79 controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113221DOI Listing