968 results match your criteria Pernio


COVID-19 associated pediatric vasculitis: A systematic review and detailed analysis of the pathogenesis.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2022 Jun 9;55:152047. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, has opened a new era in the practice of pediatric rheumatology since it has been associated with inflammatory complications such as vasculitis and arthritis. In this review, we aimed to present a detailed analysis of COVID-19 associated pediatric vasculitis.

Methods: A systematic review of the English literature was performed through Pubmed/MEDLINE and Scopus up to January 1st, 2022. Read More

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COVID-19 cutaneous manifestations in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2022 10;40:e2021134. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cutaneous manifestations described in pediatric patients and discuss their relevance for early diagnosis.

Data Source: The study consisted of a systematic review of original articles indexed in PubMed and Embase databases, as well as gray literature articles found through Google Scholar. A search strategy, based on PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) Tool, with the terms "child," "infant," "childhood," "adolescents," "teenagers," "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "skin manifestations," was performed to optimize the findings. Read More

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Chilblain-like lesions onset during SARS-CoV-2 infection in a COVID-19-vaccinated adolescent: case report and review of literature.

Ital J Pediatr 2022 Jun 13;48(1):93. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Maternal and Child Health and Urology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: COVID toes or chilblain-like skin lesions have been widely reported during COVID-19 pandemic. Most cases were described in patients with negative microbiological tests for SARS-CoV-2, therefore the possible relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as with the nowadays broadly available mRNA-based vaccination, has not been fully elucidated.  CASE PRESENTATION: We here describe the case of a 14-year-old male who developed chilblain-like skin eruptions during SARS-CoV-2 infection despite two mRNA-based vaccine doses and review the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chilblain-like lesions as a cutaneous presentation of COVID-19 in children. Read More

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Vaccine Toes Are the New COVID Toes.

Skin Appendage Disord 2022 Apr 28;37:1-4. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Introduction: Pernio-like lesions were reported as dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19 as early as May of 2020. Since mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were introduced in December 2020, 9 reports of vaccine-associated pernio-like lesions have been presented in the medical literature.

Case Presentation: A male in his 60s developed pernio-like lesions on the bilateral toes approximately 1 week after receiving the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Read More

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B cell depletion therapy using rituximab to induce long-term remission of recalcitrant skin lesions of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 27;15(5). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

A woman in her 20s presented with chilblains for 2 years and recent-onset photodistributed psoriasiform plaques. She did not have persistent good improvement despite treatment with 1 mg/kg oral prednisolone, along with successive trials with many steroid-sparing adjuvants in adequate dosage and duration, including hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate and cyclosporine, in the following 6 months. The patient had an excellent improvement and went into remission with two doses of injection rituximab, 1 g each, at a 2-week interval. Read More

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Analysis of clinical characteristics of children with Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome in China.

World J Pediatr 2022 Jul 12;18(7):490-497. Epub 2022 May 12.

Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder belonging to the type I interferonopathy group. The clinical diagnosis of AGS is difficult, which can lead to a high mortality rate. Overall, there is a lack of large-sample research data on AGS in China. Read More

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Cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 patients in Japan.

J Dermatol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Dermatology, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Japan.

Some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop skin manifestations. There may be regional and racial differences in the frequency and type of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations. There are, however, few reports on skin manifestations in COVID-19 patients in Asia, including Japan. Read More

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COVID-19 Vaccination Safety in Patients who have had SARS-CoV-2-induced Chilblains.

Acta Derm Venereol 2022 06 9;102:adv00728. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Rennes, 2 rue Henri le Guilloux, FR-35000 Rennes, France.

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Part II Cutaneous Manifestations of Peripheral Vascular Disease.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; Department of Dermatology, US Department of Veteran Affairs, Boston Health Care System, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

In this Part 2 of a 2-part continuing medical education series, we review the epidemiology of peripheral vascular disease, its association with cutaneous symptoms, and the diagnosis and evaluation of cutaneous features of vascular disorders. As peripheral vascular disease becomes more prevalent globally, it is essential for dermatologists to become competent at accurately recognizing and diagnosing cutaneous manifestations and directing individuals to receive appropriate care and treatment. Read More

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Design and optimization of a novel herbosomal-loaded PEG-poloxamer topical formulation for the treatment of cold injuries: a quality-by-design approach.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India.

The spectrum of cold injuries ranges from frostnip, chilblains to severe frostbite. Cold injuries occur upon prolonged exposure to freezing temperature and are pathologically a combination of ice crystal formation in the tissue resulting in inflammation, thrombosis and ischemia in the extremities, often necessitating limb amputation in extreme cases due to tissue necrosis. Severe forms of frostbite are a cause of major concern to patients as well as the treating physician. Read More

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Post SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Chilblains-like Lesions.

J Rheumatol 2022 Apr 15. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Private Academic Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand; DY Patil University, Pune, India. The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this article. Address correspondence to Dr. R. Mungmunpuntipantip, Private Academic Consultant, 11 Bangkok 122, Bangkok 103300, Thailand. Email:

We would like to share ideas on the article, "A Case of Chilblains-like Lesions Post SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine?" Meara et al reported a female case and concluded, "The chilblains-like lesions suggest that she had an antibody response from either 1 vaccine dose or a previous PCR-negative COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019] infection.". Read More

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Postsurgical Appearance of Chilblains Lupus Erythematosus.

J Hand Surg Glob Online 2021 Sep 22;3(5):302-305. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Prisma Health Orthopedics, Columbia, SC.

Chilblain lupus erythematosus is a rare form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus that presents as pruritic and painful cutaneous lesions. The lesions follow a relapsing and remitting pattern and are often located on the dorsal surfaces of the hands or feet. Its treatment is supportive in nature, and the lesions often recur. Read More

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September 2021

Retrospective View of Four Cases of Cutaneous Manifestations in COVID-19 Patients in an Acute Care Setting.

Cureus 2022 Mar 9;14(3):e23003. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Neurology Department, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causes an excessive inflammatory response and hemostatic abnormalities in the lungs, kidney, and skin. Four patients with COVID-19 admitted to an acute care community hospital developed nonblanchable purpuric macules, patches, and retiform purpura-like lesions at the sacrum, buttocks, lower extremities, and upper back. These lesions can be misdiagnosed as deep tissue pressure injuries. Read More

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Chilblains in immune mediated inflammatory diseases: a review.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Rheumatology Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing (IIA), University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Chilblains were first described over a hundred years ago as cutaneous inflammatory lesions, typically on the digits, occurring on cold exposure. Chilblains can be primary, or secondary to a number of conditions such as infections, including COVID-19, and immune mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) being the commonest. Chilblain Lupus Erythematosus (CHLE) was first described in 1888 as cold-induced erythematous lesions before the terms 'chilblains' or 'perniosis' were coined. Read More

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Cold Weather Injuries: Initial Evaluation and Management.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2022 Apr;21(4):117-122

Department of Family Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD.

Abstract: As more people take to extreme sporting activities and hobbies, the sports medicine physician should be proficient in early identification and initial sideline or field management of cold weather injuries. There is significant mortality and morbidity associated with these conditions. The most severe of these are hypothermia and frostbite, which have limited evidence for their field management. Read More

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Microvascular manifestations revealing vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination.

J Med Vasc 2022 02 17;47(1):36-38. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Vascular Medicine Division, Regional Competence Centre for Rare Vascular and Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Nancy University Hospital, Nancy, France; Inserm UMR_S 1116 DCAC, Faculté de Médecine/Maïeutique/Métiers de la santé à Nancy, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

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February 2022

Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau: historical perspectives and modern management.

Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2022 Apr;157(2):132-136

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Unit of Dermatology, Newark, NJ, USA -

Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau is a sterile pustular dermatosis primarily of the digits. Often considered a type of pustular psoriasis, it may be difficult to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Initial involvement of a distal finger or toe may appear as erythema which should not be confused with the chilblains-like findings potentially associated with COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Histopathology of persistent long COVID toe: A case report.

J Cutan Pathol 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Department of Dermatology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

During the 2020 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, several cutaneous lesions were identified, including pseudo-chilblain, vesicular, urticarial, maculopapular, and livedo/necrosis. A 59-year-old obese man with probable COVID-19 developed painful cyanosis with histopathologic capillary thrombosis of toes, and the cyanosis persisted for nearly 22 months. Shortly after initial exposure to family members with documented SARS-CoV-2, he developed upper respiratory symptoms, yet his anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and nasal swab RT-PCR tests were repeatedly negative. Read More

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Dermatologic Manifestation of Acro-Ischemia Associated With COVID-19.

Ochsner J 2022 ;22(1):85-88

Department of Internal Medicine, Michigan State University, Sparrow Hospital, Lansing, MI.

The common dermatologic manifestations seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include morbilliform, pernio-like, urticarial, macular erythematous, vesicular, and papulosquamous disorders, as well as retiform purpura. Although cases of acro-ischemia have been demonstrated, they are not well studied or reported. A 73-year-old male was admitted for acute hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection. Read More

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January 2022

Pandemic chilblains: Are they SARS-CoV-2-related or not?

Clin Immunol 2022 04 23;237:108984. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Division of Dermatology, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

The exact etiopathology of chilblains observed during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still unclear. Initially, SARS-CoV-2 appeared as the obvious causing agent, but two years of various investigations have failed to convincingly support its direct implication. Most affected individuals have no detectable virus, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and no symptoms of COVID-19. Read More

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Cutaneous Complications of mRNA and AZD1222 COVID-19 Vaccines: A Worldwide Review.

Microorganisms 2022 Mar 15;10(3). Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Because of the increasing emergence of cutaneous reactions from COVID-19 vaccines worldwide, we investigated the published reports of these complications. We searched the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases and the preprint server bioRxiv for articles on cutaneous complications linked to mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and AZD1222 (AstraZeneca-Oxford University) vaccines published until 30 September 2021. Eighty studies describing a total of 1415 reactions were included. Read More

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Chilblain-like acral lesions.

Eur J Intern Med 2022 Jun 22;100:119-120. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Rheumatology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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Acrocyanosis in a large italian pediatric series during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Medical Vascular Autoimmunity Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, ASL Roma 2, Rome, Italy.

Background: SARS-CoV2 infection may present at onset with cutaneous manifestations as chilblains, pernio-like lesions characterized by rapid onset, itching, pain and tenderness and quick improvement with re-warming as similarly observed in primary acrocyanosis. The purpose of the present study was to detect in a single institution series of pediatric patients, during COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of acrocyanosis compared to previous period and an eventual correlation with SARS-Cov2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection or other secondary etiologies of this disorder.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the prevalence of pediatric patients with acrocyanosis between January 2020 and July 2021, compared to the same period of previous year. Read More

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A systematic review on mucocutaneous presentations after COVID-19 vaccination and expert recommendations about vaccination of important immune-mediated dermatologic disorders.

Dermatol Ther 2022 Jun 11;35(6):e15461. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Dermatology, Rasool Akram Medical Complex Clinical Research Development Center (RCRDC), School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

With dermatologic side effects being fairly prevalent following vaccination against COVID-19, and the multitude of studies aiming to report and analyze these adverse events, the need for an extensive investigation on previous studies seemed urgent, in order to provide a thorough body of information about these post-COVID-19 immunization mucocutaneous reactions. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive electronic search was performed through the international databases including Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane, Web of science, and Google scholar on July 12, 2021, and all articles regarding mucocutaneous manifestations and considerations after COVID-19 vaccine administration were retrieved using the following keywords: COVID-19 vaccine, dermatology considerations and mucocutaneous manifestations. A total of 917 records were retrieved and a final number of 180 articles were included in data extraction. Read More

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'Home-school toes' - a case series of paediatric perniosis presentations.

Australas J Dermatol 2022 05 22;63(2):256-258. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Faculty of Medicine & Health, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia.

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Cutaneous sarcoidosis: Lupus pernio and more.

Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2022 Jun 11;157(3):220-227. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA -

Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan disease commonly evident with skin involvement. Cutaneous manifestations occur in about 25% of sarcoid patients and are of two types: histologically specific sarcoidal infiltrations and a cutaneous reaction pattern not containing sarcoidal changes, usually erythema nodosum. Cutaneous plaques, nodules, and tumors, sometimes with disfiguring facial features are associated with pain and paresthesia. Read More

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Dermatological Manifestations of COVID-19 in Children.

Indian Pediatr 2022 05 10;59(5):393-399. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Dermatology, Amaltas Institute of Medical Sciences, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh.

Context: The clinical picture of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection differs from adults as do the cutaneous manifestations. In this review, we summarize the varied morphological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric population.

Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive literature search was conducted (23 September, 2021) across multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane) with the relevant keywords. Read More

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