948 results match your criteria Periventricular Leukomalacia Imaging


Cranial ultrasound for beginners.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Apr;10(4):1117-1137

Unidad de Radiología Pediátrica, Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Cranial ultrasound (CUS) is an extremely valuable tool to evaluate the brain during the first year of life, in experienced hands. It is the initial screening imaging tool to evaluate the infants' brain and complementary to the use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is an accessible, inexpensive and harmless technique that can be used bedside as frequently as needed. Read More

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Association of Maternal Immune Activation during Pregnancy and Neurologic Outcomes in Offspring.

J Pediatr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Newborn Brain Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Weill Institute for Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate neurologic morbidity among offspring during their first year of life in association with prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA), using an inclusive definition.

Study Design: This retrospective cohort study included singletons born in California between 2011 and 2017. MIA was defined by International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of infection, autoimmune disorder, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, or malignancy during pregnancy. Read More

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Cranial Ultrasound Screening Protocols for Very Preterm Infants.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Jul 22;47(7):1645-1656. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Cranial ultrasound examinations are routinely performed in very preterm neonates. There is no widespread agreement on the optimal timing of these examinations. This review examines screening protocols and recommendations available for the timing of cranial ultrasound examinations in preterm neonates born before 32 wk of gestation. Read More

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Periventricular leukomalacia: an ophthalmic perspective.

Med J Armed Forces India 2021 Apr 15;77(2):147-153. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding in cases of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. PVL, in MRI, is identified by the increased signal intensity of periventricular white matter on T2-weighted sequences which is more conspicuous in the posterior cortex. It occurs because of perinatal damage to the cerebral cortex. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Childhood Epilepsy at a Tertiary Hospital in Kenya.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:623960. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Medicine, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Neuroimaging is important for determining etiology and guiding care in early childhood epilepsy. However, access to appropriate imaging in sub-Saharan Africa is modest, and as a consequence, etiological descriptions of childhood epilepsy in the region have been limited. We sought to describe MRI findings in children with epilepsy presenting to a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, over a 6-year period of routine care. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of the relationship between cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical status in children with cerebral palsy.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features in cerebral palsy (CP).

Methods: Children aged 3 to 18 years, who were followed with the diagnosis of CP between January 2012 and September 2015, were included. The type of CP was classified using the European Cerebral Palsy Monitoring Group?s classification system and then, patients were divided into two groups as spastic or non-spastic groups. Read More

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January 2021

An Important Finding of White Matter Injury in Late Preterm Infant: Deep Medullary Vein Involvement.

Front Pediatr 2020 17;8:597567. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

To investigate high risk factors and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in late preterm infants with severe white matter injury (WMI) associated with abnormal deep medullary veins (DMVs). Preterm infants with severe WMI, who were hospitalized in Shengjing Hospital from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2018, were enrolled in this retrospective study. High risk factors and MRI characteristics of infants with abnormal DMVs were analyzed and compared with those of infants without DMV abnormalities. Read More

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December 2020

Diagnostic Specificity of Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Punctate White Matter Lesion Assessment in a Preterm Sheep Fetus Model.

Reprod Sci 2021 04 25;28(4):1175-1184. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan.

Recent studies, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess white matter injury in preterm brains, increasingly recognize punctate white matter lesions (PWML) as the primary lesion type. There are some papers showing the relationship between the size and number of PWML and the prognosis of infants. However, the histopathological features are still unknown. Read More

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Routine Neuroimaging of the Preterm Brain.

Pediatrics 2020 11;146(5)

Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia.

Neuroimaging of the preterm infant is a common assessment performed in the NICU. Timely and focused studies can be used for diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic information. However, significant variability exists among neonatal units as to which modalities are used and when imaging studies are obtained. Read More

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November 2020

[An assessment of white matter development in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia using diffusion tensor imaging].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2020 Oct;22(10):1079-1084

Department of Neonatology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To assess white matter development in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) using fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

Methods: Ninety-six infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and a birth weight of <1 500 g who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within 24 hours after birth from August 2016 to April 2019 and underwent head MRI and DTI before discharge were enrolled. According to the discharge diagnosis, they were divided into BPD group with 48 infants and non-BPD group with 48 infants. Read More

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October 2020

Superficial anatomy of the neonatal cerebrum - an ultrasonographic roadmap.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Mar 7;51(3):353-370. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Neurosonography is an essential imaging modality for assessing the neonatal brain, particularly as a screening tool to evaluate intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and periventricular leukomalacia. The primary advantages of neurosonography include portability, accessibility and lack of ionizing radiation. Its main limitations are intrinsic operator dependence and the need for an open fontanelle. Read More

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Structural brain damage and visual disorders in children with cerebral palsy due to periventricular leukomalacia.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 11;28:102430. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Viale del Tirreno 331, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy.

Aim: To systematically explore the relationship between type and severity of brain lesion on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and visual function in a large cohort of children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL).

Methods: 94 children with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) and history of PVL were recruited at Stella Maris Scientific Institute in Pisa (Italy). We included data of participants (72) with at least one MRI after the age of three years and an evaluation of visual function including fixation, following, saccades, nystagmus, acuity, visual field, stereopsis and color perception. Read More

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September 2020

The efficacy of routine brain MRI for term neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Aug 30:1-4. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Nara, Japan.

Objective: The efficacy of routine brain MRI for term infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate the types and frequencies of abnormal findings on routine brain MRI and the predictors of abnormality for term infants in an NICU setting.

Methods: We examined the results of routine brain MRI of 239 term infants who were hospitalized in the NICU. Read More

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Neuroimaging findings associated with the fetal inflammatory response syndrome.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 08 3;25(4):101143. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Emeritus-Radiologist-in-Chief, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Emeritus Professor of Radiology and Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Professor of Radiology Mayo Clinic, USA. Electronic address:

The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is a condition whereby the fetus mounts an inflammatory response to intrauterine infection/inflammation. Clinical consequences include preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), spontaneous preterm delivery, neonatal sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and brain and other organ injury. Mechanisms leading to brain injury in FIRS have been investigated in animal and human studies. Read More

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MRI Findings at Term-Corrected Age and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in a Large Cohort of Very Preterm Infants.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 08;41(8):1509-1516

From the Centre for the Developing Brain (S.A., N.T., A.C., S.F., J.V.H., S.J.C., M.A.R., A.D.E.), School of Biomedical engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London and Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: Brain MR imaging at term-equivalent age is a useful tool to define brain injury in preterm infants. We report pragmatic clinical radiological assessment of images from a large unselected cohort of preterm infants imaged at term and document the spectrum and frequency of acquired brain lesions and their relation to outcomes at 20 months.

Materials And Methods: Infants born at <33 weeks' gestation were recruited from South and North West London neonatal units and imaged in a single center at 3T at term-equivalent age. Read More

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Disruption and Compensation of Sulcation-based Covariance Networks in Neonatal Brain Growth after Perinatal Injury.

Cereb Cortex 2020 11;30(12):6238-6253

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging at USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, 2025 Zonal Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Perinatal brain injuries in preterm neonates are associated with alterations in structural neurodevelopment, leading to impaired cognition, motor coordination, and behavior. However, it remains unknown how such injuries affect postnatal cortical folding and structural covariance networks, which indicate functional parcellation and reciprocal brain connectivity. Studying 229 magnetic resonance scans from 158 preterm neonates (n = 158, mean age = 28. Read More

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November 2020

Routine imaging of the preterm neonatal brain.

Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jun 10;25(4):249-262. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.

Routine brain imaging to detect injuries affecting preterm infants is used to predict long-term outcomes and identify complications that might necessitate an intervention. Although magnetic resonance imaging may be indicated in some specific cases, head ultrasound is the most widely used technique and, because of portability and ease of access, is the best modality for routine imaging. Routine head ultrasound examination is recommended for all infants born at or before 31+6 weeks gestation. Read More

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Prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system abnormalities: Neurosonography versus fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Jul 13;250:195-202. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Perinatology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To share our experience in diagnosis of congenital central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Study Design: This study consisted of 110 pregnancies. Neurosonography (NS) findings were compared with MRI results. Read More

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Diagnosis of rhomboencephalosynapsis by MRI in a 5-year-old child.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Jul 1;15(7):867-870. Epub 2020 May 1.

Radiology department, Shaio Clinic Foundation, University of La Sabana, Bogotá, Colombia.

Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare defect in the development of the cerebellum, characterized by partial or total agenesis of the vermis, with fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres in the midline. It is usually related to Gómez-López-Hernández Syndrome (cerebellar-trigeminal dermal dysplasia) and VACTERL association (vertebral defects, vascular anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, renal dysplasia and limb anomalies). A 5-year-old female patient with spastic cerebral palsy and hydrocephalus presented here, neuroimages documented the next features: absence of cerebellar vermis, periventricular leukomalacia, cerebellar tonsils descent and rhombencephalosynapsis. Read More

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A transcranial magnetic stimulation study for the investigation of corticospinal motor pathways in children with cerebral palsy.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Aug 22;78:153-158. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

The aim of this study is to perform transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-based investigation of corticospinal motor pathways in children with cerebral palsy (CP) secondary to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). TMS parameters including motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and central motor conduction time (CMCT) were recorded in 38 children with CP and 46 age-matched healthy controls. The z-score of MEPs were analyzed with respect to the types of MRI patterns of cortical involvement in children with CP. Read More

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State-of-the-art neonatal cerebral ultrasound: technique and reporting.

Pediatr Res 2020 03;87(Suppl 1):3-12

Department of Neonatology, Helios Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany.

In the past three decades, cerebral ultrasound (CUS) has become a trusted technique to study the neonatal brain. It is a relatively cheap, non-invasive, bedside neuroimaging method available in nearly every hospital. Traditionally, CUS was used to detect major abnormalities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, and (cystic) periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL). Read More

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Preterm white matter injury: ultrasound diagnosis and classification.

Pediatr Res 2020 03;87(Suppl 1):37-49

Department of Neonatology, Helios Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany.

White matter injury (WMI) is the most frequent form of preterm brain injury. Cranial ultrasound (CUS) remains the preferred modality for initial and sequential neuroimaging in preterm infants, and is reliable for the diagnosis of cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Although magnetic resonance imaging is superior to CUS in detecting the diffuse and more subtle forms of WMI that prevail in very premature infants surviving nowadays, recent improvement in the quality of neonatal CUS imaging has broadened the spectrum of preterm white matter abnormalities that can be detected with this technique. Read More

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Cerebral palsy in children: a clinical overview.

Transl Pediatr 2020 Feb;9(Suppl 1):S125-S135

Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jarusalem, Israel.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder characterized by abnormal tone, posture and movement and clinically classified based on the predominant motor syndrome-spastic hemiplegia, spastic diplegia, spastic quadriplegia, and extrapyramidal or dyskinetic. The incidence of CP is 2-3 per 1,000 live births. Prematurity and low birthweight are important risk factors for CP; however, multiple other factors have been associated with an increased risk for CP, including maternal infections, and multiple gestation. Read More

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February 2020

The relationship between neuroimaging and motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review - Part A. Structural imaging.

Res Dev Disabil 2020 May 17;100:103606. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

KU Leuven, Department of Development and Regeneration, Leuven, Belgium; Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven, Campus Pellenberg, Cerebral Palsy Reference Centre, Leuven, Belgium; Centre For Developmental Disabilities, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Conventional Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) is a mainstay in Cerebral Palsy (CP) diagnosis.

Aims: A systematic literature review was performed with the aim to investigate the relationship between structural brain lesions identified by sMRI and motor outcomes in children with CP.

Methods: Fifty-eight studies were included. Read More

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Neonatal Intensive Care Unit-Level Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treatment Rates and Outcomes in Infants Born Extremely Preterm.

J Pediatr 2020 05 4;220:34-39.e5. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Maternal-infant Care Research Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess associations between neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-level patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treatment rates (pharmacologic or surgical) and neonatal outcomes.

Study Design: This cohort study included infants born at 24-28 weeks of gestation and birth weight <1500 g in 2007-2015 in NICUs caring for ≥100 eligible infants in 6 countries. The ratio of observed/expected (O/E) PDA treatment rates was derived for each NICU by estimating the expected rate using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders and network. Read More

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Cranial MR characteristics of Cerebral Palsy cases and correlation of findings with clinical results.

Turk J Pediatr 2019 ;61(4):525-537

Department of Radiology, Bursa Special Radiological Diagnostic Center, Bursa, Turkey.

Ali A, Yalçın R, Ünlüer-Gümüştaş A. Cranial MR characteristics of Cerebral Palsy cases and correlation of findings with clinical results. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 525-537. Read More

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Compound heterozygous mutations in the gene cause Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: a case report.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Nov 29;130(11):1156-1160. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, 272000, China.

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare, autosomal, recessive neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the gene, which encodes the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. Deficiency in fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase results in an abnormal accumulation of toxic fatty aldehydes in the brain and skin, which cause spasticity, intellectual disability, ichthyosis, and other clinical manifestations. We present the clinical features and mutation analyses of a case of SLS. Read More

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November 2020

Neuroradiological findings in three cases of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9 due to mutation: typical MRI appearances and pearls for differential diagnosis.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2019 Dec;9(12):1966-1972

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9 (PCH9) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with prenatal onset caused by mutations in adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 (). PCH9 patients demonstrate severe neurodevelopmental delay with early onset and typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings consisting in: pontine hypoplasia or atrophy with dragonfly cerebellar atrophy appearance on coronal images, reduction in size of the pons and middle cerebellar peduncles, abnormal midbrain describing a figure of "8" on axial images, diffuse loss of cerebral white matter with striking periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and absence or extreme thinning of the corpus callosum. A review of the literature on PCH9 shows that the MRI phenotype observed in the series herein presented is similar to the eleven cases of PCH9 previously reported. Read More

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December 2019

Characteristics and influence of Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma cultures in amniotic fluid on perinatal outcomes.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2020 Mar 27;46(3):389-395. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Perinatal Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Aim: To investigate the effects of Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma cultured in amniotic fluid on perinatal characteristics in preterm delivery between 22 and 33 weeks of gestation.

Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal center and involved 38 pregnant women who had undergone amniocentesis to evaluate intrauterine infection due to preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the culture results: negative (Negative Group, n = 24), positive for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma (M/U Group, n = 6), and positive for other pathogens (Other Pathogens Group, n = 8). Read More

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The most useful cranial ultrasound predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years for preterm infants.

Clin Radiol 2020 04 20;75(4):278-286. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Neonatology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, 229899, Singapore.

Aim: To determine the most important cranial ultrasound predictors of abnormality associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in preterm infants.

Materials And Methods: A total of 343 preterm infants born between 2005 and 2010 and cared for in KK Women's and Children's Hospital, a tertiary paediatric hospital, with birth weight ≤1,250 g were assessed in this retrospective study. Serial cranial ultrasound examinations were examined for intraventricular haemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Read More

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