926 results match your criteria Periventricular Leukomalacia Imaging


Routine imaging of the preterm neonatal brain.

Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jun 10;25(4):249-262. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.

Routine brain imaging to detect injuries affecting preterm infants is used to predict long-term outcomes and identify complications that might necessitate an intervention. Although magnetic resonance imaging may be indicated in some specific cases, head ultrasound is the most widely used technique and, because of portability and ease of access, is the best modality for routine imaging. Routine head ultrasound examination is recommended for all infants born at or before 31+6 weeks gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxaa033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286736PMC

Prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system abnormalities: Neurosonography versus fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Jul 13;250:195-202. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Perinatology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To share our experience in diagnosis of congenital central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Study Design: This study consisted of 110 pregnancies. Neurosonography (NS) findings were compared with MRI results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.05.013DOI Listing

Diagnosis of rhomboencephalosynapsis by MRI in a 5-year-old child.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Jul 1;15(7):867-870. Epub 2020 May 1.

Radiology department, Shaio Clinic Foundation, University of La Sabana, Bogotá, Colombia.

Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare defect in the development of the cerebellum, characterized by partial or total agenesis of the vermis, with fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres in the midline. It is usually related to Gómez-López-Hernández Syndrome (cerebellar-trigeminal dermal dysplasia) and VACTERL association (vertebral defects, vascular anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, renal dysplasia and limb anomalies). A 5-year-old female patient with spastic cerebral palsy and hydrocephalus presented here, neuroimages documented the next features: absence of cerebellar vermis, periventricular leukomalacia, cerebellar tonsils descent and rhombencephalosynapsis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200622PMC

A transcranial magnetic stimulation study for the investigation of corticospinal motor pathways in children with cerebral palsy.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

The aim of this study is to perform transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-based investigation of corticospinal motor pathways in children with cerebral palsy (CP) secondary to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). TMS parameters including motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and central motor conduction time (CMCT) were recorded in 38 children with CP and 46 age-matched healthy controls. The z-score of MEPs were analyzed with respect to the types of MRI patterns of cortical involvement in children with CP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.04.087DOI Listing

State-of-the-art neonatal cerebral ultrasound: technique and reporting.

Pediatr Res 2020 Mar;87(Suppl 1):3-12

Department of Neonatology, Helios Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany.

In the past three decades, cerebral ultrasound (CUS) has become a trusted technique to study the neonatal brain. It is a relatively cheap, non-invasive, bedside neuroimaging method available in nearly every hospital. Traditionally, CUS was used to detect major abnormalities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, and (cystic) periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0776-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098885PMC
March 2020
2.314 Impact Factor

Preterm white matter injury: ultrasound diagnosis and classification.

Pediatr Res 2020 Mar;87(Suppl 1):37-49

Department of Neonatology, Helios Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany.

White matter injury (WMI) is the most frequent form of preterm brain injury. Cranial ultrasound (CUS) remains the preferred modality for initial and sequential neuroimaging in preterm infants, and is reliable for the diagnosis of cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Although magnetic resonance imaging is superior to CUS in detecting the diffuse and more subtle forms of WMI that prevail in very premature infants surviving nowadays, recent improvement in the quality of neonatal CUS imaging has broadened the spectrum of preterm white matter abnormalities that can be detected with this technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0781-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098888PMC

Cerebral palsy in children: a clinical overview.

Transl Pediatr 2020 Feb;9(Suppl 1):S125-S135

Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jarusalem, Israel.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder characterized by abnormal tone, posture and movement and clinically classified based on the predominant motor syndrome-spastic hemiplegia, spastic diplegia, spastic quadriplegia, and extrapyramidal or dyskinetic. The incidence of CP is 2-3 per 1,000 live births. Prematurity and low birthweight are important risk factors for CP; however, multiple other factors have been associated with an increased risk for CP, including maternal infections, and multiple gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp.2020.01.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082248PMC
February 2020

Cranial MR characteristics of Cerebral Palsy cases and correlation of findings with clinical results.

Turk J Pediatr 2019 ;61(4):525-537

Department of Radiology, Bursa Special Radiological Diagnostic Center, Bursa, Turkey.

Ali A, Yalçın R, Ünlüer-Gümüştaş A. Cranial MR characteristics of Cerebral Palsy cases and correlation of findings with clinical results. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 525-537. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Compound heterozygous mutations in the gene cause Sjögren-Larsson syndrome: a case report.

Int J Neurosci 2020 Jan 29:1-5. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, 272000, China.

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a rare, autosomal, recessive neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the gene, which encodes the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme. Deficiency in fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase results in an abnormal accumulation of toxic fatty aldehydes in the brain and skin, which cause spasticity, intellectual disability, ichthyosis, and other clinical manifestations. We present the clinical features and mutation analyses of a case of SLS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2020.1716750DOI Listing
January 2020

Neuroradiological findings in three cases of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9 due to mutation: typical MRI appearances and pearls for differential diagnosis.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2019 Dec;9(12):1966-1972

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9 (PCH9) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with prenatal onset caused by mutations in adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2 (). PCH9 patients demonstrate severe neurodevelopmental delay with early onset and typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings consisting in: pontine hypoplasia or atrophy with dragonfly cerebellar atrophy appearance on coronal images, reduction in size of the pons and middle cerebellar peduncles, abnormal midbrain describing a figure of "8" on axial images, diffuse loss of cerebral white matter with striking periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and absence or extreme thinning of the corpus callosum. A review of the literature on PCH9 shows that the MRI phenotype observed in the series herein presented is similar to the eleven cases of PCH9 previously reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2019.08.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942969PMC
December 2019

Characteristics and influence of Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma cultures in amniotic fluid on perinatal outcomes.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2020 Mar 27;46(3):389-395. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Perinatal Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Aim: To investigate the effects of Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma cultured in amniotic fluid on perinatal characteristics in preterm delivery between 22 and 33 weeks of gestation.

Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal center and involved 38 pregnant women who had undergone amniocentesis to evaluate intrauterine infection due to preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the culture results: negative (Negative Group, n = 24), positive for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma (M/U Group, n = 6), and positive for other pathogens (Other Pathogens Group, n = 8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14183DOI Listing

The most useful cranial ultrasound predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years for preterm infants.

Clin Radiol 2020 Apr 20;75(4):278-286. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Neonatology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, 229899, Singapore.

Aim: To determine the most important cranial ultrasound predictors of abnormality associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in preterm infants.

Materials And Methods: A total of 343 preterm infants born between 2005 and 2010 and cared for in KK Women's and Children's Hospital, a tertiary paediatric hospital, with birth weight ≤1,250 g were assessed in this retrospective study. Serial cranial ultrasound examinations were examined for intraventricular haemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2019.11.009DOI Listing

Early neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation and hydrocephalus: Neonatal ICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale and imaging predict 3-6-month motor quotients and Capute Scales.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Dec 20:1-11. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

7Neurology and Developmental Medicine and.

Objective: Brain injury remains a serious complication of prematurity. Almost half of infants with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) develop posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) and 20% need surgery for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). This population is associated with an increased risk of later neurodevelopmental disability, but there is uncertainty about which radiological and examination features predict later disability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.PEDS19438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305038PMC
December 2019

Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Misdiagnosed as Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report.

Ann Rehabil Med 2019 Oct 31;43(5):621-624. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal recessive neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The clinical manifestations of the disorder are variable. This report describes the case of a 27-month-old girl with NP-C whose condition had been misdiagnosed as spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.2019.43.5.621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835131PMC
October 2019

Periventricular Leukomalacia in Patients With Pseudo-glaucomatous Cupping.

Am J Ophthalmol 2020 03 21;211:31-41. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a structural loss of white matter pathways that carry visual information from the lateral geniculate bodies to the visual cortex. It is observed radiologically in patients with a history of prematurity and is associated with visual field (VF) defects and optic disc cupping. Advances in perinatal care have improved survival for premature babies, so many now present as adolescents and adults to comprehensive eye doctors who are unaware of the relationship of cupping, field defects, and prematurity and who may diagnose manifest or suspected normal tension glaucoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2019.10.016DOI Listing

[Mechanisms of brain injury of the premature baby].

Medicina (B Aires) 2019 ;79 Suppl 3:10-14

Cátedra de Neuropediatría, Facultad de Medicina, UDELAR, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. Read More

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October 2019
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Impact of peri-intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia in the neurodevelopment of preterms: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(10):e0223427. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Context: Whether all degrees of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and peri-intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH) have a negative impact on neurodevelopment.

Objective: To determine the impact of PVL and PIVH in the incidence of cerebral palsy, sensorineural impairment and development scores in preterm neonates. Registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017073113). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223427PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6786801PMC
March 2020
2 Reads

A single-dose indomethacin prophylaxis for reducing perinatal brain injury in extremely low birth weight infants: a non-inferiority analysis.

J Perinatol 2019 11 30;39(11):1462-1471. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA.

Objective: To evaluate whether rates of perinatal brain injury among extremely low birth weight infants are comparable between two treatments: single-dose indomethacin prophylaxis (SGL-IP) (0.2 mg/kg, given once) vs. standard-dose indomethacin prophylaxis (STD-IP) (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-019-0509-4DOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read

Multicystic encephalomalacia and gastrointestinal injury following single fetal death in first trimester and subsequent fetofetal transfusion syndrome in a monochorionic triplet pregnancy: a case report.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Aug 27;19(1):311. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tuen Mun Hospital, 23 Tsing Chung Koon Road, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of China.

Background: Monochorionic multifetal pregnancies are at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome because of placental vascular anastomoses. We present a case of multicystic encephalomalacia and gastrointestinal injury in two surviving fetuses following single fetal death in first trimester and subsequent fetofetal transfusion syndrome in a monochorionic triplet pregnancy.

Case Presentation: A 31-year-old nulliparous woman had a spontaneous monochorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2459-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712839PMC
August 2019
3 Reads

Predictors of Severe Neurologic Injury on Ultrasound Scan of the Head and Risk Factor-based Screening for Infants Born Preterm.

J Pediatr 2019 11 31;214:27-33.e3. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Paediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Maternal-Infant Care Research Centre, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To identify risk factors for severe neurologic injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or greater and/or periventricular leukomalacia) diagnosed by ultrasound scan of the head among infants born at 30-32 weeks of gestation and compare different screening strategies.

Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants born at 30-32 weeks or >32 weeks of gestation with a birth weight <1500 g admitted to neonatal intensive care units in the Canadian Neonatal Network from 2011 to 2016. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant risk factors and calculate aORs and 95% CIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.06.065DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads

Early Prediction of Periventricular Leukomalacia Using Quantitative Texture Analysis of Serial Cranial Ultrasound Scans in Very Preterm Infants.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2019 10 19;45(10):2658-2665. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

We compared texture parameters of serial cranial ultrasound (cUS) images of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and normal periventricular echogenicity (PVE) in very preterm infants and evaluated the early predictive values of texture analysis (TA) for PVL. Ten individuals with PVL and 10 control individuals with PVE assessed with an initial cUS within 1 wk of birth and follow-up cUS at 2-3 and 4-6 wk of life were included. TA was performed on the region of interest of PVE at the parieto-occipital area on serial cUS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2019.06.413DOI Listing
October 2019

Preterm brain Injury: White matter injury.

Handb Clin Neurol 2019 ;162:155-172

Division of Neurology and Centre for Brain and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Despite the advances in neonatal intensive care, the preterm brain remains vulnerable to white matter injury (WMI) and disruption of normal brain development (i.e., dysmaturation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00007-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Spontaneous remission of West syndrome following a human herpesvirus 7 infection in a Chinese infant: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Jul;98(28):e16441

Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin China.

Rationale: West syndrome (WS) is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy that is characterized by intractable epileptic seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and observed through electroencephalogram (EEG) and significant neurodevelopmental regression. The spontaneous remission of epileptic seizure is clinically rare and has not previously been reported in a Chinese infant. Herein, we reported a Chinese infant with WS whose seizures disappeared following a human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000016441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6641909PMC
July 2019
4 Reads

Clinical Significance of Asymmetric Minimum Intensity Projection Images of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children.

J Clin Neurol 2019 Jul;15(3):347-352

Department of Pediatrics, Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital, Jeonju, Korea.

Background And Purpose: The susceptibility-weighted imaging form of brain MRI using minimum intensity projection (mIP) is useful for assessing traumatic brain injuries because it readily reveals deoxyhemoglobin or paramagnetic compounds. We investigated the efficacy of using this methodology in nontraumatic patients.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the asymmetric mIP findings in nontraumatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2019.15.3.347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6620449PMC
July 2019
12 Reads

Assessing therapeutic response non-invasively in a neonatal rat model of acute inflammatory white matter injury using high-field MRI.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 10 24;81:348-360. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Departments of Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Pharmacology, CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montréal, Canada; Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Perinatal infection and inflammatory episodes in preterm infants are associated with diffuse white matter injury (WMI) and adverse neurological outcomes. Inflammation-induced WMI was previously shown to be linked with later hippocampal atrophy as well as learning and memory impairments in preterm infants. Early evaluation of injury load and therapeutic response with non-invasive tools such as multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would greatly improve the search of new therapeutic approaches in preterm infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.06.032DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads
5.889 Impact Factor

Altered neonatal white and gray matter microstructure is associated with neurodevelopmental impairments in very preterm infants with high-grade brain injury.

Pediatr Res 2019 09 18;86(3):365-374. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: This study examines relationships between neonatal white and gray matter microstructure and neurodevelopment in very preterm (VPT) infants (≤30 weeks gestation) with high-grade brain injury (BI).

Methods: Term-equivalent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained in 32 VPT infants with high-grade BI spanning grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (BI group); 69 VPT infants without high-grade injury (VPT group); and 55 term-born infants. The Bayley-III assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-019-0461-1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0461-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6702093PMC
September 2019
6 Reads

Perinatal distress in 1p36 deletion syndrome can mimic hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 08 17;179(8):1543-1546. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Stanford University, Stanford, California.

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254578PMC
August 2019
11 Reads

Utilization of neurosonography for evaluation of the corpus callosum malformations in the era of fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 Aug 2;45(8):1472-1478. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: We evaluated the ability of fetal neurosonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to asses callosal anomalies (CA) and associated cranial malformations. We also aimed to determine the long-term prognosis of the cases.

Methods: Thirty-six cases of CA diagnosed combined with neurosonography and MRI between January 2012 and October 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13995DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Zinc homeostasis and zinc signaling in white matter development and injury.

Neurosci Lett 2019 08 4;707:134247. Epub 2019 May 4.

Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Neurology and the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, United States; Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Zinc is an essential dietary micronutrient that is abundant in the brain with diverse roles in development, injury, and neurological diseases. With new imaging tools and chelators selectively targeting zinc, the field of zinc biology is rapidly expanding. The importance of zinc homeostasis is now well recognized in neurodegeneration, but there is emerging data that zinc may be equally important in white matter disorders. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03043940193031
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2019.05.001DOI Listing
August 2019
10 Reads

Impaired hippocampal development and outcomes in very preterm infants with perinatal brain injury.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 18;22:101787. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States; Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States.

Preterm infants are at high risk for brain injury during the perinatal period. Intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the two most common patterns of brain injury in prematurely-born children, are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The hippocampus is known to be critical for learning and memory; however, it remains unknown how these forms of brain injury affect hippocampal growth and how the resulting alterations in hippocampal development relate to childhood outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446074PMC
January 2020
21 Reads

The Impact of Early Neuroimaging and Developmental Assessment in a Preterm Infant Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy.

Case Rep Pediatr 2019 7;2019:9612507. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Division of Occupational Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Premature infants are at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) that is typically diagnosed between 18-24 months. We present a case study of an infant who was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) without obvious neurological deficits but was later diagnosed with hemiplegic CP. The infant was enrolled in an infant motor study, which included neuroimaging and developmental motor assessments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9612507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383416PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

How much do periventricular lesions assist in distinguishing migraine with aura from CIS?

Neurology 2019 04 8;92(15):e1739-e1744. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

From the Departments of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, and Maternal and Child Health (C.L., G.B., M.P., L.B., G.L.M., M.I.), University of Genoa; Departments of Neuroradiology (L.S., L.R.), Health Sciences (M.P.S., L.R.), and Neurology (M.P., G.L.M., M.I.), Ospedale Policlinico San Martino IRCCS, Genoa; Department of Neurosciences (C.G.), S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome; and Departments of Medicine, Surgery, and Neuroscience (A.G., N.D.S.), University of Siena, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and migraine with aura (MA) how the number of periventricular lesions (PVLs) detected at MRI influences diagnostic performance when the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS) or the 2017 revised criteria are applied.

Methods: In this retrospective study, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of 84 patients with MA and 79 patients with CIS were assessed using manual segmentation technique. Lesion probability maps (LPMs) and voxel-wise analysis of lesion distribution by diagnosis were obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007266DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Longitudinal advanced MRI case report of white matter radiation necrosis.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 02 10;6(2):379-385. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine Division of Neurology University of British Columbia Vancouver British Columbia Canada.

Radiation necrosis mostly occurs in and near the radiation field. We used magnetic resonance imaging to study radiation-induced necrosis of atypical onset, severity, and extent following stereotactic radiosurgery for a symptomatic arteriovenous malformation. Susceptibility-sensitive imaging, T-relaxation, myelin water imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were acquired three times up to 52 months postradiosurgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389755PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Clinical significance of detecting serum melatonin and SBDPs in brain injury in preterm infants.

Pediatr Neonatol 2019 08 25;60(4):435-440. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Neonatology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: To investigate the clinical values of serum melatonin and αII spectrin cleavage products (SBDPs) in assessing the severity of brain injury in preterm infants.

Methods: Sixty-four premature infants in total were selected and classified into the brain injury group (BI, n = 30) and the non-brain injury group (CON, n = 34) according to cranial imaging examination. The serum melatonin and SBDPs were detected by ELISA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2018.11.005DOI Listing

Pediatric encephalic ultrasonography: the essentials.

J Ultrasound 2020 Jun 14;23(2):127-137. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Radiology Department, "Santobono-Pausilipon" Children Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Nowadays, cranial ultrasonography (US) of the newborn represents the first imaging method in brain damage study and its possible outcomes. This exam is performed using the natural fontanelles, especially the anterior one. It is fast, non-invasive and does not produce any side effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-018-0349-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242593PMC
June 2020
22 Reads

MR Imaging of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy - Distribution Patterns and ADC value correlations.

Eur J Radiol Open 2018 16;5:215-220. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dr RPGMC, Kangra, Tanda, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background And Purpose: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes hypoxic brain injury. Due to differences in brain maturity at time of insult, severity of hypotension and duration of insult, there are four distinct patterns of brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive modality for evaluating these patterns of brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2018.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240807PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Fetal stroke and cerebrovascular disease: Advances in understanding from lenticulostriate and venous imaging, alloimmune thrombocytopaenia and monochorionic twins.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 11;22(6):989-1005. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Departments of Child Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Radiology, University Hospital Southampton, United Kingdom; Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.

Fetal stroke is an important cause of cerebral palsy but is difficult to diagnose unless imaging is undertaken in pregnancies at risk because of known maternal or fetal disorders. Fetal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging may show haemorrhage or ischaemic lesions including multicystic encephalomalacia and focal porencephaly. Serial imaging has shown the development of malformations including schizencephaly and polymicrogyra after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.08.008DOI Listing
November 2018
42 Reads

Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated by selective fetal growth restriction according to management: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019 Jan;53(1):36-46

Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To explore the impact of severity and management (expectant, laser treatment or selective reduction) on perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR).

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies on outcome following expectant management, laser treatment or selective reduction in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by sFGR. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/uog.20114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.20114DOI Listing
January 2019
25 Reads

Respiratory Care for the Ventilated Neonate.

Can Respir J 2018 13;2018:7472964. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Neonatology, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal.

Invasive ventilation is often necessary for the treatment of newborn infants with respiratory insufficiency. The neonatal patient has unique physiological characteristics such as small airway caliber, few collateral airways, compliant chest wall, poor airway stability, and low functional residual capacity. Pathologies affecting the newborn's lung are also different from many others observed later in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7472964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110042PMC
April 2019
52 Reads

Preterm neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome: a focus on intraventricular hemorrhage, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and associated brain injury.

J Perinatol 2018 11 30;38(11):1431-1443. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Neurosciences Intensive Care Nursery, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Intraventricular hemorrhage in the setting of prematurity remains the most common cause of acquired hydrocephalus. Neonates with progressive post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus are at risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The goal of this review is to describe the distinct and often overlapping types of brain injury in the preterm neonate, with a focus on neonatal hydrocephalus, and to connect injury on imaging to neurodevelopmental outcome risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-018-0209-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215507PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Neurodegeneration in an adolescent with Sjogren-Larsson syndrome: a decade-long follow-up case report.

BMC Med Genet 2018 08 29;19(1):152. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59 Yatap-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, 13496, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is a hereditary neurocutaneous syndrome that is non-progressive in nature. Although neuroregression has been reported in seizure-prone preschool children requiring anti-epileptic treatment, teenage-onset dystonia precipitating neurodegeneration without any immediate causal events has yet to be reported.

Case Presentation: We describe a young woman with spastic diplegia and intellectual disability who began to show progressive neurological deterioration from 12 years of age, with the onset of dystonia and tremor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-018-0663-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114270PMC
August 2018
42 Reads

Neuroimaging for Neurodevelopmental Prognostication in High-Risk Neonates.

Clin Perinatol 2018 09 18;45(3):421-437. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes in high-risk neonates remains challenging despite advances in neonatal care. Early and accurate characterization of infants at risk for neurodevelopmental delays is necessary to best identify those who may benefit from existing early interventions and novel therapies that become available. Although neuroimaging is a promising biomarker in the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in high-risk infants, it requires additional resources and expertise. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00955108183136
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2018.05.004DOI Listing
September 2018
38 Reads

Cranial Sonography in Preterm Infants with Short Review of Literature.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2018 Apr-Jun;13(2):141-149

Department of Paediatrics, CCM Medical College and Hospital, Kurud Road, Kachandur, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India.

Background: Premature newborn infants are exposed to a wide spectrum of brain lesions which are clinically silent supporting a possible role of cerebral ultrasound screening. Aim of the study is to describe the pattern of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants defining the short term and long term neurologic outcomes.

Material And Methods: A hospital-based bedside cranial ultrasound was carried out at day 1, 3, 7 and follow-up scan at 3-6 months in the Department of Radio-diagnosis. Read More

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http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2018/13/2/141
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpn.JPN_60_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057202PMC
August 2018
42 Reads

Predictors of Cranial Ultrasound Abnormalities in Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Fetuses Born between 28 and 34 Weeks of Gestation: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2019 25;45(4):238-247. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Perinatology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Emam Khomeini Medical Complex, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran,

Background: Doppler parameters have been commonly used for the prediction of neonatal outcomes. However, controversies exist with regard to the value of Doppler parameters in predicting the risk of neurological outcomes among neonates.

Objective: This prospective cohort study attempted to assess the value of Doppler parameters in predict ing cranial ultrasound abnormalities (CUAs) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among fetuses at 28-34 weeks of gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488904DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

The impact of extrauterine life on visual maturation in extremely preterm born infants.

Pediatr Res 2018 09 2;84(3):403-410. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Extrauterine life is an important factor when considering brain maturation. Few studies have investigated the development of visual evoked potentials (VEP) in extremely preterm infants, and only a minority have taken into consideration the impact of extrauterine life. The aim of this study was to assess the normal maturation of VEP in infants born prior to 29 weeks gestational age (GA) and to explore the potential influence of extrauterine life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-018-0084-yDOI Listing
September 2018
52 Reads

Cerebellar injury in preterm infants.

Authors:
Emily W Y Tam

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;155:49-59

Division of Neurology, Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Although preterm birth is best known to result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes through injury of the supratentorial structures, including intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the cerebellum has become increasingly recognized as an important target for injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. Undergoing the most dramatic growth during the preterm period, the cerebellum is vulnerable to large and small hemorrhages, as well as hypoplasia resulting from a number of potentially modifiable risk factors. These factors include contact with intraventricular blood, crossed cerebrocerebellar diaschisis, postnatal glucocorticoid exposure, pain and opioid exposure, nutrition and somatic growth, cardiorespiratory factors, and socioeconomic status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00003-2DOI Listing
October 2018
17 Reads

Cerebellar peduncle injury predicts motor impairments in preterm infants: A quantitative tractography study at term-equivalent age.

Brain Dev 2018 Oct;40(9):743-752

Department of Medical Science, School of Nursing, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Purpose: Cerebellar injury is well established as an important finding in preterm infants with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated associations between injury to the cerebellar peduncles and motor impairments in preterm infants using quantitative tractography at term-equivalent age, which represents an early phase before the onset of motor impairments.

Methods: We studied 64 preterm infants who were born at <33 weeks gestational age. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.04.013DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

[Effect of early application of recombinant human erythropoietin on white matter development in preterm infants].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 May;20(5):346-351

Department of Neonatology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of early application of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on white matter development in preterm infants using fractional anisotropy (FA) of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

Methods: A total of 81 preterm infants with gestational age ≤32 weeks, birth weight <1 500 g, and hospitalization within 24 hours after birth were randomly divided into rhEPO group (42 infants) and control group (39 infants). The infants in the rhEPO group were administered rhEPO, while those in the control group were given the same volume of normal saline. Read More

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May 2018
9 Reads

Perinatal Brain Injury: Mechanisms, Prevention, and Outcomes.

Clin Perinatol 2018 06 21;45(2):357-375. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Phipps 228, Baltimore, MD 21287-4922, USA; Neuroscience Intensive Care Nursery Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287-4922, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287-4922, USA. Electronic address:

Perinatal brain injury may lead to long-term morbidity and neurodevelopmental impairment. Improvements in perinatal care have resulted in the survival of more infants with perinatal brain injury. The effects of hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and infection during critical periods of development can lead to a common pathway of perinatal brain injury marked by neuronal excitotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, and microglial activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2018.01.015DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Brain-injured Survivors of Monochorionic Twin Pregnancies Complicated by Single Intrauterine Death: MR Findings in a Multicenter Study.

Radiology 2018 08 24;288(2):582-590. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

From the Neuroradiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20142, Milan, Italy (G.C., F.T.); Division of Paediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ospedale dei Bambini V. Buzzi, Milan, Italy (G.C., A.R., C.P., C.D.); Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England (P.D.G.); Fetal Therapy Unit Umberto Nicolini, Department of Woman Mother and Neonate, Ospedale dei Bambini V. Buzzi, Milan, Italy (M.R., M.L.); Centre of Women's and Newborn's Health, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England (F.L.M.); Neuroradiology Unit, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy (L.P., C.A.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy (F.P., A.F.); Division of Prenatal Diagnosis, Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy (N.P.); Department of Radiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sheffield, England (M.S.I., N.S.); Department of Fetal Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England (M.K.); Pediatric Neuroradiology Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy (M.S., A.R.); and Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy (F.T.).

Purpose To describe and classify the range of brain injuries present at prenatal, in-utero magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in co-twin survivors of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies complicated by single intrauterine death (SIUD). Materials and Methods This retrospective, observational study from six tertiary fetal medicine centers that perform tertiary-level prenatal in-utero MR studies reviewed cases in which prenatal in-utero MR imaging had shown a brain injury in a surviving co-twin of a twin pregnancy with a MC component complicated by SIUD. Results Forty-two surviving MC twins were described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018171267DOI Listing
August 2018
53 Reads