979 results match your criteria Periventricular Leukomalacia Imaging

Multiple brain abscesses in an extremely preterm infant and a 12-year follow up: a case report.

Ital J Pediatr 2022 Jun 16;48(1):99. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Neonatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Brain abscesses are uncommon but life-threatening in extremely preterm (EP, Gestational Age < 28 weeks) infants. The information of long-time follow-up is rare, but very few cases presented almost intact neural function after injury.

Case Presentation: We report the clinical course and the outcome of a 27-week preterm infant with multiple brain abscesses. Read More

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Dystonia in individuals with spastic cerebral palsy and isolated periventricular leukomalacia.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Jun 5. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of dystonia in individuals with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and spastic cerebral palsy (CP), but without basal ganglia and thalamic injury (BGTI) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Method: This was a retrospective study of individuals with spastic CP and PVL on MRI evaluated between 2005 and 2018 in a CP center. Individuals with non-PVL brain lesions on MRI, including BGTI, were excluded. Read More

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Case Report: A Very Low Birth Weight Female Infant With Congenital Bilateral Periventricular Leukomalacia, Born to a Mother With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Front Pediatr 2022 9;10:887132. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Yodogawa Christian Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

A 26-year-old primipara woman with COVID-19 performed an emergency Cesarean section due to further hypoxemia at 28 weeks 5/7 days gestation. The female neonate was born weighing 1,347 gram with an Apgar score of four at 1 min, three at 5 min, and eight at 10 min. RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 were performed at birth, 24 h, and 48 h after birth, all of which were negative. Read More

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Hemodynamic Quality Improvement Bundle to Reduce the Use of Inotropes in Extreme Preterm Neonates.

Paediatr Drugs 2022 May 26;24(3):259-267. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Room B4-286, 28 Oki drive NW, Calgary, AB, T3B 6A8, Canada.

Background: We evaluated the effect of the quality improvement (QI) bundle on the rate of inotrope use and associated morbidities.

Methods: We included inborn preterm neonates born at < 29 weeks admitted to level III NICU. We implemented a QI bundle focusing on the first 72 h from birth which included delayed cord clamping, avoidance of routine echocardiography, the addition of clinical criteria to the definition of hypotension, factoring iatrogenic causes of hypotension, and standardization of respiratory management. Read More

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Non-invasive in vivo MRI detects long-term microstructural brain alterations related to learning and memory impairments in a model of inflammation-induced white matter injury.

Behav Brain Res 2022 06 6;428:113884. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Departments of Pediatrics, Ophthalmology and Pharmacology, CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently under investigation as a non-invasive tool to monitor neurodevelopmental trajectories and predict risk of cognitive deficits following white matter injury (WMI) in very preterm infants. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of multimodal MRI (high-resolution T2-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging)to assess changes following WMI and their relationship to learning and memory performance in Wistar rats as it has been demonstrated for preterm infants. Multimodal MRI performed at P31-P32 shown that animals exposed to neonatal LPS could be classified into two groups: minimal and overt injury. Read More

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Is low cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry associated with neurodevelopment of preterm infants without brain injury?

J Perinat Med 2022 Jun 22;50(5):625-629. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between low regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) and neurodevelopment in preterm infants classified as no brain injury (NBI).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of rScO2 monitoring during the first 3 days of life of infants with a gestational age (GA)<28 weeks or birth weight (BW)<1,000 g, with and without brain injury (BI). BI was defined as intraventricular haemorrhage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia or cerebellar haemorrhage. Read More

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Brain Volumes and Abnormalities in Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

J Pediatr 2022 Jul 14;246:48-55.e7. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

HUS Medical Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: To assess radiographic brain abnormalities and investigate volumetric differences in adults born preterm at very low birth weight (<1500 g), using siblings as controls.

Study Design: We recruited 79 adult same-sex sibling pairs with one born preterm at very low birth weight and the sibling at term. We acquired 3-T brain magnetic resonance imaging from 78 preterm participants and 72 siblings. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Perinatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: An Institutional Experience.

Ravikanth Reddy

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2022 Jan 11;13(1):87-94. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Radiology, St. John's Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

 Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most commonly diagnosed neurological abnormality affecting children leading to severe neurological deficits and a cause of neonatal mortality. HIE constitutes a diagnostic challenge in the prematurely born and full-term neonates. HIE causes severe neurological deficit in children and many a times goes unnoticed in early stages. Read More

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January 2022

Development of muscle tone impairments in high-risk infants: Associations with cerebral palsy and cystic periventricular leukomalacia.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2022 Mar 1;37:12-18. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

University of Groningen, Department of Paediatrics - Division of Developmental Neurology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713, GZ, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Aim: To assess the prevalence and development of muscle tone impairments in infants at high risk of developmental disorders, and their associations with cerebral palsy (CP) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL).

Method: Longitudinal exploration of muscle tone in 39 infants at high risk of CP (LEARN2MOVE 0-2 project) mostly due to an early lesion of the brain. Muscle tone was assessed ≥4 times between 0 and 21 months corrected age (CA) with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination. Read More

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Wavelength and pulse energy optimization for detecting hypoxia in photoacoustic imaging of the neonatal brain: a simulation study.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Dec 10;12(12):7458-7477. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Richard and Loan Hill Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.

Cerebral hypoxia is a severe injury caused by oxygen deprivation to the brain. Hypoxia in the neonatal period increases the risk for the development of neurological disorders, including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, periventricular leukomalacia, and hydrocephalus. It is crucial to recognize hypoxia as soon as possible because early intervention improves outcomes. Read More

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December 2021

Intraoperative cerebral oxygen saturation and neurological outcomes following surgical management of necrotizing enterocolitis: Predictive factors of neurological complications following neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: Predictive factors of neurological complications following neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

Paediatr Anaesth 2022 Mar 10;32(3):421-428. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: The goal of the present study was to investigate intraoperative factors associated with major neurological complications at 1 year following surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis.

Material And Methods: The study consisted of a retrospective review of medical charts of patients operated for over one calendar year in one institution. Data collected included demographic data, cardiac resuscitation at birth, Bell classification, antibiotics usage, time of day of surgery, surgical technique, surgical duration, type of ventilation, intraoperative vasoactive agents, and albumin use, nadir cerebral saturation, the decrease in cerebral saturation from baseline, the time period when cerebral saturation was at least 20% below baseline, and the mean arterial pressure at nadir cerebral saturation. Read More

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Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of causes of cerebral palsy in a developing country: A database of South African children.

S Afr Med J 2021 09 2;111(9):910-916. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, USA.

Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common worldwide disabling disorder. However, data about prevalence and causes of CP in developing countries are deficient because of high cost and limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the gold standard neuro-imaging modality for evaluation and management of CP in neonates.

Objectives: To determine the frequency of CP causes in children with suspected hypoxic ischaemic injury (HII) involved in medicolegal litigation in South Africa based on MRI report findings. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroradiological Mimics of Periventricular Leukomalacia.

J Child Neurol 2022 02 22;37(2):151-167. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

Aim: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a term reserved to describe white matter injury in the premature brain. In this review article, the authors highlight the common and rare pathologies mimicking the chronic stage of PVL and propose practical clinico-radiological criteria that would aid in diagnosis and management.

Methods And Results: The authors first describe the typical brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) features of PVL. Read More

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February 2022

Early Neonatal C-Reactive Protein Levels and Periventricular Leukomalacia.

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Oct;23(10):620-624

Pediatric Neurology and Development Center, Shamir Medical Center (Assaf Harofeh), Zerifin, Israel.

Background: Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) is a strong indicator of subsequent motor and developmental impairments in premature infants. There is a paucity of publications on biomarkers of cPVL.

Objectives: To determine C-reactive protein (CRP) levels during the first week of life of preterm infants who later developed cPVL and to identify the association between CRP levels with perinatal factors. Read More

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October 2021

Ultrasound imaging of preterm brain injury: fundamentals and updates.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Apr 14;52(4):817-836. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Neurosonography has become an essential tool for diagnosis and serial monitoring of preterm brain injury. Preterm infants are at significantly higher risk of hypoxic-ischemic injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Neonatologists have become increasingly dependent on neurosonography to initiate medical and surgical interventions because it can be used at the bedside. Read More

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Bi-allelic variants in SPATA5L1 lead to intellectual disability, spastic-dystonic cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and hearing loss.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 10;108(10):2006-2016

Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, 81675 Munich, Germany.

Spermatogenesis-associated 5 like 1 (SPATA5L1) represents an orphan gene encoding a protein of unknown function. We report 28 bi-allelic variants in SPATA5L1 associated with sensorineural hearing loss in 47 individuals from 28 (26 unrelated) families. In addition, 25/47 affected individuals (53%) presented with microcephaly, developmental delay/intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, and/or epilepsy. Read More

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October 2021

Association between Term Equivalent Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 2-Year Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Report from the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial Cohort.

J Pediatr 2021 12 26;239:117-125.e6. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Objectives: To compare the term equivalent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between erythropoietin (Epo) treated and placebo control groups in infants 24-27 weeks of gestational age and to assess the associations between MRI findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years corrected age.

Study Design: The association between brain abnormality scores and Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition at 2 years corrected age was explored in a subset of infants enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial. Potential risk factors for neurodevelopmental outcomes such as treatment assignment, recruitment site, gestational age, inpatient complications, and treatments were examined using generalized estimating equation models. Read More

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December 2021

Preterm White Matter Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Oct 23;58(10):922-927. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Objective: To determine the incidence and risk factors of preterm white matter injury [WMI; periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) and/or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)].

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Level-3 neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

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October 2021

Degree of ventriculomegaly predicts school-aged functional outcomes in preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage.

Pediatr Res 2022 04 2;91(5):1238-1247. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Greater ventriculomegaly in preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) has been associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infancy. We aim to explore the relationship between ventriculomegaly and school-age functional outcome.

Methods: Retrospective review of preterm infants with Grade III/IV IVH from 2006 to 2020. Read More

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Recurrent neonatal sepsis and progressive white matter injury in a premature newborn culture-positive for group B Streptococcus: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26387

Department of Pediatrics, Incheon Worker's Compensation Hospital, Incheon.

Rationale: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a principal pathogen causing neonatal sepsis and meningitis, particularly in premature infants with relatively insufficient immunity. Recurrence may occur uncommonly, largely associated with subclinical mucosal persistence or repetitive exposure to exogenous sources. White matter injury (WMI) including cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) has been associated with intrauterine infection/inflammation, and neonatal infection as a more significant predictor including postnatal sepsis and recurrent infection, even without microbial neuroinvasion. Read More

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Severe Brain Damage in a Moderate Preterm Infant as Complication of Post-COVID-19 Response during Pregnancy.

Neonatology 2021 14;118(4):505-508. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Current evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic suggests that neonatal SARS-coronavirus-2 infections usually have a mild course. Data on how maternal infection during pregnancy affects fetal development are scarce. We present the unique case of a moderate preterm infant with intracranial bleeding and periventricular leukomalacia as a potential consequence of post-COVID-19 hyperinflammation during pregnancy. Read More

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Cranial ultrasound for beginners.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Apr;10(4):1117-1137

Unidad de Radiología Pediátrica, Servicio de Radiodiagnóstico, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Cranial ultrasound (CUS) is an extremely valuable tool to evaluate the brain during the first year of life, in experienced hands. It is the initial screening imaging tool to evaluate the infants' brain and complementary to the use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is an accessible, inexpensive and harmless technique that can be used bedside as frequently as needed. Read More

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Association of Maternal Immune Activation during Pregnancy and Neurologic Outcomes in Offspring.

J Pediatr 2021 11 7;238:87-93.e3. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Newborn Brain Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Weill Institute for Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate neurologic morbidity among offspring during their first year of life in association with prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA), using an inclusive definition.

Study Design: This retrospective cohort study included singletons born in California between 2011 and 2017. MIA was defined by International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of infection, autoimmune disorder, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, or malignancy during pregnancy. Read More

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November 2021

Cranial Ultrasound Screening Protocols for Very Preterm Infants.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 07 22;47(7):1645-1656. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

Cranial ultrasound examinations are routinely performed in very preterm neonates. There is no widespread agreement on the optimal timing of these examinations. This review examines screening protocols and recommendations available for the timing of cranial ultrasound examinations in preterm neonates born before 32 wk of gestation. Read More

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Periventricular leukomalacia: an ophthalmic perspective.

Med J Armed Forces India 2021 Apr 15;77(2):147-153. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Resident, Department of Ophthalmology, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding in cases of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. PVL, in MRI, is identified by the increased signal intensity of periventricular white matter on T2-weighted sequences which is more conspicuous in the posterior cortex. It occurs because of perinatal damage to the cerebral cortex. Read More

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Outcome of early-onset fetal growth restriction with or without abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 08 29;100(8):1430-1438. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Early-onset fetal growth restriction is a pregnancy complication often coinciding with abnormal Doppler flow in the umbilical artery. Absent or reversed end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. As the optimal management of this condition is unclear, the objective of this study was to analyze the time interval from admission to delivery of pregnancies with early-onset fetal growth restriction, while pursuing a policy of postponing delivery unless active management of labor would be required because of fetal distress or maternal condition. Read More

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Clinical Diagnosis of White Matter Softening in Premature Infants Based on Electroencephalogram (EEG).

J Healthc Eng 2021 22;2021:6614191. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Neonatology, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222002, China.

Periventricular white matter softening in preterm infants can lead to severe sequelae and greatly affects the quality of life of preterm infants, and early diagnosis is of great clinical significance and value. The purpose of this study is to select a diagnostic test scientifically and rationally, to interpret and evaluate the results of the diagnostic test, and to evaluate the selected diagnostic method. Although DWI is a sensitive method for early diagnosis of PVL, it is not suitable for critical preterm infants. Read More

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November 2021

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Childhood Epilepsy at a Tertiary Hospital in Kenya.

Front Neurol 2021 12;12:623960. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Medicine, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Neuroimaging is important for determining etiology and guiding care in early childhood epilepsy. However, access to appropriate imaging in sub-Saharan Africa is modest, and as a consequence, etiological descriptions of childhood epilepsy in the region have been limited. We sought to describe MRI findings in children with epilepsy presenting to a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, over a 6-year period of routine care. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of the relationship between cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings and clinical status in children with cerebral palsy

Turk J Med Sci 2021 06 28;51(3):1296-1301. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey

Background/aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical features in cerebral palsy (CP).

Materials And Methods: Children aged 3 to 18 years, who were followed with the diagnosis of CP between January 2012 and September 2015, were included. The type of CP was classified using the European Cerebral Palsy Monitoring Group’s classification system and then, patients were divided into two groups as spastic or nonspastic groups. Read More

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