890 results match your criteria Periventricular Leukomalacia Imaging


Impaired hippocampal development and outcomes in very preterm infants with perinatal brain injury.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Mar 18;22:101787. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States; Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States.

Preterm infants are at high risk for brain injury during the perinatal period. Intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the two most common patterns of brain injury in prematurely-born children, are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The hippocampus is known to be critical for learning and memory; however, it remains unknown how these forms of brain injury affect hippocampal growth and how the resulting alterations in hippocampal development relate to childhood outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446074PMC

The Impact of Early Neuroimaging and Developmental Assessment in a Preterm Infant Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy.

Case Rep Pediatr 2019 7;2019:9612507. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Division of Occupational Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Premature infants are at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) that is typically diagnosed between 18-24 months. We present a case study of an infant who was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) without obvious neurological deficits but was later diagnosed with hemiplegic CP. The infant was enrolled in an infant motor study, which included neuroimaging and developmental motor assessments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9612507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383416PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Pediatric encephalic ultrasonography: the essentials.

J Ultrasound 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Radiology Department, "Santobono-Pausilipon" Children Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Nowadays, cranial ultrasonography (US) of the newborn represents the first imaging method in brain damage study and its possible outcomes. This exam is performed using the natural fontanelles, especially the anterior one. It is fast, non-invasive and does not produce any side effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-018-0349-7DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

MR Imaging of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy - Distribution Patterns and ADC value correlations.

Eur J Radiol Open 2018 16;5:215-220. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dr RPGMC, Kangra, Tanda, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background And Purpose: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes hypoxic brain injury. Due to differences in brain maturity at time of insult, severity of hypotension and duration of insult, there are four distinct patterns of brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive modality for evaluating these patterns of brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2018.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240807PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Fetal stroke and cerebrovascular disease: Advances in understanding from lenticulostriate and venous imaging, alloimmune thrombocytopaenia and monochorionic twins.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 11;22(6):989-1005. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Departments of Child Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Radiology, University Hospital Southampton, United Kingdom; Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.

Fetal stroke is an important cause of cerebral palsy but is difficult to diagnose unless imaging is undertaken in pregnancies at risk because of known maternal or fetal disorders. Fetal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging may show haemorrhage or ischaemic lesions including multicystic encephalomalacia and focal porencephaly. Serial imaging has shown the development of malformations including schizencephaly and polymicrogyra after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.08.008DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancy complicated by selective fetal growth restriction according to management: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019 Jan;53(1):36-46

Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To explore the impact of severity and management (expectant, laser treatment or selective reduction) on perinatal outcome of monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by selective fetal growth restriction (sFGR).

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies on outcome following expectant management, laser treatment or selective reduction in monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by sFGR. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/uog.20114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.20114DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Respiratory Care for the Ventilated Neonate.

Can Respir J 2018 13;2018:7472964. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Neonatology, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal.

Invasive ventilation is often necessary for the treatment of newborn infants with respiratory insufficiency. The neonatal patient has unique physiological characteristics such as small airway caliber, few collateral airways, compliant chest wall, poor airway stability, and low functional residual capacity. Pathologies affecting the newborn's lung are also different from many others observed later in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7472964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110042PMC
April 2019
28 Reads

Neurodegeneration in an adolescent with Sjogren-Larsson syndrome: a decade-long follow-up case report.

BMC Med Genet 2018 08 29;19(1):152. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59 Yatap-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, 13496, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is a hereditary neurocutaneous syndrome that is non-progressive in nature. Although neuroregression has been reported in seizure-prone preschool children requiring anti-epileptic treatment, teenage-onset dystonia precipitating neurodegeneration without any immediate causal events has yet to be reported.

Case Presentation: We describe a young woman with spastic diplegia and intellectual disability who began to show progressive neurological deterioration from 12 years of age, with the onset of dystonia and tremor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-018-0663-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6114270PMC
August 2018
24 Reads

Neuroimaging for Neurodevelopmental Prognostication in High-Risk Neonates.

Clin Perinatol 2018 09 18;45(3):421-437. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue Northwest, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes in high-risk neonates remains challenging despite advances in neonatal care. Early and accurate characterization of infants at risk for neurodevelopmental delays is necessary to best identify those who may benefit from existing early interventions and novel therapies that become available. Although neuroimaging is a promising biomarker in the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in high-risk infants, it requires additional resources and expertise. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00955108183136
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2018.05.004DOI Listing
September 2018
22 Reads

Cranial Sonography in Preterm Infants with Short Review of Literature.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2018 Apr-Jun;13(2):141-149

Department of Paediatrics, CCM Medical College and Hospital, Kurud Road, Kachandur, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India.

Background: Premature newborn infants are exposed to a wide spectrum of brain lesions which are clinically silent supporting a possible role of cerebral ultrasound screening. Aim of the study is to describe the pattern of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants defining the short term and long term neurologic outcomes.

Material And Methods: A hospital-based bedside cranial ultrasound was carried out at day 1, 3, 7 and follow-up scan at 3-6 months in the Department of Radio-diagnosis. Read More

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http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2018/13/2/141
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpn.JPN_60_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057202PMC
August 2018
24 Reads

Cerebellar injury in preterm infants.

Authors:
Emily W Y Tam

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;155:49-59

Division of Neurology, Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Although preterm birth is best known to result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes through injury of the supratentorial structures, including intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the cerebellum has become increasingly recognized as an important target for injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. Undergoing the most dramatic growth during the preterm period, the cerebellum is vulnerable to large and small hemorrhages, as well as hypoplasia resulting from a number of potentially modifiable risk factors. These factors include contact with intraventricular blood, crossed cerebrocerebellar diaschisis, postnatal glucocorticoid exposure, pain and opioid exposure, nutrition and somatic growth, cardiorespiratory factors, and socioeconomic status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00003-2DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

Cerebellar peduncle injury predicts motor impairments in preterm infants: A quantitative tractography study at term-equivalent age.

Brain Dev 2018 Oct;40(9):743-752

Department of Medical Science, School of Nursing, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Purpose: Cerebellar injury is well established as an important finding in preterm infants with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated associations between injury to the cerebellar peduncles and motor impairments in preterm infants using quantitative tractography at term-equivalent age, which represents an early phase before the onset of motor impairments.

Methods: We studied 64 preterm infants who were born at <33 weeks gestational age. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.04.013DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

[Effect of early application of recombinant human erythropoietin on white matter development in preterm infants].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 May;20(5):346-351

Department of Neonatology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of early application of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on white matter development in preterm infants using fractional anisotropy (FA) of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

Methods: A total of 81 preterm infants with gestational age ≤32 weeks, birth weight <1 500 g, and hospitalization within 24 hours after birth were randomly divided into rhEPO group (42 infants) and control group (39 infants). The infants in the rhEPO group were administered rhEPO, while those in the control group were given the same volume of normal saline. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

Perinatal Brain Injury: Mechanisms, Prevention, and Outcomes.

Clin Perinatol 2018 06 21;45(2):357-375. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Phipps 228, Baltimore, MD 21287-4922, USA; Neuroscience Intensive Care Nursery Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287-4922, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21287-4922, USA. Electronic address:

Perinatal brain injury may lead to long-term morbidity and neurodevelopmental impairment. Improvements in perinatal care have resulted in the survival of more infants with perinatal brain injury. The effects of hypoxia-ischemia, inflammation, and infection during critical periods of development can lead to a common pathway of perinatal brain injury marked by neuronal excitotoxicity, cellular apoptosis, and microglial activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2018.01.015DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Brain-injured Survivors of Monochorionic Twin Pregnancies Complicated by Single Intrauterine Death: MR Findings in a Multicenter Study.

Radiology 2018 08 24;288(2):582-590. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

From the Neuroradiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20142, Milan, Italy (G.C., F.T.); Division of Paediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ospedale dei Bambini V. Buzzi, Milan, Italy (G.C., A.R., C.P., C.D.); Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England (P.D.G.); Fetal Therapy Unit Umberto Nicolini, Department of Woman Mother and Neonate, Ospedale dei Bambini V. Buzzi, Milan, Italy (M.R., M.L.); Centre of Women's and Newborn's Health, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England (F.L.M.); Neuroradiology Unit, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy (L.P., C.A.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy (F.P., A.F.); Division of Prenatal Diagnosis, Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy (N.P.); Department of Radiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sheffield, England (M.S.I., N.S.); Department of Fetal Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England (M.K.); Pediatric Neuroradiology Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy (M.S., A.R.); and Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy (F.T.).

Purpose To describe and classify the range of brain injuries present at prenatal, in-utero magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in co-twin survivors of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies complicated by single intrauterine death (SIUD). Materials and Methods This retrospective, observational study from six tertiary fetal medicine centers that perform tertiary-level prenatal in-utero MR studies reviewed cases in which prenatal in-utero MR imaging had shown a brain injury in a surviving co-twin of a twin pregnancy with a MC component complicated by SIUD. Results Forty-two surviving MC twins were described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018171267DOI Listing
August 2018
16 Reads

Predictive Value of Cranial Ultrasound for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Brain Injury.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Apr;131(8):920-926

Department of Ultrasound, Hunan Children's Hospital, University of South China, Changsha, Hunan 410007, China.

Background: Compared with full-term infants, very preterm infants are more vulnerable to injury and long-term disability and are at high risk of death. The predictive value of ultrasound and imaging on the neurodevelopment is one of the hot topics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cranial ultrasound (cUS) variables and neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.229895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912057PMC
April 2018
14 Reads

Lymphocytes Contribute to the Pathophysiology of Neonatal Brain Injury.

Front Neurol 2018 19;9:159. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the most common form of preterm brain injury affecting the cerebral white matter. This type of injury involves a multiphase process and is induced by many factors, including hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and infection. Previous studies have suggested that lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain injury, and the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of lymphocyte subsets to preterm brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868390PMC
March 2018
11 Reads

A Comparison of Spastic Diplegia in Term and Preterm-Born Children.

J Child Neurol 2018 04 21;33(5):333-339. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

3 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

This study compared the risk factors and clinical and radiologic profile of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy born at term (≥37 weeks) with those born preterm. Children (2-14 years) with cerebral palsy meeting the study criteria for spastic diplegia were enrolled. Antecedent risk factors, clinical profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073817754175DOI Listing
April 2018
22 Reads
1.670 Impact Factor

Survival Rate without Brain Abnormalities on Postnatal Ultrasonography among Monochorionic Twins after Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction with Concomitant Oligohydramnios.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2019 20;45(1):21-27. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Center of Maternal-Fetal, Neonatal and Reproductive Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: We aimed to clarify the survival rate without brain abnormalities (BA) after fetoscopic laser photoco-agulation (FLP) for monochorionic diamniotic twin gestations (MCDA) with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler waveforms and isolated oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 52 cases that underwent FLP. The main outcome was survival rate without BA of the twins at age 28 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486130DOI Listing
April 2019
14 Reads

Outcome of Preterm Infants with Transient Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia on Serial Cranial Imaging Up to Term Equivalent Age.

J Pediatr 2018 04 2;195:59-65.e3. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Division of Neonatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Objective: To determine the outcome of preterm infants whose cystic periventricular leukomalacia "disappeared" on serial screening cranial imaging studies.

Study Design: Infants ≤26 weeks of gestation born between 2002 and 2012 who had cranial imaging studies at least twice, the most abnormal study at <28 days of age and another closest to 36 weeks, were reviewed. The outcome of late death (after 36 weeks postmenstrual age) or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in surviving infants at 18-26 months corrected age was compared between the infants with no cystic periventricular leukomalacia on both studies and cystic periventricular leukomalacia that disappeared (cystic periventricular leukomalacia at <28 days but not at 36 weeks), persisted (cystic periventricular leukomalacia on both studies), or appeared late (cystic periventricular leukomalacia only at 36 weeks). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407628PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Antecedents and Outcomes of Abnormal Cranial Imaging in Moderately Preterm Infants.

J Pediatr 2018 04 1;195:66-72.e3. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Objectives: To describe the frequency and findings of cranial imaging in moderately preterm infants (born at 29-33 weeks of gestation) across centers, and to examine the association between abnormal imaging and clinical characteristics.

Study Design: We used data from the Neonatal Research Network Moderately Preterm Registry, including the most severe early (≤28 days) and late (>28 days) cranial imaging. Stepwise logistic regression and CART analysis were performed after adjustment for gestational age, antenatal steroid use, and center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.11.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5869095PMC
April 2018
9 Reads

Quantitative sensory testing profiles in children, adolescents and young adults (6-20 years) with cerebral palsy: Hints for a neuropathic genesis of pain syndromes.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 May 30;22(3):470-481. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

German Paediatric Pain Centre, Children's and Adolescent's Hospital Datteln, Department of Children's Pain Therapy and Paediatric Palliative Care, Witten/Herdecke University, Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten, Germany.

Introduction: Many patients with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer chronic pain as one of the most limiting factors in their quality of life. In CP patients, pain mechanisms are not well understood, and pain therapy remains a challenge. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) might provide unique information about the functional status of the somatosensory system and therefore better guide pain treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2017.12.015DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

Trajectory of inflammatory and microglial activation markers in the postnatal rabbit brain following intrauterine endotoxin exposure.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Mar 21;111:153-162. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Maternal infection is a risk factor for periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy (CP) in neonates. We have previously demonstrated hypomyelination and motor deficits in newborn rabbits, as seen in patients with cerebral palsy, following maternal intrauterine endotoxin administration. This was associated with increased microglial activation, primarily involving the periventricular region (PVR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2017.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082145PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

γδ T Cells Contribute to Injury in the Developing Brain.

Am J Pathol 2018 03 15;188(3):757-767. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Perinatal Center, Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Brain injury in premature infants, especially periventricular leukomalacia, is an important cause of neurologic disabilities. Inflammation contributes to perinatal brain injury development, but the essential mediators that lead to early-life brain injury remain largely unknown. Neonates have reduced capacity for mounting conventional αβT-cell responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840494PMC
March 2018
74 Reads

Incidental Findings and Normal Anatomical Variants on Brain MRI in Children for Primary Headaches.

Headache 2017 Nov 6;57(10):1601-1609. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

When MRI scans of the brain are obtained for evaluation of primary headaches in children, incidental findings and anatomical variants are commonly present. After a review of the prevalence, 11 types are presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.13221DOI Listing
November 2017
3 Reads

Korean Database of Cerebral Palsy: A Report on Characteristics of Cerebral Palsy in South Korea.

Ann Rehabil Med 2017 Aug 31;41(4):638-649. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To introduce the Korean Database of Cerebral Palsy (KDCP) and to provide the first report on characteristics of subjects with cerebral palsy (CP).

Methods: The KDCP is a nationwide database of subjects with CP, which includes a total of 773 subjects. Characteristics such as demography, birth history, onset and type of CP, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, functional ability and accompanying impairments, were extracted and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5535/arm.2017.41.4.638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608672PMC
August 2017
50 Reads

Pessary or Progesterone to Prevent Preterm delivery in women with short cervical length: the Quadruple P randomised controlled trial.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Sep 4;17(1):284. Epub 2017 Sep 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academic Medical Center (AMC), Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Preterm birth is in quantity and in severity the most important topic in obstetric care in the developed world. Progestogens and cervical pessaries have been studied as potential preventive treatments with conflicting results. So far, no study has compared both treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-017-1454-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5584011PMC
September 2017
48 Reads

Clinical neuroimaging in the preterm infant: Diagnosis and prognosis.

Neuroimage Clin 2017 14;16:355-368. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, 2025 Zonal Avenue, SHN, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.08.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568883PMC
May 2018
8 Reads

User-independent diffusion tensor imaging analysis pipelines in a rat model presenting ventriculomegalia: A comparison study.

NMR Biomed 2017 Nov 25;30(11). Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Sainte-Justine Hospital and Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Automated analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data is an appealing way to process large datasets in an unbiased manner. However, automation can sometimes be linked to a lack of interpretability. Two whole-brain, automated and voxelwise methods exist: voxel-based analysis (VBA) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3793DOI Listing
November 2017
14 Reads

Neonatal cerebral lesions predict 2-year neurodevelopmental impairment in children treated with laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Jan 6;32(1):80-84. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

d Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics , Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.

Objective: The objective of this study is to assess whether postnatally detected cerebral abnormalities are predictive of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) that underwent laser surgery.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-nine children treated for TTTS had neurodevelopmental assessment at age 2-years (±6 weeks). 'High-risk survivors' had cerebral imaging in the neonatal period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1371694DOI Listing
January 2019
32 Reads

Neurosonography: Assessing the Premature Infant.

Pediatr Radiol 2017 Aug 4;47(9):1031-1045. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Radiology, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, 848 Adams Ave, Radiology G216, Memphis, TN, 38103, USA.

Neurosonography has proven to be helpful in neonatal brain diagnosis. Premature infants are at great risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, key abnormalities affecting developmental outcome. Here we discuss technique, anatomy, variants and key points for diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3884-zDOI Listing
August 2017
3 Reads

Upper Limb Function, Kinematic Analysis, and Dystonia Assessment in Children With Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy and Periventricular Leukomalacia.

J Child Neurol 2017 Oct 4;32(11):936-941. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

2 Gait and Motion Analysis Center, ELEPAP-Rehabilitation for the Disabled, Athens, Greece.

Assessment of upper limb function, kinematic analysis, and dystonia in patients with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy and periventricular leukomalacia. Seven children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy and 8 controls underwent upper limb kinematics. Movement duration, average and maximum linear velocity, index of curvature, index of dystonia, and target accuracy and stability were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073817722451DOI Listing
October 2017
39 Reads

Alteration in the number and integrity of white matter tracts in the preterm: A quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion fibre tractography in children.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2017 Apr-Jun;27(2):119-124

Department of Radiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

Purpose: Periventricular white matter is most commonly injured in preterm babies with hypoxia. To assess white matter damage, we decided to perform diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in preterm children with history of hypoxia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (PTH). We hypothesized that the PTH have reduced number of white matter fibres compared to age matched pre term children without hypoxia (PTHO), and also depending on the severity of PVL, there could be reduction in the number of fibres as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_494_15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510306PMC
July 2017
2 Reads

Analysis of structure-function network decoupling in the brain systems of spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

Hum Brain Mapp 2017 10 21;38(10):5292-5306. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

BK21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Korea.

Manifestation of the functionalities from the structural brain network is becoming increasingly important to understand a brain disease. With the aim of investigating the differential structure-function couplings according to network systems, we investigated the structural and functional brain networks of patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy with periventricular leukomalacia compared to healthy controls. The structural and functional networks of the whole brain and motor system, constructed using deterministic and probabilistic tractography of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images and Pearson and partial correlation analyses of resting-state functional magnetic resonance images, showed differential embedding of functional networks in the structural networks in patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23738DOI Listing
October 2017
14 Reads

Head midline position for preventing the occurrence or extension of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 07 20;7:CD012362. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Department of Paediatrics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012362.pub2DOI Listing
July 2017
8 Reads

[Prevalence and risk factors for periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants. A systematic review].

Rev Neurol 2017 Jul;65(2):57-62

Universidad Camilo Jose Cela, Instituto de Investigacion Hospital 12 de Octubre., Madrid, Espana.

Introduction: There is a huge disparity in the description of the prevalence and risk factors of periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants.

Aims: To describe and compare, through a systematic review of the literature, the prevalence of periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants, as well as to determine the main risk factors associated with its presentation.

Subjects And Methods: A systematic review was conducted consulting multiple databases of the last 20 years. Read More

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July 2017
5 Reads

Confusions in Nomenclature: "Periventricular Leukomalacia" and "White Matter Injury"-Identical, Distinct, or Overlapping?

Authors:
Joseph J Volpe

Pediatr Neurol 2017 08 24;73:3-6. Epub 2017 May 24.

Harvard Medical School/Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.05.013DOI Listing

Infantile Spasms and Injuries of Prematurity: Short-Term Treatment-Based Response and Long-Term Outcomes.

J Child Neurol 2017 Sep 21;32(10):861-866. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

3 Department of Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

The association of infantile spasms and periventricular leukomalacia and/or intraventricular hemorrhage is well documented. Data regarding early treatment-based and long-term outcomes are limited. A retrospective chart review identified children with infantile spasms born prematurely (<37 weeks) with diagnoses of periventricular leukomalacia and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073817712587DOI Listing
September 2017
6 Reads

Brain Injury and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review.

Pediatrics 2017 Jul 13;140(1). Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Division of Neonatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Beatrix Children's Hospital, Groningen, Netherlands; and.

Context: Brain injury during prenatal and preoperative postnatal life might play a major role in neurodevelopmental impairment in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) who require corrective or palliative surgery during infancy. A systematic review of cerebral findings during this period in relation to neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO), however, is lacking.

Objective: To assess the association between prenatal and postnatal preoperative cerebral findings and NDO in infants with CHD who require corrective or palliative surgery during infancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-4055DOI Listing
July 2017
9 Reads

Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy: A Radiological Review.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):1-6

Department of Radiodiagnosis, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating condition that may result in death or severe neurologic deficits in children. Neuroimaging with cranial ultrasound (US), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable tools in the workup of patients with HIE. The pattern of brain injury depends on the severity and duration of hypoxia and degree of brain maturation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1817-1745.205646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5437770PMC
May 2017
33 Reads

Intravenous injection of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells attenuates reactive gliosis and hypomyelination in a neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage model.

Neuroscience 2017 07 11;355:175-187. Epub 2017 May 11.

Department of Cell Processing and Transfusion, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Electronic address:

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a frequent complication of preterm newborns, resulting in cerebral palsy and cognitive handicap as well as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and periventricular leukomalacia. In this study, we investigated the restorative effect on neonatal IVH by umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) cultured in serum-free medium (RM medium) for clinical application. UC-MSCs were cultured with αMEM medium supplemented with FBS or RM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.05.006DOI Listing
July 2017
56 Reads

[Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of encephalopathy of prematurity].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 May;97(17):1299-1302

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China.

To explore the MRI manifestation of encephalopathy of prematurity (EOP), so as to find an access to the early prevention, early diagnosis, effective treatment and prognosis. A total of 2 718 premature infants were collected, MRI and clinical data were analyzed who were admitted to NICU of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. The manifestation and lesions distribution in MRI were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2017.17.005DOI Listing
May 2017
6 Reads

The role of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring in preterm infants.

J Perinatol 2017 10 4;37(10):1070-1077. Epub 2017 May 4.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Neurological morbidities such as peri/intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia largely determine the neurodevelopmental outcome of vulnerable preterm infants and our aim should be to minimize their occurrence or severity. Bed-side neuromonitoring could provide valuable pieces of information about possible hemodynamic disturbances that are significantly associated with neurological morbidities and increased mortality. Near-infrared spectroscopy offers evaluation of regional cerebral oxygenation, which in conjunction with other non-invasive methods may give us a more complete picture about end-organ perfusion. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/jp.2017.60
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jp.2017.60DOI Listing
October 2017
1 Read

Novel magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

Metab Brain Dis 2017 08 3;32(4):967-970. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Neuromuscular Laboratory-Neurobiology Research Centre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India.

Reports on magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS), are limited. Many asymptomatic carriers of ACAD variants have also been described necessitating careful evaluation of clinical and biochemical findings for an accurate diagnosis. Here we report a an infant with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency diagnosed based on the characteristic biochemical findings and confirmed by genetic testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-017-0005-5DOI Listing
August 2017
17 Reads

Periventricular White Matter Lesions as a Prognostic Factor of Swallowing Function in Older Patients with Mild Stroke.

Dysphagia 2017 08 27;32(4):480-486. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, 20 Seohyeon-ro 180 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seoungnam-si, 13590, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Older patients with stroke have poor functional prognosis compared to younger patients. Patients with stroke who have severe white matter (WM) lesions have been reported to have poor functional prognosis such as cognitive dysfunction, increased propensity for falling, and gait and balance problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether WM lesions exert negative effects on swallowing function in older patients with mild stroke. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00455-017-9788-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00455-017-9788-0DOI Listing
August 2017
18 Reads

Cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants predict the development of cerebral palsy.

Dan Med J 2017 Feb;64(2)

Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate any association between gestational age, birth weight and findings on cranial ultrasounds during hospitalisation in very preterm infants and mortality and neurological outcome in childhood.

Method: This study was a retrospective cohort study based on a patient record review. The cohort consisted of very preterm born children (gestational age ≤ 32 + 0) born from 2004 to 2008. Read More

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February 2017
23 Reads

Risk factors for brain damage among preterm twins.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Feb 21;31(4):489-493. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

a Department of Neonatology , The Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital, Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv , Israel.

Aim: To evaluate the perinatal and postnatal risk factors for various brain pathologies among preterm twins.

Methods: Retrospective data of 104 twin pairs of which one of the siblings had evidence of abnormal head ultrasound (HUS) and its co-twin with normal HUS served as control.

Results: Abnormal HUS consisted of periventricular echodensities among 69 infants, intraventricular hemorrhage among 28 infants, cystic periventricular leukomalacia among 10 infants, and other parenchymal brain pathologies among 5 infants. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14767058.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1288210DOI Listing
February 2018
3 Reads

Spastic diplegia in preterm-born children: Executive function impairment and neuroanatomical correlates.

Res Dev Disabil 2017 Feb 7;61:116-126. Epub 2017 Jan 7.

Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris, Viale del Tirreno 331, 56128, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The neuropsychological literature on preterm-born children with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia is convergent in reporting deficits in non-verbal intelligence and in visuo-spatial abilities. Nevertheless, other cognitive functions have found to be impaired, but data are scant and not correlated with neuroimaging findings.

Aims: This study analyzes the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses in preterm-born children with spastic diplegia (pSD) and their relationships with neuroanatomical findings, investigated by a novel scale for MRI classification. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08914222163027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2016.12.006DOI Listing
February 2017
18 Reads

Three-dimensional ultrasound of the neonatal brain: technical approach and spectrum of disease.

Pediatr Radiol 2017 May 5;47(5):613-627. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 111 East 210th St., Bronx, NY, 10467, USA.

Brain pathology is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in the premature population. While conventional two-dimensional neurosonography is traditionally used for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of brain disorders such as germinal matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and hydrocephalus, three-dimensional ultrasonography has gained popularity in a variety of clinical applications in recent years. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is not yet widely utilized in pediatric imaging but is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the neonatal brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-016-3753-1DOI Listing
May 2017
10 Reads

Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Periventricular Leukomalacia in Very Young Children: Assessment of Peritrigonal Stripe of Restricted Diffusion.

Neuropediatrics 2017 Apr 28;48(2):86-90. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung/Linkou, and Chang Gung University, Taiwan.

 In periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) reduction, normally shown as dark stripe in the peritrigonal (PT) white matter, may be incomplete. We assessed the PT dark stripe to differentiate between PVL patients and control subjects.  We reviewed the magnetic resonance studies of 27 neonates and young children with PVL and 67 control subjects to assess the PT dark stripe on ADC maps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1597613DOI Listing
April 2017
6 Reads