28,888 results match your criteria Peritonitis and Abdominal Sepsis


Primary pneumococcal peritonitis with a fulminant course.

Vnitr Lek 2021 ;67(E-2):34-37

Introduction: Primary peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneal cavity in the absence of a localized intra-abdominal source. It is included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen and can be potentially life-threatening. Pneumococci were a frequent pathogen causing primary peritonitis especially in the preantibiotic era. Read More

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Intra-Abdominal Lipopolysaccharide Clearance and Inactivation in Peritonitis: Key Roles for Lipoproteins and the Phospholipid Transfer Protein.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:622935. Epub 2021 May 12.

Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté / Agrosup, Lipids Nutrition Cancer (LNC) UMR1231, Dijon, France.

Introduction: During peritonitis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) cross the peritoneum and pass through the liver before reaching the central compartment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of lipoproteins and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in the early stages of LPS detoxification.

Material And Methods: Peritonitis was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of LPS in mice. Read More

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Subhepatic appendix: an ectopic topography not to be disregarded: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 31;15(1):288. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Surgery, Regional Hospital Center of Maradi, Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Maradi, Maradi, Niger.

Introduction: Subhepatic appendix is most often due to an anomaly of rotation of the primary intestine occurring during embryogenesis. This ectopic topography associated with advanced age can be a serious diagnosis problem at the stage of appendicitis or appendicular peritonitis.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a 60-year-old melanoderm man, with a history of urinary pathology and peptic ulcer, referred from a health district for abdominal pain of the right hypochondrium evolving for about 5 days, secondarily generalized, in whom we suspected peritonitis, the etiology of which remains to be determined. Read More

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Intrabiliary and abdominal rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst leading to biliary obstruction, cholangitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis and septicemia: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 28;15(1):311. Epub 2021 May 28.

Inflammatory Lung Disease Research Center, Razi Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Hydatid cysts are fluid-filled sacs containing immature forms of parastic tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The most prevalent and serious complication of hydatid disease is intrabiliary rupture, also known as cystobiliary fistulae. In this study, a sporadic case of biliary obstruction, cholangitis, and septicemia is described secondary to hydatid cyst rupture into the common bile duct and intraperitoneal cavity. Read More

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Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis (CASP ).

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2321:9-15

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.

Colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) is one of the well-established models of experimental abdominal sepsis. In CASP surgery, an open link between the gut lumen and the abdominal cavity is created by placing a stent into the colon ascendens. This mimics well the insufficient intestinal anastomosis. Read More

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January 2021

Cecal Ligation and Puncture.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2321:1-8

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology in the AUVA Research Center, Vienna, Austria.

Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is referred to as the "gold standard" rodent model for abdominal sepsis. CLP creates a continuously leaking, polymicrobial infectious focus in the abdomen. The abdominal cavity is opened under general anesthesia and analgesia and the cecum is exposed, ligated underneath the ileocecal valve, and punctured with a needle. Read More

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January 2021

Antimicrobial Lessons From a Large Observational Cohort on Intra-abdominal Infections in Intensive Care Units.

Drugs 2021 Jun 26;81(9):1065-1078. Epub 2021 May 26.

UFR Denis Diderot, INSERM UMR 1152, ANR-10-LABX-17, Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, DMU PARABOL, CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, AP-HP, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Severe intra-abdominal infection commonly requires intensive care. Mortality is high and is mainly determined by disease-specific characteristics, i.e. Read More

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Descending necrotising mediastinitis: how a sore throat can result in purulent peritonitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 24;14(5). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of General and Upper GI Surgery, St James Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

This is a rare case of descending necrotising mediastinitis (DNM) that originated as an oropharyngeal infection, before spreading caudally to include all compartments of the mediastinum and the peritoneum beyond. The mediastinitis was treated early and aggressively with drainage, lavage and debridement in conjunction with broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment. This case includes a right cervical incision, and a seldom needed surgical laparotomy approach to address the intra-abdominal involvement, and necessity of peritoneal washout. Read More

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The neutrotime transcriptional signature defines a single continuum of neutrophils across biological compartments.

Nat Commun 2021 05 17;12(1):2856. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation, and Immunity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Neutrophils are implicated in multiple homeostatic and pathological processes, but whether functional diversity requires discrete neutrophil subsets is not known. Here, we apply single-cell RNA sequencing to neutrophils from normal and inflamed mouse tissues. Whereas conventional clustering yields multiple alternative organizational structures, diffusion mapping plus RNA velocity discloses a single developmental spectrum, ordered chronologically. Read More

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WSES-AAST guidelines: management of inflammatory bowel disease in the emergency setting.

World J Emerg Surg 2021 May 11;16(1):23. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Policlinico Sant'Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Despite the current therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, surgery is still frequently required in the emergency setting, although the number of cases performed seems to have decreased in recent years. The World Society of Emergency Surgery decided to debate in a consensus conference of experts, the main pertinent issues around the management of inflammatory bowel disease in the emergent situation, with the need to provide focused guidelines for acute care and emergency surgeons.

Method: A group of experienced surgeons and gastroenterologists were nominated to develop the topics assigned and answer the questions addressed by the Steering Committee of the project. Read More

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Spontaneous common bile duct perforation in full term pregnancy: a rare case report and review of literature.

BMC Surg 2021 May 8;21(1):239. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of General Surgery, Amiri Medical Complex, Qargha Road, Afshar, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Background: Spontaneous biliary system perforation is a rare presentation in clinical practice especially in adults. It is rarely suspected and diagnosed preoperatively due to small number of cases, vague sign and symptoms, and ambiguous presentation.

Case Presentation: We describe an interesting case of spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct in a 16 year-old female who presented a week after her first birth to the emergency department with complaints of diffuse abdominal pain, abdominal distention, fever, vomiting, and constipation. Read More

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Ischaemic bowel perforation secondary to a gravid uterus in a patient with treated inflammatory bowel disease and an ileoanal pouch: a case report.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 May;103(5):e151-e155

Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, UK.

The diagnosis of visceral perforation during pregnancy is often delayed and the management complex. A 32-year-old primigravid woman in her second trimester presented with abdominal pain and a pre-existing ileoanal pouch. Initial imaging was negative but later imaging was suggestive of serious pathology. Read More

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[Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report].

Pan Afr Med J 2021 8;38:136. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II, Fès, Maroc.

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a very rare pathological entity. It is a chronic fibroinflammatory disease affecting the peritoneum and leading to the formation of diffuse egg-shell-shaped fibrous capsule which totally or locally encapsulate the abdominal viscera, in particular the digestive tract. Clinical signs are little specific and misleading. Read More

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Idiopathic ileal volvulus with multiple concomitant infections in a starving man.

Malays J Pathol 2021 Apr;43(1):81-85

Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Department of Forensic Medicine, Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.

Background: Small bowel volvulus is defined as the torsion of the small intestine, potentially leading to bowel obstruction, gangrene and perforation. It is a rare condition, especially in adults.

Case Presentation: A 30-year-old man was retrieved from the jungle with severe weight loss and abdominal symptoms. Read More

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Tertiary peritonitis: A disease that should not be ignored.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(10):2160-2169

Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil.

Intra-abdominal infections can be classified into uncomplicated or complicated (peritonitis). Peritonitis is divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary. Tertiary peritonitis is the less common but the most severe among peritonitis stratifications, being defined as a recurrent intra-abdominal infection that occurs 48 h after a well-succeeded control of a secondary peritonitis. Read More

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Standing laparoscopic abdominal lavage using a suction-irrigation device in 2 horses with primary suppurative peritonitis.

Can Vet J 2021 04;62(4):397-402

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1.

The use of a laparoscopic suction-irrigation device in 2 standing horses for lavage of the abdomen for the treatment of primary suppurative peritonitis is reported. Two horses were presented with a 1- to 2-week history of weight loss. Abdominocentesis revealed highly elevated total nucleated cell count. Read More

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The effects of Fushen Granule on the composition and function of the gut microbiota during Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 28;86:153561. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Nephrology, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300381, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an acknowledged treatment for patients with irreversible kidney failure. The treatment usually causes peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP), a common complication of PD that can lead to inadequate dialysis, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and even death. Recent studies indicated that Fushen Granule (FSG), a Chinese herbal formula, improves the treatment of PD. Read More

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Evaluation of intraoperative leak testing of small intestinal anastomoses performed by hand-sewn and stapled techniques in dogs: 131 cases (2008-2019).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 May;258(9):991-998

Objective: To compare the rate of postoperative dehiscence on the basis of intraoperative anastomotic leak test results (ie, positive or negative for leakage or testing not performed) between dogs that underwent hand-sewn anastomosis (HSA) or functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) of the small intestine.

Animals: 131 client-owned dogs that underwent 144 small intestinal anastomoses (94 FEESA and 50 HSA).

Procedures: Medical records were searched to identify dogs that had undergone a small intestinal anastomosis (HSA or FEESA) from January 2008 through October 2019. Read More

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Stercoral perforation of the colon: a mortal consequence of chronic constipation in the elderly (a case report).

Pan Afr Med J 2021 18;38:48. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Visceral Surgical Emergency, Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco.

The stercoral perforation is a mortal condition. It affects elderly patients who have a long history of chronic and severe constipation as well as constitutes a surgical emergency whose prognosis, often grim, depends on the early diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a stercoral colon perforation which occurred in an 89-year-old patient. Read More

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Chlamydia (lymphogranuloma venereum) peritonitis in a male patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 14;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of General Surgery, University Hospitals Plymouth NHS Trust, Plymouth, UK.

A 49-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of abdominal pain, distension, diarrhoea and fatigue. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed peritonitis with no identifiable cause. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, which excluded gastrointestinal perforation. Read More

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Acute presentation of cocoon abdomen as septic peritonitis mimicking with strangulated internal herniation: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 13;7(1):93. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in which loops of small bowel get entrapped inside a fibro-collagenous membrane. Condition is also known in the literature as sclerosing peritonitis and in the majority of cases, it has no known cause. Although the majority of patients exhibit long-standing signs and symptoms of partial bowel obstruction in an out-patient clinic, its acute presentation in the emergency room with features of sepsis is extremely rare. Read More

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Colchicine acts selectively in the liver to induce hepatokines that inhibit myeloid cell activation.

Nat Metab 2021 04 12;3(4):513-522. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Systems Biology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Colchicine has served as a traditional medicine for millennia and remains widely used to treat inflammatory and other disorders. Colchicine binds tubulin and depolymerizes microtubules, but it remains unclear how this mechanism blocks myeloid cell recruitment to inflamed tissues. Here we show that colchicine inhibits myeloid cell activation via an indirect mechanism involving the release of hepatokines. Read More

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Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in an Adult Patient with Minimal Change Disease.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Apr 13;22:e930677. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, HANSUNG Union Internal Medicine Clinic and Dialysis Center, Daegu, South Korea.

BACKGROUND Pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome have a high risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). However, SBP in adults with nephrotic syndrome is very rare. We report a case of SBP induced by Escherichia coli in a 60-year-old male patient on immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of minimal change disease (MCD). Read More

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Floating appendix: post-traumatic amputation of the appendix as sequela or complication?: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;15(1):192. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Appendicitis following trauma is a well-documented sequela of blunt trauma to the abdomen, while appendiceal transection following trauma is extremely rare. Literature reports have documented appendicitis and appendiceal transection as the presenting pathology in a trauma setting. This is first report of auto-amputation of the appendix as a delayed presentation with peritonitis, which was detected during the second surgery in a child with blunt abdominal trauma. Read More

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The Essential Involvement of the Omentum in the Peritoneal Defensive Mechanisms During Intra-Abdominal Sepsis.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:631609. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Trauma Research Center, Fourth Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Although the abilities of the omentum to alleviate inflammation and prevent infection have been revealed over the past decades, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unelucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the mortality of mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and omentectomy was remarkably increased compared to those treated with CLP alone. Moreover, the efficacy of the omentum was associated with an impairment in intraperitoneal bacterial clearance together with an increase in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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APPLICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS AND PROBIOTICS FOR PREVENTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DISBIOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED PERITONITIS AND ENTERAL DYSFUNCTION SUPPORTS STAFF AWARENESS.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(3 cz 1):508-511

VINNITSYA MEMORIAL PYROGOV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, VINNYTSIA, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: To clarify the efficacy of probiotics use as a preventive measure for post-antibiotic treatment in acute peritonitis and increase staff awareness related to antibiotic and probiotic use.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The study design included determination of the proper antibiotic and probiotic strain combination and clinical application of probiotic strains. The control group consisted of 63 (48. Read More

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MicroRNA Interference in Hepatic Host-Pathogen Interactions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 30;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Kagawa University School of Medicine, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan.

The liver is well recognized as a non-immunological visceral organ that is involved in various metabolic activities, nutrient storage, and detoxification. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that resident immune cells in the liver drive various immunological reactions by means of several molecular modulators. Understanding the mechanistic details of interactions between hepatic host immune cells, including Kupffer cells and lymphocytes, and various hepatic pathogens, especially viruses, bacteria, and parasites, is necessary. Read More

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Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Type 4 (S1P) Is Differentially Regulated in Peritoneal B1 B Cells upon TLR4 Stimulation and Facilitates the Egress of Peritoneal B1a B Cells and Subsequent Accumulation of Splenic IRA B Cells under Inflammatory Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 27;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Experimental Surgical Research Laboratory, Department of General Surgery, Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, 17475 Greifswald, Germany.

Background: Gram-negative infections of the peritoneal cavity result in profound modifications of peritoneal B cell populations and induce the migration of peritoneal B cells to distant secondary lymphoid organs. However, mechanisms controlling the egress of peritoneal B cells from the peritoneal cavity and their subsequent trafficking remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated signaling controls migratory processes in numerous immune cells. Read More

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Peritonitis following unsafe abortion: a retrospective study in a tertiary health facility in North Central Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 18;37:354. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Community Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Introduction: surgical complications following unsafe abortion (UA) are not uncommon and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The commonest need for the general surgeon following UA is after a diagnosis of peritonitis which can occur following use of sharp objects introduced through the vagina. This study aims to highlight the presentation, management types and outcome of patients who presented with peritonitis following UA. Read More

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Perforated Acute Appendicitis in a Six-Day-Old Neonate: A Rare Differential Diagnosis of Neonatal Peritonitis.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2021 Jan-Apr;15(1):188-194. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Abdominal Emergency and Pediatric Surgery, Hue Central Hospital, Hue City, Vietnam.

Acute appendicitis is a rare diagnosis of acute abdomen in neonates which is associated with high mortality due to late diagnosis. Here, we presented a case of acute neonatal appendicitis in a 6-year-old full-term infant with Down syndrome and pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect. The patient underwent surgery and postoperative critical care. Read More

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February 2021