Background: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Read More
According to Coombs and Gell, cell-mediated immune responses belong to type IV reactions and are borne mainly by T lymphocytes. The eliciting allergens are usually so-called haptens. Haptens are substances which develop to whole antigens only by binding to protein carriers. Read More
Background: Toothpastes have widespread use in the population, and contain flavours to give a pleasant and often minty aroma. Flavours are prevalent allergens in toothpastes, and adverse reactions often present as perioral dermatitis or stomatitis. l-Carvone, a mint flavour found in spearmint oil, is one of these allergens. Read More
Background: Herein, we report a case of atypical periorificial dermatitis in a patient that had been receiving treatment for some time for atopic dermatitis. The specific feature of this rash was its periocular predominance with no perioral involvement, its clinical aspect and its histological picture evocative of sarcoidosis.
Patients And Methods: A 33-year-old man was being treated for a atopic dermatitis limited to the face and poorly responsive to dermal corticosteroids. Read More
Demodicidosis is a common infestation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent or recalcitrant perioral dermatitis or rosacea-like eruptions of the face. We report on a 34-year-old male, who presented with facial erythema and desquamation accompanied by a pruritic sensation. Dermoscopic examination revealed Demodex tails and Demodex follicular openings, both specific features of this entity. Read More
Objectives: EULAR guidelines state that adverse effects (AEs) of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy should be considered and discussed with the patient before treatment is initiated. However, reliable quantitative data, especially on cutaneous AEs of low-to-medium dose GCs are lacking. We performed a study assessing the occurrence of cutaneous AEs of GCs and its association with current and cumulative GC doses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Read More
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Read More
A switch from cell-mediated to humoral immunity (helper T 1 [Th1] to helper T 2 [Th2] shift) during gestation plays a key role in placental immune tolerance. As a result, skin diseases that are Th2 mediated often worsen, whereas skin diseases that are Th1 mediated often improve during gestation. Also, due to fluctuations in glandular activity, skin diseases involving sebaceous and eccrine glands may flare, whereas those involving apocrine glands may improve during pregnancy. Read More
Background: Iridoschisis is a rare disorder characterized by splitting of the anterior and posterior iris stroma, resulting in disintegrated iris fibrils which float freely in the anterior chamber. We report an exceptional case of bilateral iridoschisis occurring in conjunction with keratoconus and severe allergic eye disease.
Case Presentation: A 24-year-old white man had had periocular contact dermatitis and allergic eye disease from the age of 3 years. Read More
Introduction: Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) was often endemic in the past but is nowadays rare. The hematogeneous spread of exfoliative toxins A (ETA) or B (ETB) produced by specific Staphylococcus aureus strains causes a scald-like eruption with disseminated bullous lesions.
Case Report: A perioral impetigo lesion occurred on day 14 of life in a preterm male infant (1,065 g, 30 weeks of gestational age). Read More
Over the last ten years, there has been an increased awareness of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, in addition to adults. Historically, ACD was not considered a significant disease in the pediatric population. This may have been due to failure to employ patch testing, which is the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis of ACD. Read More
Introduction: This mono-center randomized, controlled, double-blind study evaluates the safety and efficacy of MD2011001 cream versus placebo, in mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). MD2011001 is a nonsteroidal topical cream containing vitamin E, epigallocatechin gallate and grape seed procyanidins.
Methods: Patients with AD (corresponding to an IGA score of 2 or 3), involving the face, the perioral/periocular area and/or the neck, were enrolled. Read More
Subantimicrobial doxycycline is an anti-inflammatory drug that decreases cathelicidin, kallikrein 5, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinases. Clinical trials demonstrated a comparable efficacy to 100-mg doxycycline in papulopustular rosacea with improvement of inflammatory lesions, quality of life, and improved safety profile. Case series and case reports suggested efficacy in other inflammatory skin diseases. Read More
Perioral dermatitis is a common and often chronic dermatosis. In its classic form, it primarily affects women aged 15 to 45 years, but there are also variants including lupus-like and granulomatous perioral dermatitis, where granulomatous form is more common in childhood and affects mostly prepubescent boys. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there is a frequent finding of prolonged use of topical products, especially corticosteroids, in the treatment of rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis, preceding the clinical manifestation of perioral dermatitis. Read More
Azelaic acid is a complex molecule with many diverse activities. The latter include anti-infective and anti-inflammatory action. The agent also inhibits follicular keratinization and epidermal melanogenesis. Read More
Acne is the most common skin disease. Distinguishing between true acne vulgaris and the various acneiform eruptions is important yet sometimes challenging. Given the common nature of acne and acneiform eruptions, the pediatrician must be aware of these lesion patterns and possess the skills to effectively evaluate the pediatric presentation of these eruptions. Read More
Granulomatous rosacea and periorificial dermatitis are common skin conditions affecting the face. This article examines the historical origin, causes, clinical presentation, and management strategies for these entities. Read More
Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) are heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abrogated/impaired T cell development and/or functions that resulted from diverse genetic defects. In addition to the susceptibility to infections with various microorganisms, the patients may have lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, inflammation, allergy and malignancy. Recently, three groups have independently reported patients having mutations in STK4 gene that cause a novel autosomal recessive (AR) CID. Read More
Background: The diagnosis of dogs with chronic juxtamucosal erosive lesions and histopathology typical of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is unclear.
Hypothesis/objectives: We report herein 21 dogs with mucocutaneous erosive lesions and lupus-specific histopathology that we propose to be affected with mucocutaneous lupus erythematosus (MCLE), another variant of chronic CLE.
Methods: Inclusion criteria were the presence of the following: (i) a >2 month history of chronic or recurrent skin lesions; (ii) erosions or ulcers predominating at mucosae or mucocutaneous junctions; (iii) microscopic lesions of CLE (i. Read More
The cause of perioral dermatitis is still unknown. We previously reported that rod-shaped bacteria (RB) containing intracellular granules were detected in cases of perioral dermatitis at a high incidence. The aim of this study was to study further the role of RB in perioral dermatitis. Read More
Background: Periorificial dermatitis (POD) is a rosacea-like papulopustular facial eruption most commonly reported in young adult women. Although POD has been reported in children as young as 6 months of age, there are limited data on the diagnosis and management of POD in pediatric cases.
Methods: All children diagnosed with POD at the Dermatology Clinic at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between June 2002 and March 2014 were included in the current study. Read More
Human Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) are unique in that they are an obligate human ectoparasite that can inhabit the pilosebaceous unit lifelong without causing obvious host immune response in most cases. The mode of symbiosis between humans and human Demodex mites is unclear, while the pathogenicity of human Demodex mites in many inflammatory skin diseases is now better understood. Primary human demodicosis is a skin disease sui generis not associated with local or systemic immunosuppression. Read More
A 5-year-old girl consulted the general practitioner with perioral skin lesions. Dermatological findings were erythema and squamae with a sharp border, without vesicles or crusts. She had a habit of licking her lips frequently, which is causal for lip licking dermatitis. Read More
The strive for proficient cosmetic facial appearance is growing in the past decades. Fillers for tissue augmentation are gaining wide popularity. Uncertified products based on oleic solutions are applied by untrained staff, thus growing the risk for certain complications such as infections, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, and lipogranuloma formation. Read More
A 56-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute onset of dermatitis on her face accompanied by intense itching. The patient reported that the condition began after cleaning a decorative plant, Euphorbia trigona, and contact with some drops of the plant's latex sap released upon cutting its leaves. The clinical examination revealed erythema and edema of the infraorbital and perioral regions (Figure 1). Read More
Skin manifestations, including scalded skin, desquamation, and chronic periorificial dermatitis, are rare clinical signs in patients with methylmalonic acidemia. This condition may be due to enzyme deficiency or multi-nutrient deficiency because of nutritional restriction. Bullous skin lesion is very rare in these patients and consequently, this type of skin lesion can be the presenting sign of methylmalonic acidemia. Read More
The purpose of this article is to review the common neoplasms, infections, and inflammatory dermatoses that may present around or near the mouth. Dental professionals are well positioned to evaluate perioral skin conditions, further contributing to patients' general health. This article includes a review of seborrheic keratosis, warts, actinic keratoses, actinic cheilitis, and squamous cell carcinoma, among several other perioral cutaneous lesions. Read More
Perioral dermatitis is a common acneiform facial eruption found in both adults and children. Its variants are periorificial and granulomatous periorificial dermatitis. The etiology of perioral dermatitis remains unknown; however, topical corticosteroid use on the face commonly precedes the manifestation of this condition. Read More
Minocycline (MCN) is a member of the tetracycline family that is commonly used to treat dermatologic conditions such as acne and perioral dermatitis; however, it also has been associated with a number of adverse effects, including drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). We report the case of a 46-year-old woman who developed a rash, fever, and eosinophilia during treatment with MCN for perioral dermatitis. Although MCN was discontinued and the patient was administered oral corticosteroids for several months, she subsequently died from multiorgan failure with giant cell myocardi-tis (GCM) and eosinophilic myocarditis found on autopsy. Read More
Human Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) hold a high rank in the evolutionary and phylogenetic hierarchy of the skin microbiome, although in most people their presence is of no consequence. While human demodicosis is a skin disease sui generis, it can mimic many other inflammatory dermatoses, such as folliculitis, rosacea and perioral dermatitis, leading to unspecific and confusing descriptions in the literature. Here, we propose to classify human demodicosis into a primary form and a secondary form, which is associated mainly with immunosuppression. Read More
Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. Read More
Physicians in various specialties-and dermatologists in particular-frequently encounter various forms of inflammation of the eyelids and of the anterior surface of the eye. Distinguishing the cause of itchy, painful, red, edematous eyelids is often difficult. Because the uppermost layer of the eyelids is part of the skin that wraps the entire body, almost every skin disease in the textbook can affect the periorbital area as well. Read More
Perioral dermatitis is a relatively common inflammatory facial skin disorder that predominantly affects women. It is rarely diagnosed in children. A typical perioral dermatitis presentation involves the eruption of papules and pustules that may recur over weeks to months, occasionally with fine scales. Read More
Is it acne or is it not? When this question arises, we can presume that we have crossed the boundaries of "acneiform eruptions" of the face. Although acne may be considered a condition fairly easy to diagnose, it is not rare for the practicing dermatologist or the general physician to wonder when faced with an acneiform eruption before establishing a diagnosis. In this review, we address facial acneiform eruptions in children and in adults, including perioral dermatitis, granulomatous periorificial dermatitis, nevus comedonicus, acne cosmetica, rosacea, demodicosis, folliculitis, acneiform presentation of cutaneous lymphomas, and drug-induced [epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, steroids, etc. Read More
Lupoid perioral dermatitis is classified as a special form of perioral dermatitis with dense aggregations of red-brown papules which display a lupoid infiltrate on diascopy. There are various treatment options ranging from total avoidance of all topical substances to different topical treatment. Cases resistant to therapy require systemic treatment, which, however, is off-label use. Read More
The topical calcineurin antagonist tacrolimus plays an important role in the treatment of different forms of eczema because of its favorable risk profile. In addition, different off-label indications have been clinically tested where tacrolimus ointment has achieved clinical improvement. This article discusses off-label treatment of vitiligo, seborrheic dermatitis, steroid rosacea, perioral dermatitis, rosacea and lichen sclerosus. Read More