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    Paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Feb;96(8):e6184
    Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, China.
    Rationale: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune syndrome associated with neoplasms. The treatment approach principally includes suppressing the immunity, but its therapeutic effect is not satisfying.

    Patient Concerns: We report a case of paraneoplastic pemphigus linked to chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a 63-year-old man. Read More

    Do serum prolactin levels correlate with antibodies against desmoglein in pemphigus vulgaris?
    Adv Biomed Res 2016 27;5:206. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin, the etiology of which is not completely known. Despite the latter, anti-desmoglein antibodies play a proven role in the pathogenesis. Recent studies showed an etiologic effect for prolactin in the pemphigus vulgaris. Read More

    Utility of immunofluorescence in dermatology.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Jan-Feb;8(1):1-8
    Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
    Immunofluorescence (IF) tests have redefined our understanding of many immune-mediated skin diseases, especially autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBDs). Nomenclature of certain AIBDs (for example, linear IgA diseases and IgA pemphigus) has been done based solely on the finding of tissue-bound immunoreactants as detected by IF tests. Direct and indirect are the two major types of IF tests; they are not only useful in the diagnosis but also guide the clinician in the treatment at least in certain AIBDs, as the titer of circulating antibodies as detected by IF reflects the disease activity. Read More

    Autoantibodies other than Anti-desmogleins in Pemphigus Vulgaris Patients.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;62(1):47-51
    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an immunoglobulin G-mediated autoimmune bullous skin disease. Nonorgan-specific antibodies were detected in Tunisian and Brazilian pemphigus patients with different prevalence.

    Materials And Methods: Fifty PV patients and fifty controls were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMAs), anti-parietal antibodies (APAs), anti-mitochondrial antibodies, and Anti-nuclear cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) by indirect immunofluorescence. Read More

    Role of FOXP3 gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to Tunisian endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus.
    Immunol Lett 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Immunology Department, Habib Bourguiba Hospital, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:
    Objective: Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is an essential and crucial transcription factor of regulatory T-cells. Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of FOXP3 gene may alter the gene expression level and, therefore, contribute to several autoimmune diseases susceptibility. We aimed to investigate the possible role of genetic variants of four SNPs (rs3761547, rs3761548, rs3761549 and rs2294021) and a (GT)n microsatellite located in FOXP3 gene in the susceptibility to Tunisian Pemphigus Foliaceus (PF). Read More

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with Castleman disease: Progression from mucous to mucocutaneous lesions with epitope-spreading phenomena.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    Departments of Dermatology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.
    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a frequently fatal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes.(1) PNP is commonly associated with malignant neoplasms or haematological disorders like Castleman disease (CD). The eruptions may resemble those seen in various other conditions such as lichen planus (LP), graft-versus-host disease, erythema multiforme (EM), bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Read More

    Pemphigus, a pathomechanism of acantholysis.
    Australas J Dermatol 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Dermatology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.
    Autoantibodies to the desmosomal proteins desmoglein 1 and 3 cause pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris, which are characterised by keratinocyte dissociation (acantholysis) and intraepidermal blister formation. The passive transfer of pathogenic anti-desmoglein antibodies induces blisters in mice in vivo and the loss of keratinocyte adhesion in vitro. The pathogenetic mechanisms of acantholysis due to anti-desmoglein autoantibodies are not fully understood. Read More

    Low-dose rituximab and concurrent adjuvant therapy for pemphigus: Protocol and single-centre long-term review of nine patients.
    Australas J Dermatol 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Pemphigus is an autoimmune B-cell mediated blistering disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rituximab has proven effective for the treatment of steroid-refractory pemphigus, although there is controversy over the optimum dosing protocol. Additionally, effective disease control often requires long-term immunosuppression, even in disease-free periods. Read More

    The Inpatient Burden of Autoimmune Blistering Disease in US Children: Analysis of Nationwide Inpatient Sample Data.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Departments of Dermatology, Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Suite 1600, 676 N. St. Clair St., Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of pediatric autoimmune blistering disorders (PAIBD).

    Objective: We sought to determine the inpatient burden and comorbidities of PAIBD.

    Methods: We analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2012, which contained a representative 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Read More

    Study of the association between human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and pemphigus vulgaris in Brazilian patients.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    ENT Department of School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is a mucocutaneous blistering autoimmune disease that manifests as painful blisters or erosions on the skin and/or mucosal surfaces. IgG autoantibodies target desmoglein, playing a major role in disease pathogenesis. Genetic predisposal to pemphigus vulgaris, especially the HLA DR and DQ alleles, has been known since the 1980s. Read More

    Adjuvant rituximab treatment for pemphigus: A retrospective study of 45 patients at a single center with long-term follow up.
    J Dermatol 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    To evaluate the long-term outcomes of rituximab in the treatment of pemphigus and the influence of disease duration and different dose of rituximab on the clinical response, 45 patients with refractory pemphigus treated with at least one cycle of two infusions of rituximab (375 mg/m(2) per infusion weekly) were retrospectively studied. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. All patients achieved complete or partial remission within 8 months of the first cycle. Read More

    Rituximab therapy in pemphigus and other autoantibody-mediated diseases.
    F1000Res 2017 27;6:83. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, 1009 Biomedical Research Building, 421 Curie Boulevard, PA, USA.
    Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the B cell marker CD20, was initially approved in 1997 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Since that time, rituximab has been FDA-approved for rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitides, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. Additionally, rituximab has been used off-label in the treatment of numerous other autoimmune diseases, with notable success in pemphigus, an autoantibody-mediated skin blistering disease. Read More

    Positive correlation of anti-herpes simplex type I virus antibody levels with pemphigus vulgaris disease status and activity in a large patient cohort.
    Eur J Dermatol 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Rm. 6078, 875 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.
    It is well accepted that pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is genetically linked to specific HLA class II subtypes. Environmental factors, including the role of herpes simplex virus (HSV1) in disease manifestation, have also been implicated, but in a limited number of patients and with inconsistent results. To clarify an association between HSV1 and PV in a large data set, including a stratification by dynamic and static clinical parameters, including disease activity, therapy status, HLA association, and gender. Read More

    Pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation in self-destructive autoimmune responses.
    Autoimmunity 2017 Feb;50(1):25-36
    a Department of Respiratory , Inflammation & Autoimmunity, MedImmune LLC , Gaithersburg , MD , USA.
    Autoantibodies of the IgG subclass are pathogenic in a number of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythomatosus. The presence of circulating IgE autoantibodies in autoimmune patients has also been known for almost 40 years. Despite their role in allergies, IgE autoantibodies are not associated with a higher rate of atopy in these patients. Read More

    Anti-Desmoglein 1 and 3 Autoantibody Levels in Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus and Pemphigus Vulgaris from Brazil.
    Clin Lab 2016 Jul;62(7):1209-1216
    Background: Pemphigus is a group of autoimmune blistering diseases of which the major forms are pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and vulgaris (PV). In Brazil, PF occurs in an endemic form also known as fogo selvagem. The main autoantibody in PF is against desmoglein 1 (DSG1), while in PV the main antibody is anti-desmoglein 3 (DSG3), but often anti-DSG1 is also present. Read More

    Pemphigus vulgaris and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    J Res Med Sci 2016 18;21:82. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune bullous and erosive mucocutaneous disease. Rarely, it occurs in patients with other autoimmune disease. The relation between PV and neurological disorders is unclear and needs to be more studied. Read More

    Autoimmune Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity.
    Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Mar 28;10(1):57-88. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Sciences, University of Florida, 1395 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
    Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns. Read More

    Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in an Immunodeficient Patient (Pemphigus Vulgaris) Due to Corticosteroid Therapy: A Case Report.
    Iran J Parasitol 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):411-416
    Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
    Strongyloidiasis is a frequent misdiagnosed parasitic infection in the world that caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. In Iran, the disease is predominantly reported from warm and humid climate provinces. The patient was a 54-yr-old man, originated from Khuzestan Province with a history of pemphigus and diabetes that was treated with high-dose of corticosteroid drugs before admission in a non-private hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2014. Read More

    Local inflammation exacerbates cutaneous manifestations in a murine autoimmune pemphigus model.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) and Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

    Bullous, pseudobullous, & pustular dermatoses.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2016 Dec 14. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Division of Surgical Pathology & Cytopathology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:
    Several dermatoses are typified by the formation of spaces (blisters; bullae) within or beneath the epidermis. These may be acellular or filled with particular species of inflammatory cells. Etiological categories include infectious, immune-mediated, genetic, drug-related, and idiopathic lesions. Read More

    Application of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pemphigus.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Mar 17;56(3):296-301. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
    Background: Pemphigus is a rare and fatal autoimmune disease for which the treatment options are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT) for pemphigus.

    Methods: We conducted APHSCT for 12 pemphigus patients (seven males and five females, mean age 23. Read More

    Mortality and Cause of Death in Patients with Pemphigus.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Rambam Health Care Campus. POB 9602, 31096 Haifa, Israel.
    All-cause and cause-specific mortality among patients with pemphigus compared with the general population is yet to be established. This study investigated overall mortality and cause-specific mortality in a large immunopathologically validated cohort of patients with pemphigus. Mortality of patients with pemphigus was compared with age- and gender-matched control subjects in the general population. Read More

    Correlation of antimuscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibody titers and antidesmoglein antibody titers with the severity of disease in patients with pemphigus.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharalal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.
    Background: Acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibody levels significantly correlate with disease severity at initial pemphigus diagnosis and during follow-up. However, it is not clear if they are just an epiphenomenon or a potential trigger of the known pathogenic process in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Objective: We sought to assess the changes in anti-muscarinic (M3) AchR and anti-desmoglein (Dsg) antibody titers with therapy. Read More

    Oral mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris-a retrospective two-center cohort study.
    Oral Dis 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objectives: Few studies have compared oral mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Descriptive analysis of oral features, extent of extra-oral involvement, and management outcomes were performed.

    Subjects And Methods: Patients with PV and MMP, the latter with exclusive oral involvement at first presentation, were included. Read More

    Salivary Samples for the Diagnosis of Pemphigus vulgaris Using the BIOCHIP Approach: a Pilot Study.
    In Vivo 2017 01;31(1):97-99
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune intraepithelial blistering skin disease characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 (DSG3) and desmoglein 1 (DSG1), resulting in loss of the normal epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion, through a process called acantholysis. In recent years, a BIOCHIP-based indirect immunofluorescence technique for the determination of anti-DSG3 and anti-DSG1 autoantibodies has been described. Even though, the use of saliva anti-DSG3 and anti-DSG1 ELISA for the diagnosis of PV has been already reported, there are no studies concerning the utilization of saliva by the BIOCHIP approach. Read More

    Can immunohistochemistry replace immunofluorescence in diagnosis of skin bullous diseases?
    APMIS 2017 Feb 3;125(2):114-121. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
    Autoimmune bullous diseases are distressing and sometimes risky bullous dermatoses characterized by the presence of antibodies focused against disease-specific target antigens. Recognition of these antibodies using immunofluorescence is used to be the only sure diagnostic method after reviewing the routine histopathological section. Because of many causes that make the using of immunofluorescence difficult, we tried to evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of these bullous skin diseases; 40 pemphigus cases (30 pemphigus vulgaris and 10 pemphigus foliaceus) and 37 non-pemphigus cases (35 vesiculobullous skin diseases and 2 normal skin). Read More

    Proteomic Analysis of Pemphigus Autoantibodies Indicates a Larger, More Diverse, and More Dynamic Repertoire than Determined by B Cell Genetics.
    Cell Rep 2017 Jan;18(1):237-247
    Department of Dermatology, 1008 BRB, 421 Curie Boulevard, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    In autoantibody-mediated diseases such as pemphigus, serum antibodies lead to disease. Genetic analysis of B cells has allowed characterization of antibody repertoires in such diseases but would be complemented by proteomic analysis of serum autoantibodies. Here, we show using proteomic analysis that the serum autoantibody repertoire in pemphigus is much more polyclonal than that found by genetic studies of B cells. Read More

    Periodontitis in oral pemphigus and pemphigoid: A systematic review of published studies.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Dec 28. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:
    Periodontitis and autoimmune bullous diseases, including pemphigus vulgaris and mucous membrane pemphigoid, are immunoinflammatory disorders leading to microbial plaque- and autoantibody-elicited tissue injury of the oral cavity, respectively. Evidence indicates that these autoimmune conditions may represent a risk factor for periodontitis, but no systematic evaluation exists to corroborate this assumption. A systematic literature review of periodontal status in pemphigus and pemphigoid was conducted. Read More

    Prospective studies on the routine use of a novel multivariant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Dec 28. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Lübeck Institute of Experimental Dermatology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Serologic diagnosis of autoimmune blistering disease (AIBD) usually follows a sophisticated multistep algorithm.

    Objective: We sought validation of a multivariant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the routine diagnosis of AIBD.

    Methods: The multivariant ELISA comprising 6 recombinant immunodominant forms of major AIBD target antigens, ie, desmoglein 1, desmoglein 3, envoplakin, BP180, BP230, and type VII collagen was applied in: (1) a cohort of well-characterized AIBD (n = 173) and control sera (n = 130), (2) a prospective multicenter study with 204 sera from patients with newly diagnosed AIBD with positive direct immunofluorescence microscopy, and (3) a prospective monocenter study with 292 consecutive sera from patients with clinical suspicion of AIBD in comparison with the conventional multistep diagnostic algorithm. Read More

    Discrepancies among clinical, histological and immunological findings in IgA pemphigus: a case report and literature survey.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2016 Dec 2;33(6):480-484. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Chair of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Immunodermatology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Faculty of Medicine, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

    Response of Pemphigus betae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Beneficial Epigeal Arthropod Communities to Sugarbeet Plant Density and Seed-Applied Insecticide in Western Nebraska.
    Environ Entomol 2016 Dec 26. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Department of Entomology, Panhandle Research and Extension Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 405 Ave. I, Scottsbluff, NE 69361
    This study investigated the impact of a neonicotinoid seed-applied insecticide (Poncho Beta) and two plant densities (86,487 and 61,776 plants per hectare) on the sugarbeet root aphid (Pemphigus betae Doane), beneficial epigeal arthropods, and selected crop yield parameters in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. var. vulgaris). Read More

    Non-pathogenic pemphigus foliaceus (PF) IgG acts synergistically with a directly pathogenic PF IgG to increase blistering by p38MAPK-dependent desmoglein 1 clustering.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Mar 12;85(3):197-207. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Dermatology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an autoimmune blistering disease caused by autoantibodies (Abs) against desmoglein 1 (Dsg1). PF sera contain polyclonal Abs which are heterogeneous mixture of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic Abs, as shown by isolation of monoclonal Abs (mAbs).

    Objective: To investigate how pathogenic and non-pathogenic anti-Dsg1 Abs contribute to blister formation in PF. Read More

    Validation of chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay in detection of autoantibodies in pemphigus and pemphigoid.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Mar 6;85(3):208-215. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi Shinjuku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: A novel chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) was recently developed to quantify autoantibodies specific for desmogleins (Dsgs) and BP180, the target antigens of pemphigus and pemphigoid. This assay is automated and highly accurate and efficient.

    Objective: To validate the use of the CLEIA for detection of autoantibodies during the clinical courses of patients with pemphigus and pemphigoid. Read More

    Research Techniques Made Simple: Mouse Models of Autoimmune Blistering Diseases.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Jan;137(1):e1-e6
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Autoimmune blistering diseases are examples of autoantibody-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Based on a genetic susceptibility, such as a strong HLA-class II association, as yet unknown triggering factors induce the formation of circulating and tissue-bound autoantibodies that are mainly directed against adhesion structures of the skin and mucous membranes. Compared with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic disorders, the pathogenicity of autoimmune blistering diseases is relatively well described. Read More

    Pemphigus Vulgaris: How to Perform an Oral Biopsy Properly?
    J Craniofac Surg 2016 Nov;27(8):e768-e769
    *Department of Pathology and Clinical Propaedeutics†Oral Oncology Center, Araçatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Araçatuba, Brazil.
    Oral biopsy of vesiculobullous diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris often raises questions due to some particularities involving this procedure. The adequate selection of the area to be biopsied defines if the final diagnosis will be reached, being the Achiles heel of the proper management of the patient. Here, the authors report a case of a woman who sought for treatment of generalized oral blisters and ulcers that caused severe pain. Read More

    Concurrent Pemphigus Foliaceus and Graves' Disease.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2016 Dec 16. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Division of Dermatology, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, MO.
    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an uncommon immunobullous disease in children. Other autoimmune diseases have rarely been reported in children with PF. We report the case of an adolescent girl who presented with concurrent PF and Graves' disease. Read More

    Gonadectomy effects on the risk of immune disorders in the dog: a retrospective study.
    BMC Vet Res 2016 Dec 8;12(1):278. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Animal Science, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
    Background: Gonadectomy is one of the most common procedures performed on dogs in the United States. Neutering has been shown to reduce the risk for some diseases although recent reports suggest increased prevalence for structural disorders and some neoplasias. The relation between neuter status and autoimmune diseases has not been explored. Read More

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