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    1 OF 13

    A resistant case of pemphigus gestationis successfully treated with cyclosporine.
    Interv Med Appl Sci 2016 Mar;8(1):20-22
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.
    Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a rare autoimmune blistering disease of pregnancy caused by antibasement membrane zone auto-antibodies. The usual clinical findings are multiple pruritic urticarial papules and plaques, target lesions, vesicles, and blisters that occur during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. The disease is often treated with topical corticosteroids and oral antihistaminics. Read More

    Vesicular Contact Reaction May Progress into Erythema Multiforme.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2016 Dec;24(4):307-309
    Prof. Magdalena Czarnecka-Operacz, MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology, 49 Przybyszewski Str., 60-355 Poznań, Poland.
    Dear Editor, Erythema multiforme is considered an acute skin condition, characterized by a self-limiting and sometimes recurrent course. It is regarded as a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. Allergic contact dermatitis is in turn a delayed type of induced allergy as a result of cutaneous contact with a specific allergen to which the patient develops specific sensitivity. Read More

    Bullous, pseudobullous, & pustular dermatoses.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2016 Dec 14. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Division of Surgical Pathology & Cytopathology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, United States. Electronic address:
    Several dermatoses are typified by the formation of spaces (blisters; bullae) within or beneath the epidermis. These may be acellular or filled with particular species of inflammatory cells. Etiological categories include infectious, immune-mediated, genetic, drug-related, and idiopathic lesions. Read More

    [Specific dermatoses of pregnancy].
    Hautarzt 2017 Feb;68(2):87-94
    Hautklinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, 91054, Erlangen, Deutschland.
    The specific dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. A clinically relevant classification has been well established over the past 10 years and includes pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. The hallmark of all four entities is severe pruritus that is accompanied by characteristic skin changes. Read More

    Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy: Review of literature.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Feb 14;37(2):137-140. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa, Hospital Padre Américo , Penafiel , Portugal.
    Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy (PEP) is one of the most common dermatosis related to pregnancy. PEP usually consists of pruritic papules and plaques appearing in the third trimester of pregnancy. It is more common in primigravidae and twin pregnancies. Read More

    Successful treatment of a severe early onset case of pemphigoid gestationis with intravenous immunoglobulin in a twin pregnancy conceived with in vitro fertilisation in a primigravida.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Feb 6;37(2):246-247. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    a Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit , Universitary La Paz Hospital , Madrid , Spain.

    Pregnancy with Pemphigoid Gestationis: A Rare Entity.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Jul 1;10(7):QD06-7. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
    Senior Specialist, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Babu Jagjivan Ram Hospital , Delhi, India .
    Pemphigoid Gestationis (PG) is a rare autoimmune blistering disease with an incidence of 1/50000 pregnancies. Presentation in the second or third trimester is most common and tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies with earlier onset and a more severe course. Direct Immunofluorescence (DIF) staining is confirmatory on skin biopsy specimen. Read More

    Bullous impetigo and pregnancy: Case report and review of blistering conditions in pregnancy.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Apr 18;22(4). Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego.
    Background:  Bullous impetigo results from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) release of exfoliative toxins type A and type B thatresults in flaccid, easily ruptured, bullae in the upper layers of the epidermis.  Physiologic, gestation-associated, and incidental skin changes can occur in pregnancy. Read More

    Itch in Pregnancy Management.
    Curr Probl Dermatol 2016 23;50:164-72. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Antwerp, University of Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium.
    Pruritus is common in pregnancy. It deserves an elaborated work-up of the patient. It is frequently a symptom of a dermatosis that coincides by chance with pregnancy or a preexisting dermatosis that can flare during pregnancy. Read More

    Lichen planus pemphigoides associated with pregnancy mimicking pemphigoid gestationis.
    Cutis 2016 Jun;97(6):E20-4
    Department of Dermatology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Río Piedras.
    Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP) is a rare condition characterized by tense blisters that arise on lesions of lichen planus (LP) and on unaffected skin. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman at 12 weeks' gestation who developed an acute bullous eruption after 5 months of worsening LP. Similarities to pemphigoid gestationis (PG) included lesions around the periumbilical area and multiple urticarial erythematous papules and plaques in addition to linear C3 and IgM deposition along the basement membrane zone (BMZ) on direct immunofluorescence (DIF). Read More

    Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):383-91. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
    Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP), a specific dermatosis of pregnancy also known as pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), is a benign, self-limited skin disorder. Key features include an increased prevalence in primigravidas, onset in the third trimester, remission near the time of delivery, and association with multiple gestation pregnancy. The clinical features are crucial to diagnosis. Read More

    Pemphigoid gestationis: Toward a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):378-82. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Allergy, and Venereology, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lübeck, Germany.
    Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is the only autoimmune disease exclusively emerging in pregnancy. It belongs to the pemphigoid group of disorders, a class of autoimmune blistering skin diseases featuring an immune response against different hemidesmosomal proteins. PG is caused by a break of immunotolerance against the hemidesmosomal protein BP180. Read More

    Skin disease in pregnancy: The approach of the obstetric medicine physician.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):320-6. Epub 2016 Feb 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address:
    This review presents the approach of the obstetric medicine physician to skin disease in pregnancy. It elaborates on common skin-related problems during gestation, such as pruritus, with or without eruption, and drug eruptions. An algorithmic approach to the differential diagnosis of pruritus in pregnancy is outlined. Read More

    Dermatoses of pregnancy: Nomenclature, misnomers, and myths.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 May-Jun;34(3):314-9. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Department of Dermatology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California; Department of Dermatology, Palo Alto Foundation Medical Group, Mountain View, California. Electronic address:
    The most recent reclassification of dermatoses of pregnancy includes polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eruption of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis; intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, strictly not a dermatosis, was included in specific dermatoses of pregnancy for working purposes. Another dermatosis, pustular psoriasis of pregnancy, could be included for similar reasons. The nomenclature of these pregnancy-specific eruptions has been revised several times, generating potential confusion among practitioners. Read More

    Retrospective analysis of pemphigoid gestationis in 32 Saudi patients - Clinicopathological features and a literature review.
    J Reprod Immunol 2016 Aug 4;116:42-5. Epub 2016 May 4.
    Dermatology residents, Saudi commission of health programs, Saudi Arabia.
    Background And Objectives: Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a rare autoimmune-mediated blistering disease that mainly affects pregnant women in their 2nd or 3rd trimester and immediate postpartum period. In addition to the clinical assessment, the diagnosis of PG is usually confirmed by histological and immunological studies. PG usually flares up at the time of delivery and spontaneously improves postpartum. Read More

    Utility of Direct Immunofluorescence Studies in Subclassification of Autoimmune Sub-Epidermal Bullous Diseases: A 2-Year Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital.
    Turk Patoloji Derg 2016 ;32(2):91-8
    Department of Pathology Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College and Hospital, SANGLI, INDIA.
    Objective: Sub-epidermal bullous disorders belong to immunobullous diseases which develop as a result of autoantibody action against epidermal basement membrane proteins. Clinically, they are tense bullae and do not rupture easily. They are classified into various forms based on histopathology and direct immunofluorescence patterns. Read More

    Clinical, demographic and immunopathological spectrum of subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases at a tertiary center: A 1-year audit.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2016 May-Jun;82(3):358
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: The subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases are a subset of immunobullous diseases encountered less frequently in the Indian population. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence, demographic and clinicopathological spectrum of various subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases from India.

    Aim: To determine the demographic and clinicopathological profile of subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases in Indian patients, presenting to the Immunobullous Disease Clinic of Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Read More

    Concomitant pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigoid gestationis: a case report and review of the literature.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Jan 15;22(1). Epub 2016 Jan 15.
    Baylor College of Medicine.
    Pemphigus and pemphigoid are two unique acquired immunobullous diseases with distinct clinical presentations, histological findings, and characteristic serology; they are rarely reported to coexist in the same patient. Herein we present a 29-year-old woman with a history of pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed by histology and positive desmoglein-3 antibodies on ELISA. She presented to our clinic shortly after the delivery of her first child with tense vesicles and bullae on an erythematous base on her abdomen. Read More

    Bullous diseases: Kids are not just little people.
    Clin Dermatol 2015 Nov-Dec;33(6):644-56. Epub 2015 Sep 14.
    Departments of Dermatology & Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, 12th Floor, New York, NY, 10032, USA. Electronic address:
    Bullous diseases may be rare; however, this does not preclude the clinician from being familiar with their manifestations and treatment. After ruling out infection, genetically inherited blistering diseases are more likely to be the cause of blistering or erosions in the neonatal period, whereas immunobullous diseases are more common in adults. Published literature on immunobullous disorders reflects information gleaned from case reports and open-label case series; prospective studies and evidence-based treatments are limited. Read More

    Dermatological Diseases Associated with Pregnancy: Pemphigoid Gestationis, Polymorphic Eruption of Pregnancy, Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy, and Atopic Eruption of Pregnancy.
    Dermatol Res Pract 2015 2;2015:979635. Epub 2015 Nov 2.
    Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark ; Center for Medical Research Methodology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Dermatoses unique to pregnancy are important to recognize for the clinician as they carry considerable morbidity for pregnant mothers and in some instances constitute a risk to the fetus. These diseases include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. This review discusses the pathogenesis, clinical importance, and management of the dermatoses of pregnancy. Read More

    Pemphigoid Gestationis: A Case Report and Review of Management.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2015 Aug;14(8):904-7
    Background: Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a rare pruritic autoimmune dermatosis associated with several adverse fetal outcomes. An appropriate pharmacotherapy regimen reduces these risks while also providing symptomatic relief.

    Case: A woman in her second trimester presented with an intensely pruritic vesiculobullous rash diagnosed as PG. Read More

    Skin disease in pregnancy.
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2015 Jul 17;29(5):732-40. Epub 2015 Mar 17.
    Faculté de médecine, Paris 5 descartes, Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Cochin Tarnier, 89, rue d'Assas, 75006 Paris, France; Equipe Cellules souches foetales, Inserm UMR S 938 & UPMC, CDR St Antoine, 27, rue de Chaligny, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Read More

    Positive clinical outcome with IVIg as monotherapy in recurrent pemphigoid gestationis.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2015 May 9;26(1):1-3. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
    Center for Blistering Diseases, 697 Cambridge St, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is an autoimmune blistering disease associated with pregnancy. It is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against bullous pemphigoid antigens in the basement membrane zone. A 32 year old female developed PG in the first pregnancy and had a stillbirth. Read More

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
    Nurs Womens Health 2015 Feb-Mar;19(1):46-57
    Itching is commonly reported by pregnant women and may be due to physiologic changes of pregnancy or could indicate a more serious health concern. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, while classified as a pregnancy dermatosis, is actually a liver disease of pregnancy associated with significant fetal mortality and morbidity, as well as lifelong health risks for the offspring. In these challenging cases, nurses must understand the differential diagnoses and be prepared to provide comprehensive care, education and support to women with this condition. Read More

    [Pemphigoid gestationis and Turner syndrome; an uncommon association].
    J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2015 Sep 19;44(7):675-8. Epub 2015 Jan 19.
    Service de gynécologie obstétrique, pôle de gynécologie obstétrique, hôpital Paule-de-Viguier, CHU de Toulouse, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France; UMR1027, université de Toulouse III, 31073 Toulouse, France; Inserm, UMR1027, 31073 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:
    The authors report an uncommon case of a pregnant woman with Turner syndrome (TS) whose pregnancy (with favorable outcome) was complicated by a pemphigoid gestationis in third trimester. This case points out that monitoring of these pregnancies is not limited to cardiac monitoring. Prevalence of auto-immune diseases is increased in the TS. Read More

    Epidemiology of autoimmune bullous diseases and therapeutic modalities during a 10 year period in Iran.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2014 ;22(4):246-9
    Maryam Sadat Sadati, MD, Molecular Dermatology Research Center , Dermatology Department, Shahid Faghihi Hospital. Zand street. Shiraz; Iran.
    Autoimmune bullous diseases are systemic disorders with autoantibodies that result in blisters. Aim of this study was to indicate the spectrum and treatment modalities of five types of bullous disorders most prevalent in the south of Iran: pemphigus vulgaris (PV), pemphigus foliaceus (PF), epidermolysis bullousa aquisita (EBA), bullous pemphigoid (BP), and pemphigoid gestationis (PG). Patients with PV, PF, BP, EBA, and PG were included in this study. Read More

    Cyclosporine treatment in severe gestational pemphigoid.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2015 May;95(5):593-5
    Deparment of Dermatology, Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, P.B. 20, 90029 OYS, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland.
    Gestational pemphigoid, a rare autoimmune skin disease typically occurring during pregnancy, is caused by autoantibodies against collagen XVII. Clinically it is characterised by severe itching followed by erythematous and bullous lesions of the skin. Topical or oral glucocorticoids usually relieve symptoms, but in more severe cases systemic immunosuppressive treatments are needed. Read More

    Dermatoses of pregnancy.
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 2015 Mar;58(1):104-11
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine-Clinical, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Gahanna, Ohio.
    The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a distinct heterogenous group of cutaneous disorders that can impact the health of the pregnant woman and potentially the fetus. The current classification of pregnancy-specific cutaneous disorders is reviewed, along with important clinical features. Advances in management of these disorders, along with fetal implications, are discussed. Read More

    [Herpes gestationis. A case report].
    Ginecol Obstet Mex 2014 Oct;82(10):697-704
    Case report. 21 years old woman with 30 week pregnancy, complicated by a 3 month multitreated skin condition, who was referred to General Hospital Morelia, with probable diagnosis of Kapossi sarcoma and sus- pected HIV. She presented with exulcerations involving the palate, lips, chest, abdomen, back and extremities. Read More

    Recognizing presentations of pemphigoid gestationis: a case study.
    Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2014 18;2014:415163. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
    Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, 620 John Paul Jones Circle, Portsmouth, VA 23708, USA.
    Introduction. Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is an autoimmune blistering disease that occurs in approximately 1 in 50,000 pregnancies. Failing to recognize PG may lead to inadequate maternal treatment and possible neonatal complications. Read More

    Pemphigoid gestationis in a third trimester pregnancy.
    Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2014 9;2014:127628. Epub 2014 Nov 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Merkez, Islampasa Mahallesi, Sehitler Caddesi, No. 74, 53100 Rize, Turkey.
    Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a rare vesiculobullous dermatosis of pregnancy. It is commonly seen in second or third trimester. The diagnosis is frequently made with direct immunofluorescence studies of perilesional skin. Read More

    Pregnancy-specific skin disorders.
    Skin Therapy Lett 2014 Sep-Oct;19(5):7-9
    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.
    The pregnancy-specific skin disorders are pruritic, inflammatory eruptions. The current classification by Ambros-Rudolph et al. includes four entities: pemphigoid gestationis (PG), polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP), atopic eruption of pregnancy (AEP), and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Read More

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