3,227 results match your criteria Pediculosis
Theriogenology 2018 Sep 27;124:32-38. Epub 2018 Sep 27.
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, SP, 05508-270, Brazil.
Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used as a broad spectrum antiparasitic agent against nematodes and arthropods. It is mainly used in the control of parasitic infections of domestic animals, and recently has been used in humans to treat onchocerciasis, scabies, and pediculosis. In mammals, evidence has indicated that macrocyclic lactones interact with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Sep 25;12(9):e0006825. Epub 2018 Sep 25.
Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Background: Scabies and head lice are ubiquitous ectoparasitic infestations that are common across the Pacific Islands. Ivermectin is an effective treatment for both conditions, although the doses used vary. At a community level, mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin is an effective strategy to decrease prevalence of scabies. Read More
Prev Vet Med 2018 Oct 11;158:122-128. Epub 2018 Aug 11.
Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3, Canada.
Caligus rogercresseyi is a host-dependent parasite that affects rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon in Chile. Numbers of sea lice on fish increase over time at relatively predictable rates when the environment is conducive to the parasite's survival and fish are not undergoing treatment. We developed a tool for the salmon industry in Chile that predicts the abundance of adult sea lice over time on farms that are relatively isolated. Read More
Skin Appendage Disord 2018 Aug 29;4(3):187-199. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
Fredric Brandt Endowed Professor of Dermatology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
Scalp itch is a frequent complaint in the dermatological setting. It is common for the dermatologist to encounter patients with no evident cause of scalp pruritus, making it a distressing situation for both the clinician and the patient. The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic approach to scalp itch, which classifies scalp pruritus into two types: (1) with or (2) without dermatological lesions, and presence or absence of hair loss. Read More
Salud Publica Mex 2018 Jul-Ago;60(4):383-384
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Nuevo León, México.
Parasit Vectors 2018 Aug 8;11(1):459. Epub 2018 Aug 8.
Institute for Parasitology, Centre for Infection Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hanover, Germany.
Background: Ectoparasitic infections are of particular interest for endangered wildlife, as ectoparasites are potential vectors for inter- and intraspecific pathogen transmission and may be indicators to assess the health status of endangered populations. Here, ectoparasite dynamics in sympatric populations of two Malagasy mouse lemur species, Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis, were investigated over an 11-month period. Read More
Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Aug 6;7(1):74. Epub 2018 Aug 6.
Department of Physiology, Pharmacology/Toxicology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
Background: Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) occur in most countries and cause a considerable health and economic burden, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse peer-reviewed literature on EPSD in humans. The results of this study serve as an indicator of the extent the scientific community, health authorities, and international health agencies interact with EPSD as a health problem that is commonly associated with poverty and poor hygiene. Read More
Int J Trichology 2018 May-Jun;10(3):143-144
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Pt. B. D. Sharma University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
Eur J Public Health 2018 Oct;28(5):910-916
National Institute for Health Migration and Poverty (INMP), Rome, Italy.
Background: Since 2008 Italy has been the destination of the 'central Mediterranean route', used by migrants to reach Europe. The aim of this study is to describe demographic characteristics and health problems of migrants at the time of arrival on the Italian coasts, focussing on dermatological and infectious diseases.
Methods: Cross-sectional study of data routinely collected (n = 6, 188) by the National Institute for Health Migration and Poverty (INMP) in the centres for migrants of Lampedusa and Trapani-Milo (2015-16). Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Sep 12;35(5):616-621. Epub 2018 Jul 12.
Hatchtech Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
Background: There is a need for better control of head louse infestations. Abametapir is an inhibitor of metalloproteinases critical for louse survival and egg development. The efficacy of abametapir lotion, 0. Read More
Acta Parasitol 2018 Sep;63(3):527-557
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resources, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, 105 Xingang West Road, Haizhu District, Guangzhou, 510260, China.
Ten new species of chewing lice in the genus Brueelia Kéler, 1936, are described from hosts in the families Paridae, Regulidae, and Sittidae. They are: Brueelia johnsoni n. sp. Read More
Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2018 Sep;42(3):202-206
Yalvaç Devlet Hastanesi, Tıbbi Mikrobiyoloji Kliniği, Isparta, Türkiye.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus (P.h.) capitis infestation in school children in Sücüllü Village, Isparta. Read More
Infez Med 2018 06;26(2):181-192
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Malattie Infettive e Dermatologia, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Louse infestation is one of the oldest contagious pestilential diseases of humankind, which has recently re-emerged in several developing countries as well as in homeless individuals and migrants. The present work provides the first phase of an historical excursus of louse remedies based on the classics of pharmaceutical literature, codes, pharmacopoeia and treatises. The second phase involves a literature search, based on the principal medical databases (SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar, ISI-Web of Science and Scopus), to match ancient raw materials and active principles for the treatment of pediculosis and their possible applications, with other current infectious pathologies transmitted by different carriers. Read More
JAAD Case Rep 2018 Mar 28;4(2):168-169. Epub 2018 Jan 28.
Department of Dermatology, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.
PLoS One 2018 11;13(6):e0198599. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
Background: Pediculosis caused by head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation is still an important health problem in schoolchildren, especially girls, worldwide, including in Thailand. Although pediculicidal agents effectively kill head lice, the re-infestation rate is still high. Thus, prevention is an important strategy for any sustainable control program. Read More
Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 4;11(1):335. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, LARSANA/UFOPA, Rua Vera Paz, s/n, CEP 68100-000, Santarém, Pará, Brasil.
Background: The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is well adapted in some regions of the Amazon. Of all Brazilian states, Pará contains the largest number of this species, with 510,000 animals, approximately 38% of the Brazilian buffaloes. Despite the socioeconomic importance of bubaline farming in the northern region, little is known about the prevalence of ectoparasites that affect buffalo herds. Read More
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Sep 26;160:216-221. Epub 2018 May 26.
Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:
Infestations with salmon lice, a parasitic copepod, is a major problem in the salmon farming industry. Teflubenzuron is an in-feed pharmaceutical applied to control lice outbreaks; the standard medication is 10 mg per kg fish per day for seven days. Surveys reveal that teflubenzuron accumulates and persists in the sediment around fish farms and causes deformities and mortality in juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus), a species commonly found in the vicinity of salmon farms in Norway. Read More
Am J Health Syst Pharm 2018 Jul 22;75(13):937-943. Epub 2018 May 22.
School of Pharmacy, Wingate University, Wingate, NC
Purpose: Published literature describing the use of oral ivermectin for the treatment of head lice infestation is reviewed.
Summary: In the United States and globally, head lice infestation, or pediculosis capitis, remains a public health issue with both social and medical implications. Treatment with oral or topical medications is typically required for head lice eradication. Read More
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2018 Apr;26(1):33-38
Ivanka Muršić, MD, University Hospital Centre Osijek, Department of Dermatology and Venereology J. Huttlera 4, 31000 Osijek, Croatia;
Scabies and pediculosis are common parasitic infestations of the skin and hair, manifesting with intense pruritus and effectively treated with modern medications. Because of the attached social stigma linking it with poverty and poor hygiene, patients will often attempt alternative folk-based remedies before confiding in their physicians. We conducted a comprehensive bibliographical study of historic folk literature and interviewed 70 individuals experienced in everyday application of folk medicine in order to categorize available remedies and provide a modern, scientific comment on their effectiveness and dangers. Read More
Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2018 Jun;42(2):134-137
Halk Sağlığı Müdürlüğü, Bulaşıcı Hastalık Kontrol Programları Şubesi, Kayseri, Türkiye.
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate scabies and pediculosis cases in the city of Kayseri and to contribute to the epidemiological data in Turkey.
Methods: Data for the present study were obtained from the Kayseri Directorate of Public Health. The distribution of lice and scabies according to age, sex, and years was evaluated retrospectively. Read More
An Bras Dermatol 2018 Mar;93(2):285-287
Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
Pigeon lice are insects that feed on feathers of these birds; their life cycle includes egg, nymph and adult and they may cause dermatoses in humans. Four persons of the same family, living in an urban area, presented with widespread intensely pruritic erythematous papules. A great number of lice were seen in their house, which moved from a nest of pigeons located on the condenser of the air-conditioning to the dormitory of one of the patients. Read More
Zootaxa 2018 Apr 9;4407(1):135-136. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, P.O. Box 467, Wellington, New Zealand..
Alexander (1954: 489) recorded a petrel (Aves: Procellariiformes) captured alive on board a ship in the Indian Ocean by Mr W.W.A. Read More
Zootaxa 2018 Feb 21;4382(3):401-449. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA..
Twelve new species of chewing lice in the genus Priceiella Gustafsson Bush, 2017, are described from Old World "babblers" (Leiothrichidae, Paradoxornithiidae, Pellorneidae and Timaliidae). Eight species belong to the subgenus Thescelovora Gustafsson Bush, 2017: Priceiella (Thescelovora) calcicola n. sp. Read More
Zootaxa 2018 Jan 15;4372(1):1-109. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
Centro de Medicina Tropical, Unidad de Investigación en Medicina Experimental; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores. C.P. 06726. Distrito Federal, Mexico..
The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. Read More
Epidemics 2018 Sep 11;24:76-87. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
Centre for Veterinary Epidemiological Research, Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3, Canada.
Sea lice are marine parasites affecting salmon farms, and are considered one of the most costly pests of the salmon aquaculture industry. Infestations of sea lice on farms significantly increase opportunities for the parasite to spread in the surrounding ecosystem, making control of this pest a challenging issue for salmon producers. The complexity of controlling sea lice on salmon farms requires frequent monitoring of the abundance of different sea lice stages over time. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 04 17;12(4):e0006397. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
Aix-Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
Background: Human lice, Pediculus humanus, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Body lice, Pediculus h. humanus, occur in two divergent mitochondrial clades (A and D) each exhibiting a particular geographic distribution. Read More
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 05 20;18(5):243-251. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
3 IRD, APHM, MEPHI, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Aix Marseille University , Marseille, France .
Human lice, Pediculus humanus, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Phylogenetically, they belong to several mitochondrial clades exhibiting some geographic differences. Currently, the body louse is the only recognized disease vector, with the head louse being proposed as an additional vector. Read More
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 08 13;8(2):174-188. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
Hoplite Lab, Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Ave, Charlottetown PE, C1A 4P3, Canada. Electronic address:
Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. Read More
Exp Parasitol 2018 May 3;188:83-92. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
SLRC-Sea Lice Research Center, Institute of Marine Research, 5817 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepods, Caligida) is a marine ectoparasite infecting salmonid fishes in the northern hemisphere. At present, salmon lice infections are the most severe disease problem in the salmon farming industry causing significant economic losses. Due to development of resistance towards available chemotherapeutants, it is clear that new chemotherapeutants or non-chemical control methods are essential to manage the parasite in the future. Read More
J Glob Infect Dis 2018 Jan-Mar;10(1):11-15
Department of Community and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan.
Background: Head lice, a common social and health problem among all age groups, is especially widespread among school-aged children.
Aims: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among governmental primary school students in Southern Jordan and its related risk factors.
Settings And Design: A sample of 500 primary schools students aged 6-12 from two male and two female public primary schools in four educational directorates were selected randomly in this cross-sectional study. Read More
J Parasitol 2018 Jun 16;104(3):187-195. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
3 Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, ML Sultan Campus, Steve Biko Road, Durban 4001, South Africa.
This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi and Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps echidnina and Laelaps lamborni, 2 rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban, South Africa. In total, 379 R. Read More
J Med Entomol 2018 Jun;55(4):929-937
Grupo de Física Estadística e interdisciplinaria, Centro Atómico Bariloche & CONICET, Bariloche, Argentina.
Head lice infest millions of school-age children every year, both in developed and developing countries. However, little is known about the number of lice transferred among children during school activities, because direct methods to study this are almost impossible to implement. This issue has been addressed following an indirect method, which consist in collecting data of real infestation from several children groups and using a mathematical model of lice colonies to infer how the infestation observed might have evolved. Read More
Paediatr Child Health 2018 Feb 15;23(1):e25-e32. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
Société canadienne de pédiatrie, comité de la pédiatrie communautaire, Ottawa (Ontario).
Les infestations par les poux de tête () ne constituent ni un risque sanitaire primaire ni un vecteur de maladie, mais représentent plutôt un problème de société au coût impor- tant. Pour diagnostiquer une infestation, il faut déceler un pou vivant. Même si les pyréthines et la perméthrine demeurent les traitements de première intention au Canada, la solution de myristate d'isopropyle et de ST-cyclométhicone et la diméticone peuvent être envisagées en deuxième intention après un échec thérapeutique démontré. Read More
Paediatr Child Health 2018 Feb 15;23(1):e18-e24. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
Canadian Paediatric Society, Community Paediatrics Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.
Head lice () infestations are not a primary health hazard or a vector for disease, but they are a societal problem with substantial costs. Diagnosis of head lice infestation requires the detection of a living louse. Although pyrethrins and permethrin remain first-line treatments in Canada, isopropyl myristate/ST-cyclomethicone solution and dimeticone can be considered as second-line therapies when there is evidence of treatment failure. Read More
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018 15;60:e9. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
Parasitol Res 2018 Apr 30;117(4):989-994. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, West Indies, Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Herpestes auropunctatus, the small Indian mongoose, is an invasive omnivore introduced to the Caribbean, including the island of St. Kitts over 150 years ago. It has played a role in changing native fauna and can carry zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Read More
J Med Entomol 2018 May;55(3):527-533
Centro de investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (UNIDEF-CONICET), Juan Bautista de Lasalle 4397 (B1603ALO), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) is a cosmopolitan human ectoparasite causing pediculosis, one of the most common arthropod parasitic conditions of humans. The mechanisms and/or chemicals involved in host environment recognition by head lice are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the response of head lice to volatiles that emanate from the human scalp. Read More
Cutis 2017 Dec;100(6):389-392
Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
The head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is a blood-sucking arthropod of the suborder Anoplura. Infestation continues in epidemic proportions in children of all socioeconomic groups. Although not implicated as a disease vector, infestation can lead to considerable distress, missed days of school, and secondary infections. Read More
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 02 16;115(6):1304-1309. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway;
Plague, caused by the bacterium , can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Read More
Exp Parasitol 2018 Feb 12;185:79-91. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
Sea Lice Research Centre, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgate 55, 5008, Bergen, Norway.
Na/K-ATPase has a key function in a variety of physiological processes including membrane excitability, osmoregulation, regulation of cell volume, and transport of nutrients. While knowledge about Na/K-ATPase function in osmoregulation in crustaceans is extensive, the role of this enzyme in other physiological and developmental processes is scarce. Here, we report characterization, transcriptional distribution and likely functions of the newly identified L. Read More
Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2017 Dec;41(4):208-213
Ege Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, İzmir, Türkiye.
Objective: The human head louse Pediculus capitis has recently acquired resistance to commercially available insecticides, which has expanded the search concerning the pediculicidal activities of some herbal products. The present study aimed to assess the in vitro pediculicidal activities of volatile oils extracted from 10 medical plants raised in Turkey: Rosa damascena (red provins rose), Pelargonium graveolens (geranium), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Salvia triloba (salvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary; two different chemotypes), Citrus bergamia (citrus tree), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Citrus limonum (lemon), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass).
Methods: Head lice obtained from school children in Manisa Province were initially grouped as adults and nymphs and were then kept under optimal conditions (temperature of 27°C and humidity of 50%). Read More
Int J Dermatol 2018 02 19;57(2):e14-e15. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny, France.
Parasitol Res 2018 Feb 20;117(2):603-609. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
Parasitology-Mycology Department, AP-HP, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny, France.
Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. Read More
J Fish Dis 2018 Jun 18;41(6):995-1003. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
Aquaculture Section, Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland.
Traditional bioassays are still necessary to test sensitivity of sea lice species to chemotherapeutants, but the methodology applied by the different scientists has varied over time in respect to that proposed in "Sea lice resistance to chemotherapeutants: A handbook in resistance management" (2006). These divergences motivated the organization of a workshop during the Sea Lice 2016 conference "Standardization of traditional bioassay process by sharing best practices." There was an agreement by the attendants to update the handbook. Read More
Epidemics 2018 Jun 2;23:19-33. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
The Norwegian Veterinary Institute, PB. 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:
The Norwegian government recently implemented a new management system to regulate salmon farming in Norway, aiming to promote environmentally sustainable growth in the aquaculture industry. The Norwegian coast has been divided into 13 production zones and the volume of salmonid production in the zones will be regulated based on salmon lice effects on wild salmonids. Here we present a model for assessing salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolts of Atlantic salmon. Read More
Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2018 Jan 6;48(1):3-25. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
Department of Dermatology, Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH.
Cutaneous infections and infestations are common among children and adolescents. Ectoparasitic infestations affect individuals across the globe. Head lice, body lice, scabies, and infestations with bed bugs are seen in individuals who reside in both resource poor areas and in developed countries. Read More
J Fish Dis 2018 Jun 21;41(6):941-951. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is an iconic species of high conservation and economic importance. At sea, individuals typically are subject to sea lice infestation, which can have detrimental effects on their host. Over recent decades, the body condition and marine survival in NE Atlantic stocks have generally decreased, reflected in fewer adults returning to rivers, which is partly attributable to sea lice. Read More
J Fish Dis 2018 Jun 21;41(6):953-967. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
Sea trout face growth-mortality trade-offs when entering the sea to feed. Salmon lice epizootics resulting from aquaculture have shifted these trade-offs, as salmon lice might both increase mortality and reduce growth of sea trout. We studied mortality and behavioural adaptations of wild sea trout in a large-scale experiment with acoustic telemetry in an aquaculture intensive area that was fallowed (emptied of fish) synchronically biannually, creating large variations in salmon lice concentrations. Read More