1,617 results match your criteria Pediatrics Status Epilepticus

Comparison of Safety and Effectiveness between Levetiracetam and Phenytoin in the Treatment of Pediatric Status Epilepticus: A meta-analysis.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

student in Inaya medical college, Riyadha-SA.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam and phenytoin by evaluating the events of seizure termination and recurrence in children.

Methods: We used the internet databases PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to conduct a literature search for the appropriate studies. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio using fixed and random-effects models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Provoked seizures and status epilepticus in a pediatric population with COVID-19 disease.

Epilepsia 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

We are reporting 16 pediatric patients (ages 0-18-years-old) who presented to our urban hospital emergency room with seizures and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the surge of the Omicron variant. There was an increased number of pediatric patients with seizures and COVID-19 during this period as compared to prior COVID-19 surges. The 16 patients ranged in age from 3 months to 12 years of age. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fever-Associated Seizures or Epilepsy: An Overview of Old and Recent Literature Acquisitions.

Front Pediatr 2022 21;10:858945. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Unit of Rare Diseases of the Nervous System in Childhood, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, University of Catania, AOU "Policlinico", PO "G. Rodolico", Catania, Italy.

In addition to central nervous system infections, seizures and fever may occur together in several neurological disorders. Formerly, based on the clinical features and prognostic evolution, the co-association of seizure and fever included classical febrile seizures (FS) divided into simple, complex, and prolonged FS (also called febrile status epilepticus). Later, this group of disorders has been progressively indicated, with a more inclusive term, as "fever-associated seizures or epilepsy" (FASE) that encompasses: (a) FS divided into simple, complex, and prolonged FS; (b) FS plus; (c) severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (Dravet syndrome); (d) genetic epilepsy with FS plus; and (e) febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Landscape of childhood epilepsies - A multi-ethnic population-based study.

Epilepsy Res 2022 Apr 28;183:106936. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Sidra Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Doha, Qatar.

Objective: To describe the clinical features of childhood epilepsy in Qatar.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional chart review analysis was conducted at the only tertiary pediatric hospital in Qatar in 1422 patients with epilepsy followed between November 2016 and October 2019.

Results: 55% (781) were males and 70% were non-Qatari. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Survey About Second-Line Agents for Pediatric Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Paediatric Emergency Medicine, South Tyneside and Sunderland NHS Foundation Trust, Sunderland, United Kingdom.

Background: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common neurological emergency in children. It is a frequent cause of admission to pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. Management of CSE is a step-wise approach: first-line antiseizure agents (typically benzodiazepines) followed by a second-line agent before deeper anesthesia usually accompanied by intubation and ventilation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy of intravenous levetiracetam versus phenytoin in convulsive status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures in children.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kırdar City Hospital, University of Health Science, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Phenytoin is one of the most used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but it has serious potential side effects and drug interactions. Although studies have shown levetiracetam to have a much lower side-effect profile, its efficacy when compared with phenytoin is debatable. In our study, we aimed to determine the factors that cause seizure recurrence and to compare the efficacy of levetiracetam and phenytoin in the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and acute repetitive seizures (ARS). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Two Children with Early-Onset Strokes and Intractable Epilepsy, Both with Mutations.

Child Neurol Open 2022 Jan-Dec;9:2329048X221094977. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Section of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center, Glendale, AZ, USA.

Mutations in the gene have been associated phenotypically with Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Type 1, Episodic Ataxia Type 2, Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy, and Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy 42. Only six cases have linked ischemic strokes to mutations in the gene. We describe two unrelated patients who were found to have different mutations of the gene, one being a novel mutation, as shown by whole exome sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

International consensus on diagnosis and management of Dravet syndrome.

Epilepsia 2022 May 1. Epub 2022 May 1.

Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Benioff Children's Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: This study was undertaken to gain consensus from experienced physicians and caregivers regarding optimal diagnosis and management of Dravet syndrome (DS), in the context of recently approved, DS-specific therapies and emerging disease-modifying treatments.

Methods: A core working group was convened consisting of six physicians with recognized expertise in DS and two representatives of the Dravet Syndrome Foundation. This core group summarized the current literature (focused on clinical presentation, comorbidities, maintenance and rescue therapies, and evolving disease-modifying therapies) and nominated the 31-member expert panel (ensuring international representation), which participated in two rounds of a Delphi process to gain consensus on diagnosis and management of DS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Status Epilepticus Australasian Registry for Children: A pilot prospective, observational, cohort study of paediatric status epilepticus.

Emerg Med Australas 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Clinical Sciences, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Paediatric status epilepticus (SE) has potential for long-term sequelae. Existing data demonstrate delays to aspects of care. The objective of the present study was to examine the feasibility of collecting data on children with paediatric SE and describe current management strategies in pre-hospital and in-hospital settings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

School Closures in the United States and Severe Respiratory Illnesses in Children: A Normalized Nationwide Sample.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Connecticut Children's, Hartford, CT.

Objectives: To determine the association between nationwide school closures and prevalence of common admission diagnoses in the pediatric critical care unit.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: National database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems LLC database. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Status Epilepticus Secondary to Hypocalcemia Due to Vitamin D Deficiency.

Case Rep Neurol 2022 Jan-Apr;14(1):124-129. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue City, Vietnam.

Vitamin D deficiency is becoming more common around the world, owing to reduced sunshine exposure and an imbalanced diet. However, severe hypocalcemia as a result of vitamin D insufficiency is a rare occurrence, and it rarely leads to seizures in children. We present such a case in a 6-month-old infant who presented with status epilepticus secondary to hypocalcemia due to vitamin D deficiency, which was first misdiagnosed as epilepsy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multicenter Study of the Impact of COVID-19 Shelter-In-Place on Tertiary Hospital-based Care for Pediatric Neurologic Disease.

Neurohospitalist 2022 Apr 1;12(2):218-226. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Objective: To describe changes in hospital-based care for children with neurologic diagnoses during the initial 6 weeks following regional Coronavirus 2019 Shelter-in-Place orders.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study of 7 US and Canadian pediatric tertiary care institutions included emergency and inpatient encounters with a neurologic primary discharge diagnosis code in the initial 6 weeks of Shelter-in-Place (COVID-SiP), compared to the same period during the prior 3 years (Pre-COVID). Patient demographics, encounter length, and neuroimaging and electroencephalography use were extracted from the medical record. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TBC1D24-related familial infantile multifocal myoclonus: Description of a new Chinese pedigree with a 20 year follow up.

Epilepsy Res 2022 May 8;182:106923. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005,China.

Introduction: Disorders associated with mutations in the Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)1 domain family member 24 gene (TBC1D24) present a wide range of phenotypes, ranging from mild to fatal seizure diseases, non-syndromic deafness, and complex syndromes such as deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, and mental retardation(DOOR syndrome). In this study, we introduce three siblings of a previously unreported Chinese family with familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy caused by a homozygous TBC1D24 mutation.

Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of the proband, his parents, and sisters. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Surgery for intractable epilepsy after severe encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion and new onset hippocampal lesion associated with parechovirus.

Brain Dev 2022 Jun 4;44(6):410-414. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Epilepsy Center, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

We describe a case of severe encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion associated with parechovirus, followed by intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), which was improved by epilepsy surgery. A 3-year-old girl was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and generalized tonic clonic seizure. Her seizure lasted for four hours. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Clinical phenotypes and genetic features of epilepsy children with MBD5 gene variants].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2022 Apr;60(4):345-349

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

To summarize the phenotypes of epilepsy in patients with MBD5 gene variants. A total of 9 epileptic patients, who were treated in the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from July 2016 to September 2021 and detected with MBD5 gene pathogenic variants, were enrolled. The features of clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 vaccine in patients with Dravet syndrome: Observations and real-world experiences.

Epilepsia 2022 Apr 5. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Dravet Syndrome Foundation, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, USA.

Objective: Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a primary tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. However, vaccination is a common seizure trigger in individuals with Dravet syndrome (DS). Information surrounding COVID-19 vaccine side effects in patients with DS would aid caregivers and providers in decisions for and management of COVID-19 vaccination. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Zebras Seize the Day: Rare Causes of Status Epilepticus Across the Continuum of Critical Care.

Crit Care Clin 2022 Apr;38(2):349-373

Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Children's Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, 999 N 92nd St, Wauwatosa, WI 53226, USA. Electronic address:

Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurologic emergency and is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The management of SE in the intensive care unit centers on stabilization and treatment, as well as identifying and treating the underlying etiology. Numerous etiologies of SE are amenable to treatment, including certain genetic and metabolic disorders, autoimmune encephalitis and other inflammatory disorders, intracranial infections, and toxic/metabolic derangements. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcranial photobiomodulation (808 nm) attenuates pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures by suppressing hippocampal neuroinflammation, astrogliosis, and microgliosis in peripubertal rats.

Neurophotonics 2022 Jan 25;9(1):015006. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Taipei Medical University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei, Taiwan.

Transcranial photobiomodulation (tPBM) at 808 nm attenuates pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) in peripubertal rats by protecting neurons from injury and parvalbumin-positive interneurons from apoptosis, and preserving the integrity of perisomatic inhibitory networks. However, the effects of tPBM on neuroinflammation, astrogliosis, and microgliosis in epileptic rat brains are unknown. Thus, further study to unveil these aspects is needed for understanding the phenomena of tPBM on pediatric CSE prevention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Transcranial photobiomodulation add-on therapy to valproic acid for pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in peripubertal rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 Mar 21;22(1):81. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) prevention is critical for pediatric patients with epilepsy. Immediate intervention before CSE reduce severity. Despite its wide usage as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid (VPA) results in harmful side effects such as dose-dependent hepatotoxicity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unusual presentation of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion in Miller-Dieker syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 16;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya City University West Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is a unique subtype of acute encephalopathy that occurs in children. A girl aged 2 years and 8 months with Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) was admitted for status epilepticus and high fever. Brain MRI performed on the third day postadmission showed abnormally high intensities in the subcortical white matter on diffusion-weighted images. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epilepsia Partialis Continua a Clinical Feature of a Missense Variant in the ADCK3 Gene and Poor Response to Therapy.

J Mol Neurosci 2022 May 11;72(5):1125-1132. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Pediatric Neurology Division, Children's Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Myelin Disorders Clinic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Coenzyme Q10 deficiency can be due to mutations in Coenzyme Q10-biosynthesis genes (primary) or genes unrelated to biosynthesis (secondary). Primary Coenzyme Q10 deficiency-4 (COQ10D4), also known as autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-9 (SCAR9), is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ADCK3 gene. This disorder is characterized by several clinical manifestations such as severe infantile multisystemic illness, encephalomyopathy, isolated myopathy, cerebellar ataxia, or nephrotic syndrome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Correction to: Time Elapsed from Onset of Pediatric Convulsive Status Epilepticus to Antiepileptic Administration-An Experience of Single Institute.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 May;89(5):528-529

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, Maharashtra, 411038, India.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnostic challenges of primary diffuse leptomeningeal melanomatosis in early adolescence: A case report.

Brain Dev 2022 Jun 5;44(6):421-425. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Division of Clinical Laboratory, Nagano Children's Hospital, Japan.

Introduction: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal melanomatosis is an extremely rare variant of primary melanoma of the central nervous system. It is characterized by a variety of nonspecific clinical, radiological, and histopathological features requiring differential diagnosis from a variety of diseases. Here, we aimed to use our own clinical case as an example of the difficulties in the diagnosis of this disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prognostic effects of treatment protocols for febrile convulsive status epilepticus in children.

BMC Neurol 2022 Mar 5;22(1):77. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017, Japan.

Background: Febrile status epilepticus is the most common form of status epilepticus in children. No previous reports compare the effectiveness of treatment strategies using fosphenytoin (fPHT) or phenobarbital (PB) and those using anesthetics as second-line anti-seizure medication for benzodiazepine-resistant convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). We aimed to examine the outcomes of various treatment strategies for febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) in a real-world setting while comparing the effects of different treatment protocols and their presence or absence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tranexamic acid-associated fatal status epilepticus in a paediatric non-cardiac surgery: A case report and literature review.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Mar 4. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely utilized to control perioperative bleeding. TXA is considered a safe drug with few serious adverse effects, but many studies report TXA-associated seizures, especially with cardiac surgeries. Usually, TXA-associated seizures persist for a few minutes with no progression into status epilepticus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epilepsy with myoclonic absences: a case series highlighting clinical heterogeneity and surgical management.

Epileptic Disord 2022 Mar 11. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt and the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Epilepsy with myoclonic absences is a rare epilepsy syndrome with distinct features and high rates of drug resistance. Identifying this syndrome may help guide treatment decisions. We highlight clinical heterogeneity in this case series and two cases in which corpus callosotomy was performed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sex differences in behavioral pathology induced by subconvulsive stimulation during early postnatal life are overcome by epileptic activity in the pre-juvenile weanling period.

Brain Res 2022 05 26;1783:147849. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Departments of Cell Biology & Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, United States; Departments of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, United States; Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, United States.

Chronic subconvulsive activity in early life leads to sex-related autistic-like deficits in handling, object recognition, and social performance in pre-pubertal rats. Since autism and epilepsy are common neurodevelopmental disorders with high coincidence, we tested whether early-life chronic subconvulsive activity compared to convulsive activity alters handling, spatial memory, lateralization, coping strategy and the seizure threshold in a sex-dependent manner. A hypothesis is that convulsive seizures may alter sex differences induced by subconvulsive (SC) activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Methylene blue for the treatment of refractory septic shock secondary to listeriosis in a paediatric patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Feb 28;15(2). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Deparment of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA

Current therapies frequently used for refractory septic shock include hydrocortisone, vasopressin, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, inodilators, levosimendan and methylene blue. The evidence for these treatments is very limited. We present a case of a 5-year-old patient with refractory septic shock, secondary to meningitis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Effectiveness of prophylaxis treatment in the acute febrile stage of febrile seizure in children under five years old.

Iran J Child Neurol 2022 1;16(1):97-104. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadam, Iran.

Objectives: In children suffering from febrile seizure, the likelihood of recurrence seems to be high in the early hours following the first episodes in the absence of proper interventions. The present study was aimed at assessing and comparing the outcomes of different preventive interventions in the acute stage after febrile seizure in children.

Materials & Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was performed between September 2015 and September 2016. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Impact of Cardiac Injury on the Clinical Outcome of Children with Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

Children (Basel) 2022 Jan 18;9(2). Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41511, Egypt.

Objectives: the aim of this study was to determine the impact of cardiac injury on clinical profile, cardiac evaluation and outcome in patients hospitalized with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE).

Materials And Methods: this prospective observational study included 74 children with CSE. Cardiac injury was evaluated and defined using combination of cardiac troponin, electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022