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    Imported case of measles in a university setting leading to an outbreak of measles in Edinburgh, Scotland from September to December 2016.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Mar 22:1-6. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    National Health Service,Lothian,Directorate of Public Health and Health Policy,Edinburgh,UK.
    In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. Read More

    Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 Mar 15;18(1):130. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.
    Background: Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. Read More

    Copper Supplementation in Premature Infants With Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis.
    Nutr Clin Pract 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intermittent parenteral copper supplementation (IPC) on serum copper status and biochemical and hematological measures of copper toxicity and deficiency in premature infants with parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated cholestasis (PNAC). We performed a prospective nested observational study in premature infants with PNAC who received IPC after the development of PNAC. Infants with chromosomal disorders, TORCH (toxoplasmosis, parvovirus, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus) infection, metabolic disorder, and/or surgical abnormality of the hepatobiliary system were excluded. Read More

    Congenital rubella syndrome: A brief review of public health perspectives.
    Indian J Public Health 2018 Jan-Mar;62(1):52-54
    Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is one of the most devastating congenital infections and yet the only one which is vaccine preventable and is a public health challenge for clinicians and policymakers across the developing world including India. The clinical manifestations of CRS include growth retardation, cardiac defects, cataracts, and hearing impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide over 100,000 babies are born with CRS every year despite the availability of safe and inexpensive vaccines, thus highlighting the need for broader vaccination coverage programs. Read More

    Prospective Study of Live Attenuated Vaccines for Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome Receiving Immunosuppressive Agents.
    J Pediatr 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Pediatrics, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.
    Objective: To conduct a prospective study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated vaccines in patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving immunosuppressive agents.

    Study Design: Patients with nephrotic syndrome receiving immunosuppressive agents with negative or borderline antibody titers (virus-specific IgG levels <4.0) against measles, rubella, varicella, and/or mumps fulfilling the criteria of cellular and humoral immunity were enrolled. Read More

    Methods for addressing "innocent bystanders" when evaluating safety of concomitant vaccines.
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Purpose: The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. Read More

    Long-term Seroprotection Rates Following One-dose Measles (9-month) and One-dose MMR Vaccination (15 months) in Indian Children.
    Indian Pediatr 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Objective: To find out seropositivity rates at 4-6 and 9-12 years of age; among those who received one-dose measles at 9 months and one-dose MMR at 15 months of age.

    Methods: 80 healthy children (53 males) at 4-6 or 9-12 years of age, attending outpatient department for vaccination were enrolled. Antibody titers were estimated using commercially available quantitative-IgG ELISA kits. Read More

    Case 4-2018: A Newborn with Thrombocytopenia, Cataracts, and Hepatosplenomegaly.
    N Engl J Med 2018 Feb;378(6):564-572
    From the Departments of Pediatrics and Infection Prevention, Yale New Haven Children's Hospital, and the Departments of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, Yale School of Medicine and Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (R.S.B.); the Departments of Radiology (K.N.), Pediatrics (K.A.S., V.M.P.), and Pathology (V.M.P.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Radiology (K.N.), Pediatrics (K.A.S.), and Pathology (V.M.P.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston; and the Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.A.P.).

    Safety and immunogenicity of a meningococcal B recombinant vaccine when administered with routine vaccines to healthy infants in Taiwan: A phase 3, open-label, randomized study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Jan 16:1-9. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    f Research and Development Center, GSK , Siena , Italy.
    Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2 : 1 ) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Read More

    Vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in paediatric renal transplant recipients and the impact of immunosuppressive therapy.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2018 May 10;33(5):897-910. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Paediatrics I, University Children's Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Avoidance of vaccine-preventable infections in paediatric renal allograft recipients is of utmost importance. However, the development and maintenance of protective vaccination titres may be impaired in this patient population owing to their need for immunosuppressive medication.

    Methods: In the framework of the Cooperative European Paediatric Renal Transplant Initiative (CERTAIN), we therefore performed a multi-centre, multi-national study and analysed vaccination titres pre- and post-transplant in 155 patients with serial titre measurements in comparison with published data in healthy children. Read More

    Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 8;7:486. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquitospecies across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. Read More

    Immunization Practices of U.S. Obstetrician/Gynecologists for Pregnant Patients.
    Am J Prev Med 2018 Feb 13;54(2):205-213. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Adult and Child Consortium for Health Outcomes Research and Delivery Science, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.
    Introduction: U.S. obstetrician/gynecologists play a critical role as vaccinators of pregnant women. Read More

    Fetal Anemia Causing Hydrops Fetalis From an Alpha-Globin Variant: Homozygous Hemoglobin Constant Spring.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Center for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Muang, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Background: Fetal anemia is often assumed to be due to red cell alloimmunization and Parvovirus infection, and can lead to hydrops fetalis and death in utero. Other causes, such as mutations of hemoglobin alpha, are less commonly considered.

    Methods: We report 7 cases with fetal anemia causing hydrops fetalis. Read More

    Vaccination Practices in Pediatric Dialysis Patients Across Europe. A European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group and European Society for Pediatric Nephrology Dialysis Working Group Study.
    Nephron 2018 12;138(4):280-286. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
    Background: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers.

    Methods: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. Read More

    One or two doses of live varicella virus-containing vaccines: Efficacy, persistence of immune responses, and safety six years after administration in healthy children during their second year of life.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 7;36(3):381-387. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Vaccine Discovery and Development, GSK, Philadelphia, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: This phase III B follow-up of an initial multicenter study (NCT00226499) will evaluate the ten-year efficacy of two doses of the combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) and one dose of the live attenuated varicella vaccine (V) versus a measles-mumps-rubella control group (MMR) for the prevention of clinical varicella disease. Here we present efficacy results for six years post-vaccination.

    Methods: In phase A of the study, healthy children aged 12-22 months from ten European countries were randomized (3:3:1) and received either two doses of MMRV, or one dose of combined MMR and one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine (MMR+V), or two doses of the MMR vaccine (control), 42 days apart. Read More

    The burden of congenital rubella syndrome in the Philippines: results from a retrospective assessment.
    Western Pac Surveill Response J 2017 Apr-Jun;8(2):17-24. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Health, Philippines.
    Introduction: In line with the regional aim of eliminating rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), phased introduction of rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) in the Philippines' routine immunization programme began in 2010. We estimated the burden of CRS in the country before widespread nationwide programmatic RCV use.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review in four tertiary hospitals. Read More

    Association between false-positive TORCH and antiphospholipid antibodies in healthy pregnant women.
    Lupus 2017 Jan 1:961203317741564. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Pediatrics, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
    The present study investigated: (a) the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and (b) the obstetric outcome in healthy pregnant women showing false-positive TORCH-Toxoplasmosis, Other: syphilis, varicella-zoster, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections-results. Data from 23 singleton healthy pregnancies with false-positive TORCH results were collected. Each woman was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during the pre-conception assessment and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. Read More

    Cadherin-related Family Member 3 Genetics and Rhinovirus C Respiratory Illnesses.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Mar;197(5):589-594
    1 Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rationale: Experimental evidence suggests that CDHR3 (cadherin-related family member 3) is a receptor for rhinovirus (RV)-C, and a missense variant in this gene (rs6967330) is associated with childhood asthma with severe exacerbations.

    Objectives: To determine whether rs6967330 influences RV-C infections and illnesses in early childhood.

    Methods: We studied associations between rs6967330 and respiratory infections and illnesses in the COPSAC(Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010) and COAST (Childhood Origins of Asthma Birth Cohort Study) birth cohorts, where respiratory infections were monitored prospectively for the first 3 years of life. Read More

    County-level assessment of United States kindergarten vaccination rates for measles mumps rubella (MMR) for the 2014-2015 school year.
    Vaccine 2017 Nov 14;35(47):6444-6450. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Computational Epidemiology Group, Children's Hospital Informatics Program, Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    United States kindergarten measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination rates are typically reported at the state level by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The lack of local MMR data prevents identification of areas with low vaccination rates that would be vulnerable to the spread of disease. We collected county-level vaccination rates for the 2014-2015 school year with the objective of identifying these regions. Read More

    Update From the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017 Nov;6(4):311-316
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Read More

    Screening investigations in small-for-gestational-age near-term and term infants.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Dec 10;176(12):1707-1712. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Monash Newborn, Monash Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    The aims of this study are to examine how frequently near-term and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants were investigated in our clinical practice, whether being born less than the third centile for weight increased the yield of positive investigations, and whether there were additional characteristics in infants with positive investigations. This retrospective cohort study was compiled using a database of a large maternity network, using the search near term and term gestational age (greater than or equal to 35 weeks) over a span of 4 years. SGA babies were further filtered into less than the tenth centile and third centile. Read More

    The pathogenesis of microcephaly resulting from congenital infections: why is my baby's head so small?
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Feb 5;37(2):209-226. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    The emergence of Zika-virus-associated congenital microcephaly has engendered renewed interest in the pathogenesis of microcephaly induced by infectious agents. Three of the original "TORCH" agents are associated with an appreciable incidence of congenital microcephaly: cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The pathology of congenital microcephaly is characterized by neurotropic infectious agents that involve the fetal nervous system, leading to brain destruction with calcifications, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Read More

    Detection of human parvovirus B19 in serum samples from children under 5 years of age with rash-fever illnesses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Dec 22;65:4-7. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    University Hospital of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Kinshasa, Congo; National Institute for Biomedical Research (INRB), Kinshasa, Congo.
    Background: It has been demonstrated that infection with human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is associated with rash-fever illnesses. The present study aimed to investigate B19V as an aetiological agent of rash-fever syndromes in Congolese children confirmed as measles and rubella IgM-negative. An ELISA IgM test and PCR were performed to screen for B19V. Read More

    Prevention and assessment of infectious diseases among children and adult migrants arriving to the European Union/European Economic Association: a protocol for a suite of systematic reviews for public health and health systems.
    BMJ Open 2017 Sep 11;7(9):e014608. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Introduction: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio),disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis.

    Methods And Analysis: The search strategy will identify evidence from existing systematic reviews and then update the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence using prospective trials, economic evaluations and/or recently published systematic reviews. Read More

    Non-specific effects of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in high income setting: population based cohort study in the Netherlands.
    BMJ 2017 Aug 30;358:j3862. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands
     To investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has positive non-specific effects in a high income setting and to compare rates of hospital admissions for infections between children aged ≤2 years who received live MMR vaccine and those who received an inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, andtype b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) as their most recent vaccination. Nationwide population based cohort study. In the Netherlands, DTaP-IPV-Hib+pneumococcal vaccination (PCV) is recommended at ages 2, 3, 4, and 11 months and MMR + meningococcal C (MenC) vaccination at age 14 months. Read More

    The utility of measles and rubella IgM serology in an elimination setting, Ontario, Canada, 2009-2014.
    PLoS One 2017 29;12(8):e0181172. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Hastings Prince Edward Public Health, Belleville, Ontario, Canada.
    In Canada, measles was eliminated in 1998 and rubella in 2000. Effective measles and rubella surveillance is vital in elimination settings, hinging on reliable laboratory methods. However, low-prevalence settings affect the predictive value of laboratory tests. Read More

    Infectious causes of microcephaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Jan 30;18(1):e1-e13. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Microcephaly is an important sign of neurological malformation and a predictor of future disability. The 2015-16 outbreak of Zika virus and congenital Zika infection brought the world's attention to links between Zika infection and microcephaly. However, Zika virus is only one of the infectious causes of microcephaly and, although the contexts in which they occur vary greatly, all are of concern. Read More

    Evaluation of Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine Introduction in Australia.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Oct;171(10):992-998
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Sydney, Australia.
    Importance: Incorporating combination vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine, into immunization schedules should be evaluated from a benefit-risk perspective. Use of MMRV vaccine poses challenges due to a recognized increased risk of febrile seizures (FSs) when used as the first dose in the second year of life. Conversely, completion by age 2 years of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella immunization may offer improved disease control. Read More

    Utility of routine urine CMV PCR and total serum IgM testing of small for gestational age infants: a single center review.
    J Perinat Med 2018 Jan;46(1):81-86
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
    Background: Due to the extremely low incidence of TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, CMV, herpes simplex virus) infections, diagnostic testing of all small for gestational age (SGA) infants aimed at TORCH etiologies may incur unnecessary tests and cost.

    Objective: To determine the frequency of urine CMV PCR and total IgM testing among infants with birth weight <10% and the rate of test positivity. To evaluate the frequency of alternative etiologies of SGA in tested infants. Read More

    Chronically ill adolescents are also incompletely vaccinated: A cross-sectional study in France.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 29;35(36):4707-4712. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Nantes, Nantes, France; National Institutes of Health and Medical Research, CIC 1413, University Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Background: Adolescent vaccination coverage tends to be suboptimal, leading to resurgent infectious pathologies and vulnerability to various pathogens. The low frequency of medical consultations and missed opportunities for vaccination are often used to explain the low rate of vaccination. The aim of this study was to assess if the vaccination coverage rate is higher in chronically ill adolescents (CIA) who require a close pediatric specialized follow-up versus the rate in healthy adolescents (HA). Read More

    Vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric patients: a review of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [digest].
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2016 Dec 22;13(12 Suppl Points & Pearls):S1-S2. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Chief Fellow, Emergency & Transport Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine/University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Read More

    Vaccination in newly arrived immigrants to the European Union.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Biovomed, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
    The challenge of assimilating millions of immigrants in the European region each year presents significant socioeconomic issues. Among them is the threat of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) disease transmission within immigrant groups and the broader population given the permeability of nation state borders. A total of 3. Read More

    Genetic Variants in the IL-4/IL-13 Pathway Influence Measles Vaccine Responses and Vaccine Failure in Children from Mozambique.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Sep 8;30(7):472-478. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    1 Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia , Perth, Western Australia, Australia .
    Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. Read More

    Microbial Vertical Transmission during Human Pregnancy.
    Cell Host Microbe 2017 May;21(5):561-567
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA; Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. Electronic address:
    Congenital infections with pathogens such as Zika virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpesviruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of microbial infections on the developing fetus, relatively little is known about how pathogens associated with congenital disease breach the placental barrier to transit vertically during human pregnancy. In this Review, we focus on transplacental transmission of pathogens during human gestation. Read More

    Two-year antibody persistence in children vaccinated at 12-15 months with a measles-mumps-rubella virus vaccine without human serum albumin.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jul 8;13(7):1516-1522. Epub 2017 May 8.
    m GSK, King of Prussia , PA , USA.
    One combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine without Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is currently licensed in the USA (M-M-R II; Merck, USA) and another has been developed (Priorix™ [MMR-RIT, GSK, Belgium]). In this follow-up study, children from USA or Puerto Rico, who had received one dose of M-M-R II or MMR-RIT at 12-15 months of age in the primary study (NCT00861744), were followed-up for 2 y post-vaccination. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and anti-mumps antibodies using ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays. Read More

    Childhood vaccinations and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children.
    Int J Epidemiol 2017 Jun;46(3):905-913
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: It has been proposed that childhood vaccinations protect against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children by modulation of future responses to common infections in childhood. However, the available studies provide inconsistent findings, and population-based cohort studies with longitudinal information on vaccinations are lacking.

    Methods: In a register-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008, followed up until age 15 years or 31 December 2009 ( n  = 1 225 404), we evaluated exposure to childhood vaccination and risk of childhood ALL, including information on ALL subtypes. Read More

    Echocardiographic findings in infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome: Retrospective case series study.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(4):e0175065. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    Objective: To report the echocardiographic evaluation of 103 infants with presumed congenital Zika syndrome.

    Methods: An observational retrospective study was performed at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil. Read More

    Sensory defects and developmental delay among children with congenital rubella syndrome.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 13;7:46483. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan.
    This study investigated the features of developmental difficulties combined with sensory defects in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Following a large rubella outbreak in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in 2011, we enrolled 41 children with CRS from September 2011 through May 2013. Fourteen participants died and six became untraceable by October 2013; the remaining 21 children were followed up from 2013 to 2015. Read More

    Immunogenicity and safety of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) containing the Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, the Hoshino mumps strain, and the RA 27/3 rubella strain: Results of a randomized, comparative, active controlled phase III clinical trial.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jul 31;13(7):1523-1530. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    k Vaccine Technology Centre , Cadila Healthcare Limited , India.
    This phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the single-dose and multi-dose formulations of a novel MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited, India (Cadila MMR vaccine), containing the Hoshino mumps strain, compared to that of an existing MMR vaccine (live, freeze-dried) developed by M/s Serum Institute of India Limited, India (Serum MMR vaccine). These two vaccines have similar measles and rubella strains, but different mumps strains (Hoshino in Cadila MMR vaccine, and L-Zagreb in Serum MMR vaccine). Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects of either sex, aged 15-18 months, were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either the Cadila or Serum MMR vaccine. Read More

    Successful administration of measles-rubella-mumps vaccine by graded challenge in a case with anaphylaxis after prior vaccination.
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 04;115(2):e89-e91
    Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics. Izmir, Turkey.
    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Read More

    30-year trends in admission rates for encephalitis in children in England and effect of improved diagnostics and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a population-based observational study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Apr 2;17(4):422-430. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics.

    Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of hospital admission statistics for encephalitis for individuals aged 0-19 years using national data from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE, 1979-85) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, 1990-2011). Read More

    Vaccine adverse events in a safety net healthcare system and a managed care organization.
    Vaccine 2017 03 6;35(9):1335-1340. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, United States; Ambulatory Care Services, Denver Health, United States; Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Colorado, United States.
    Background: The Institute of Medicine, in a 2013 report, recommended that the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) expand collaborations to include more diversity in the study population. Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), an established VSD site, partnered with Denver Health (DH), an integrated safety net healthcare system, to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating DH data within the VSD. Prior to incorporating the data, we examined the identification of specific vaccine associated adverse events (VAEs) in these two distinct healthcare systems. Read More

    A particular case of cytomegalovirus infection in infancy.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2016 ;57(4):1371-1374
    Department of Pediatrics, "Louis Turcanu" Emergency Hospital for Children, Timisoara, Romania;
    The clinical spectrum of perinatal infection varies from asymptomatic infection or mild disease to severe systemic involvement. The aim of this paper is to present a severe intrauterine infection, which led to difficulties in diagnosis and unfavorable evolution.

    Case Presentation: M. Read More

    The Need to Optimize Adolescent Immunization.
    Pediatrics 2017 Mar 6;139(3). Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana.
    The adolescent period heralds the pediatric patient's transition into adulthood. It is a time of dynamic development during which effective preventive care measures can promote safe behaviors and the development of lifelong health habits. One of the foundations of preventive adolescent health care is timely vaccination, and every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations. Read More

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