1,665 results match your criteria Pediatrics Rotavirus


Incidence of intussusception in children less than five years of age: a pre-rotavirus vaccine survey from Iran, 2010-2015.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 29;34:40. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Pediatric Infections Research Center, Research Institute for Children Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to determine the baseline statistics of intussusception in the under-five- year age group in Iran to facilitate the monitoring of potential side effects after administration of rotavirus vaccine. This hospital-based historical cohort study reviewed children under 60 months of age with the final diagnosis of intussusception, ICD-10 code K56.1, using census in all hospitals of Tehran, Iran from March 2010-2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320972PMC

Active surveillance of acute paediatric hospitalisations demonstrates the impact of vaccination programmes and informs vaccine policy in Canada and Australia.

Euro Surveill 2020 06;25(25)

The IMPACT and PAEDS investigators are acknowledged at the end of this article.

Sentinel surveillance of acute hospitalisations in response to infectious disease emergencies such as the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic is well described, but recognition of its potential to supplement routine public health surveillance and provide scalability for emergency responses has been limited. We summarise the achievements of two national paediatric hospital surveillance networks relevant to vaccine programmes and emerging infectious diseases in Canada (Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active; IMPACT from 1991) and Australia (Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance; PAEDS from 2007) and discuss opportunities and challenges in applying their model to other contexts. Both networks were established to enhance capacity to measure vaccine preventable disease burden, vaccine programme impact, and safety, with their scope occasionally being increased with emerging infectious diseases' surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.25.1900562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331140PMC

Occurrence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children younger than three years of age before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine: a prospective observational study in four pediatric clinics in Shibata City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jul 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Kawasaki Medical School , Kurashiki, Japan.

In Japan, rotavirus (RV) vaccines have already been introduced but not used for universal vaccination as of 2018. Therefore, we identified cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children younger than three years of age and investigated the occurrence of infection before and after the introduction of RV vaccines. An ecological study through prospective surveillance was conducted in four pediatric clinics in Shibata City, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, during the 2011 to 2018 RVGE epidemic seasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1720435DOI Listing

Etiology of acute Gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age in Bucaramanga, Colombia: A case-control study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 30;14(6):e0008375. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries where limited access to potable water, poor sanitation, deficient hygiene, and food product contamination are prevalent. Research on the changing etiology of AGE and associated risk factors in Latin America, including Colombia, is essential to understand the epidemiology of these infections. The primary objectives of this study were to describe etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age from Bucaramanga, Colombia, a middle-income country in Latin American, and to identify the presence of emerging E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008375DOI Listing

The application research of xTAG GPP multiplex PCR in the diagnosis of persistent and chronic diarrhea in children.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Jun 26;20(1):309. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 72 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210008, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Persistent and chronic diarrhea is difficult to treat, and infection is still the main cause. In this study, we investigate the application value of xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (xTAG GPP) multiplex PCR in the early diagnosis of persistent and chronic diarrhea in children and to understand the epidemiology of intestinal diarrhea pathogens.

Methods: One hundred ninety-nine specimens were collected from Nanjing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University (Nanjing, China). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02206-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318512PMC

Clinical Characteristics of 5 COVID-19 Cases With Non-respiratory Symptoms as the First Manifestation in Children.

Front Pediatr 2020 12;8:258. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, which then rapidly spread to more than 80 countries. However, detailed information on the characteristics of COVID-19 in children is still scarce. Five patients with non-respiratory symptoms as the first manifestation were hospitalized from the emergency department, and were later confirmed to have COVID-19, between 23 January and 20 February 2020, at the Wuhan Children's Hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235428PMC

Intussusception in children aged under two years in India: Retrospective surveillance at nineteen tertiary care hospitals.

Vaccine 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, India Country Office, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Objective: Intussusception has been linked with rotavirus vaccine (RVV) as a rare adverse reaction. In view of limited background data on intussusception in India and in preparation for RVV introduction, a surveillance network was established to document the epidemiology of intussusception cases in Indian children.

Methods: Intussusception in children 2-23 months were documented at 19 nationally representative sentinel hospitals through a retrospective surveillance for 69 months (July 2010 to March 2016). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.059DOI Listing

Histo-blood group antigens as divergent factors of groups A and C rotaviruses circulating in humans and different animal species.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Jun 16:1-24. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States of America.

Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been found to be important host susceptibility factors or receptors for human rotavirus (RVs) with genotype-specific host ranges, impacting the disease patterns, epidemiology, and strategy development against RV diseases in humans. However, how the glycan factors contribute to RV diversity and host ranges to different animal species remains unclear. In this study using recombinant VP8* proteins as probes to perform glycan array analyses of RVs, we observed a wide range of glycan binding profiles, including those binding to sialic acid containing glycans, among group A (RVA) and group C (RVC) RVs that mainly infect different animal species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1782270DOI Listing

Impact of a twelve-year rotavirus vaccine program on acute diarrhea mortality and hospitalization in Brazil: 2006-2018.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 Jun 16;19(6):585-593. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medicine, Federal University of Sergipe , Aracaju, Brazil.

Background: Monitoring the impact of vaccine programs is necessary to identify changes in vaccine efficacy. We report the impact of the 12-year rotavirus vaccine program on diarrhea mortality and hospitalizations and their correlation to socioeconomic indicators.

Methods: this ecological study describes diarrhea hospitalizations and deaths from 2006 to 2018 in Brazil and correlates rotavirus vaccine coverage, hospitalizations and deaths to socioeconomic indicators and social vulnerability index (SVI) by state and region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1775081DOI Listing

Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) 2017 and 2018: Prospective hospital-based surveillance for serious paediatric conditions.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2020 06 15;44. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Director, National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Kids Research Institute, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales; Professor, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, New South Wales; Staff Specialist, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales.

Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine-preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). This report presents surveillance data for 2017 and 2018.

Methods: Specialist nurses screened hospital admissions, emergency department (ED) records, laboratory and other data on a daily basis in seven paediatric tertiary referral hospitals across Australia to identify children with the conditions under surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.49DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of an uncommon multigene Reassortant G1P[4] rotavirus identified in China.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 Jun 11;85:104413. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center of Biological Products, School of public health, Xiamen university, Xiamen, China; The Research Unit of Frontier Technology of Structural Vaccinology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

Rotavirus A (RVA) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in both young children and animals. In this study, we analyzed the complete genome sequence of a rare G1P[4] rotavirus, which was identified from the stool samples (20130113) of an infant with diarrhea in Chongqing, China. The genotype constellation of strain 20130113 was G1-P[4]-I2-R1-C1-M1-A2-N2-T1-E1-H1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104413DOI Listing

May rotavirus vaccine be affect food allergy prevalence?

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 12:1-5. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Pediatric Allergy, Başkent University Faculty of Medicine , Ankara, Turkey.

Incidence of food allergy (FA) during nursing period is 6-8% globally and It is reported %5,7 in Turkey. In our study, the aim is to determine whether the prevalence of food allergy (FA) increases in children vaccinated against rotavirus. The files of 681 infants who are still followed-up were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1732167DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of rotaviruses obtained from patients with rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy.

Microbiol Immunol 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Group A rotavirus (RVA) rarely causes severe complications such as encephalitis/encephalopathy. However, the pathophysiology of this specific complication remains unclear. We used next-generation sequence analysis to compare the entire genome sequences of RVAs detected in patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy and gastroenteritis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12827DOI Listing

The clinical course of gastroenteritis due to nosocomial and community acquired norovirus infections in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children - single center experience.

Przegl Epidemiol 2020 ;74(1):23-31

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental Age, Public Paediatric Teaching Hospital.

Background: After the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into immunization schedules, noroviruses account for the majority of acute gastrointestinal infections. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical presentation in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children with hospital- and community-acquired norovirus gastroenteritis.

Material And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical records of children with noroviral gastroenteritis, hospitalized in the Pediatric Hospital, Medical University of Warsaw, between 2015 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32394/pe.74.03DOI Listing
January 2020

Trends and Variation in Care and Outcomes for Children Hospitalized With Acute Gastroenteritis.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 Jul 3;10(7):547-554. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Kansas City and School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.

Objectives: Assess trends in inpatient acute gastroenteritis (AGE) management across children's hospitals and identify elements of AGE management associated with resource use.

Methods: We examined inpatient stays for children 6 months to 18 years hospitalized with AGE from 2009 to 2018 using the Pediatric Health Information System database. We characterized demographics, hospital-level resource use (ie, medications, laboratories, and imaging), and outcomes (ie, cost per case, 14-day revisit rates, and length of stay [LOS]). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2019-0310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324299PMC

The Importance of Advancing SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Children.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory + Children's Pediatric Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA.

While the role of children in the chain of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be fully defined, they likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic or have milder symptoms and less likely to present for healthcare and be tested for SARS-CoV-2; thus, our current estimates are likely under-representative of the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 in children. Given the potential direct benefit of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and the substantial indirect benefit through community protection or 'herd immunity', we argue that planning and implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should include children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314192PMC

Rapid generation of rotavirus single-gene reassortants by means of eleven plasmid-only based reverse genetics.

J Gen Virol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

Reassortment is an important mechanism in the evolution of group A rotaviruses (RVAs), yielding viruses with novel genetic and phenotypic traits. The classical methods for generating RVA reassortants with the desired genetic combinations are laborious and time-consuming because of the screening and selection processes required to isolate a desired reassortant. Taking advantage of a recently developed RVA reverse genetics system based on just 11 cloned cDNAs encoding the RVA genome (11 plasmid-only system), we prepared a panel of simian SA11-L2 virus-based single-gene reassortants, each containing 1 segment derived from human KU virus of the G1P[8] genotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001443DOI Listing

Prevalence of Eleven Infectious Viruses Causing Diarrhea in Korea.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Inje University College of Medicine.

Rotavirus and norovirus are well-known causes of viral infectious diarrhea. There are few reports about diarrhea caused by other viruses in Korea, although gastroenteritis attributable to other viruses is increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were to detect various causes of viral diarrhea and to investigate their prevalence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.069DOI Listing

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress Leads to an Increase in Labile Zinc Pools in Lung Epithelial Cells.

mSphere 2020 05 27;5(3). Epub 2020 May 27.

Clinical and Cellular Virology Laboratory, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Zinc supplementation in cell culture has been shown to inhibit various viruses, like herpes simplex virus, rotavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, whether zinc plays a direct antiviral role in viral infections and whether viruses have adopted strategies to modulate zinc homeostasis have not been investigated. Results from clinical trials of zinc supplementation in infections indicate that zinc supplementation may be beneficial in a pathogen- or disease-specific manner, further underscoring the importance of understanding the interaction between zinc homeostasis and virus infections at the molecular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00447-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253603PMC

Acute Ataxia in Childhood: Clinical Presentation, Etiology, and Prognosis of Single-Center Experience.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.

Background: Acute ataxia is a common reason for presentation to the pediatric emergency department and the pediatric neurology clinic in childhood. Its incidence is between 1/100,000 and 1/500,000. Its most common reason is infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002104DOI Listing

Parental Attitudes and Perceptions Towards Vaccines.

Authors:
Zuhal Gundogdu

Cureus 2020 Apr 13;12(4):e7657. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Pediatrics, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, TUR.

Objective Success of any vaccination program and uptake of children's vaccines largely depends upon the parents' perceptions and attitudes. This study provides a snapshot of parents' views towards vaccines included in the nationally-funded vaccination program, together with two unfunded vaccines in Kocaeli, Turkey. Methods Data were gathered from a convenience sample through a questionnaire that explored the socio-demographic factors of the parents and the vaccination status of their children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217588PMC

Time trends in incidence of diabetes mellitus in Austrian children and adolescents <15 years (1989-2017).

Pediatr Diabetes 2020 Aug 31;21(5):720-726. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To analyze the time trends of nationwide diabetes incidence <15 years of age from 1989 until 2017 in Austria.

Methods: The Austrian Diabetes Incidence Study Group registers all newly diagnosed patients with diabetes mellitus <15 years of age in a prospective population-based study. The diabetes type was classified on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13038DOI Listing

Regulation of bile duct epithelial injury by hepatic CD71+ erythroid cells.

JCI Insight 2020 Jun 4;5(11). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Extramedullary hematopoietic cells are present in the liver of normal neonates in the first few days of life and persist in infants with biliary atresia. Based on a previous report that liver genes are enriched by erythroid pathways, we examined the liver gene expression pattern at diagnosis and found the top 5 enriched pathways are related to erythrocyte pathobiology in children who survived with the native liver beyond 2 years of age. Using immunostaining, anti-CD71 antibodies identified CD71+ erythroid cells among extramedullary hematopoietic cells in the livers at the time of diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.135751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308060PMC

Potency of Oral Rehydration Solution in Inducing Fluid Absorption is Related to Glucose Concentration.

Sci Rep 2020 May 8;10(1):7803. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Translational Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Oral rehydration solutions (ORSs) is the key treatment of acute diarrhea in children, as it restores the electrolyte balance by stimulating the intestinal sodium/glucose transporter SGLT1 to induce fluid absorption. The World Health Organization (WHO) and The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) proposed ORSs with different chemical compositions. The main agent of childhood acute gastroenteritis is rotavirus (RV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64818-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210290PMC

Comparison of Clinical Characteristics Between Febrile and Afebrile Seizures Associated With Acute Gastroenteritis in Childhood.

Front Pediatr 2020 16;8:167. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Division of Pediatric Emergency, Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) accompanied by seizures is not a rare scenario in childhood. We investigated the clinical features of children with febrile or afebrile seizures during AGE and aimed to identify the impact of fever in this situation-related seizure. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of children admitted due to seizures associated with mild AGE between January 2008 and December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176810PMC

Immunogenicity and safety of porcine circovirus-free human rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants: a phase III, randomized trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Background: Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) material was detected in the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) in 2010. In this study (NCT02914184) we compared immunogenicity and safety of the PCV-free HRV vaccine (PCV-free HRV) with HRV. PCV-free HRV is an HRV with no detection of PCV-1 and PCV-2 according to the limit of detection of the tests used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa210DOI Listing

Rotavirus and autoimmunity.

J Infect 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Grupo de Investigación en Genética, Vacunas, Infecciones y Pediatría (GENVIP), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS) and Hospital Clínico Universitario and Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Travesa da Choupana s/n 15706 Galicia, Spain; Translational Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Travesa da Choupana s/n 15706 Galicia, Spain.

Rotavirus, a major etiological agent of acute diarrhea in children worldwide, has historically been linked to autoimmunity. In the last few years, several physiopathological approaches have been proposed to explain the leading mechanism triggering autoimmunity, from the old concept of molecular mimicry to the emerging theory of bystander activation and break of tolerance. Epidemiological and immunological data indicate a strong link between rotavirus infection and two of the autoimmune pathologies with the highest incidence: celiac disease and diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.041DOI Listing

Hospital-based surveillance of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus strains in young Taiwanese children.

J Formos Med Assoc 2020 Jul 28;119(7):1158-1166. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Rotavirus remains a leading cause of pediatric gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Surveillance studies have revealed that several major rotaviral genotypes are responsible for most cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This study aimed to understand the characteristics of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by rotavirus in young children in Taiwan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.03.019DOI Listing
July 2020
1.695 Impact Factor

Full genome characterization of novel DS-1-like G9P[8] rotavirus strains that have emerged in Thailand.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(4):e0231099. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

The emergence and rapid spread of unusual DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses having G1/3/8 genotypes have been recently reported from major parts of the world (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and the Americas). During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand, three novel intergenogroup reassortant strains possessing the G9P[8] genotype (DBM2017-016, DBM2017-203, and DBM2018-291) were identified in three stool specimens from diarrheic children. In the present study, we determined and analyzed the full genomes of these three strains. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231099PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176146PMC

Splenial Lesions in Benign Convulsions With Gastroenteritis Associated With Rotavirus Infection.

Pediatr Neurol 2019 May 9. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; Brain and Mind Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan; Department of Developmental Disability Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate clinical risk factors for acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in patients with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis or benign infantile epilepsy.

Study Design: We investigated clinical and diffusion-weighted imaging findings in 32 patients with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and 22 patients with benign infantile epilepsy who underwent MRI within seven days of seizure onset between 2010 and 2015.

Results: Diffusion-weighted imaging showed signal hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum in seven patients with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, but no abnormalities in patients with benign infantile epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.05.002DOI Listing

Effectiveness of a hand hygiene program to reduce acute gastroenteritis at child care centers: A cluster randomized trial.

Am J Infect Control 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Andalusian Deparment of Pediatrics, Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, Instituto Balmis de Vacunas, Almeria, Spain.

We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational and hand hygiene program in daycare centers (DCCs) and homes on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) incidence in children attending DCCs.

Methods: A randomized, controlled, and open study of 911 children aged 0-3 years attending 24 DCCs in Almería (Spain) with an 8-month follow-up was employed. Two intervention groups of DCCs families performed educational and hand hygiene measures, 1 with soap and water (soap and water group; n = 274), another with hand sanitizer (hand sanitizer group [HSG]; n = 339), and the control group (CG; n = 298) followed usual handwashing procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Clinical and Environmental Surveillance of Rotavirus Common Genotypes Showed High Prevalence of Common P Genotypes in Egypt.

Food Environ Virol 2020 Jun 11;12(2):99-117. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Yossuf Abbas st., Nasr city, P.O. 11754, Cairo, Egypt.

The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of human rotavirus group A common G and P genotypes in human Egyptian stool specimens and raw sewage samples to determine the most common genotypes for future vaccine development. From 1026 stool specimens of children with acute diarrhea and using nested RT-PCR, 250 samples (24.37%) were positive for human rotavirus group A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09426-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224034PMC
June 2020
1.975 Impact Factor

Rotavirus encephalopathy with concomitant acute cerebellitis: report of a case and review of the literature.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(1):119-124

Divisions of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.

Rotavirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age. It is known that neurological manifestations like seizures, encephalopathy and encephalitis can rarely be seen due to rotavirus infections. Cerebellar involvement is extremely rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.01.017DOI Listing
January 2020

Epidemiology and HBGA-susceptibility investigation of a G9P[8] rotavirus outbreak in a school in Lechang, China.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 6;165(6):1311-1320. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong, China.

Rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in infants, in which the viruses interact with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment and host susceptibility factors. While gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by rotaviruses are uncommon in adolescents, we reported here one that occurred in a middle school in China. Rectal swabs and saliva samples were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic students, and samples were also collected from the environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04608-4DOI Listing

Childhood vaccination coverage and equity impact in Ethiopia by socioeconomic, geographic, maternal, and child characteristics.

Vaccine 2020 Apr 3;38(20):3627-3638. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Ethiopia is a priority country of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance to improve vaccination coverage and equitable uptake. The Ethiopian National Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) and the Global Vaccine Action Plan set coverage goals of 90% at national level and 80% at district level by 2020. This study analyses full vaccination coverage among children in Ethiopia and estimates the equity impact by socioeconomic, geographic, maternal and child characteristics based on the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.03.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171468PMC

Safety and immunogenicity of a parenteral trivalent P2-VP8 subunit rotavirus vaccine: a multisite, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jul 3;20(7):851-863. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

PATH, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: A monovalent, parenteral, subunit rotavirus vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults in the USA and in toddlers and infants in South Africa, but elicited poor responses against heterotypic rotavirus strains. We aimed to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent vaccine formulation (P2-VP8-P[4],[6],[8]).

Methods: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1/2 study was done at three South African research sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30001-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322558PMC

Next-generation rotavirus vaccines: important progress but work still to be done.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Jul 3;20(7):762-764. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30151-1DOI Listing

Retinoic Acid and Lymphotoxin Signaling Promote Differentiation of Human Intestinal M Cells.

Gastroenterology 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Palo Alto Veterans Institute of Research, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California; Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Intestinal microfold (M) cells are a unique subset of intestinal epithelial cells in the Peyer's patches that regulate mucosal immunity, serving as portals for sampling and uptake of luminal antigens. The inability to efficiently develop human M cells in cell culture has impeded studies of the intestinal immune system. We aimed to identify signaling pathways required for differentiation of human M cells and establish a robust culture system using human ileum enteroids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.03.053DOI Listing

The Role of Oral Administration of Immunoglobulin in Managing Diarrheal Illness in Immunocompromised Children.

Paediatr Drugs 2020 Jun;22(3):331-334

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Introduction: Immunocompromised children are susceptible to infectious diarrhea. Oral administration of human serum immunoglobulins to treat immunocompromised patients with viral gastroenteritis caused by viruses like rotavirus and norovirus has been reported.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral immunoglobulin (OIG) in treating hospitalized immunocompromised children with diarrheal illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40272-020-00389-0DOI Listing
June 2020
1.721 Impact Factor

Genetic Diversity of Human Rotavirus A Among Hospitalized Children Under-5 Years in Lebanon.

Front Immunol 2020 26;11:317. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Faculty of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases Research, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Human rotavirus remains a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide despite the availability of effective vaccines. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of rotaviruses circulating in Lebanon. We genetically characterized the VP4 and VP7 genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of 132 rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis specimens, previously identified in hospitalized children (<5 years) from 2011 to 2013 in Lebanon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054381PMC
February 2020

Temporal decline in diarrhea episodes and mortality in Kiribati children two years following rotavirus vaccine introduction, despite high malnutrition rates: a retrospective review.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Mar 12;20(1):207. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Kiribati introduced rotavirus vaccine in 2015. To estimate the impact of rotavirus vaccine on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) among children under 5 in Kiribati, a retrospective review of inpatient and outpatient AGE and hospitalized SAM was undertaken.

Methods: Inpatient data for admissions and hospital deaths due to AGE, SAM and all-causes were collected for children under 5 from all hospitals on the main island, Tarawa, from January 2010-December 2013 (pre-rotavirus vaccine) and January 2016-September 2017 (post-rotavirus vaccine). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-4874-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069014PMC

Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine in central java and yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Vaccine 2020 Apr 9;38(16):3235-3242. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Paediatric Research Office, Child Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Placental or breast milk maternal antibodies can potentially reduce oral rotavirus vaccine efficacy in developing countries. We aimed to examine the relationship between the level of rotavirus specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and neutralising antibodies (NA) in colostrum and breast milk and cord IgG, with cumulative vaccine take following one and three doses of oral RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine within a Phase IIb trial in Indonesia.

Methods: 196 infants received three doses of RV3-BB in a randomized, double-blinded trial, using a neonatal schedule (first dose at 0-5 days of age, n = 61), an infant schedule (first dose at ~ 8 weeks of age, n = 67) or placebo (n = 68). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.087DOI Listing

Etiologic features of diarrheagenic microbes in stool specimens from patients with acute diarrhea in Thailand.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 4;10(1):4009. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Thailand-Japan Research Collaboration Center on Emerging and Re-emerging Infections, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Many microbial species have been recognized as enteropathogens for humans. Here, we predicted the causative agents of acute diarrhea using data from multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting 19 enteropathogens. For this, a case-control study was conducted at eight hospitals in Thailand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60711-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055299PMC

Divergence of group a rotavirus with genetic variations before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccines in northern Taiwan.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(9):e19253

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

Despite the development of vaccines in 2006, rotavirus is still a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This study was performed to analyze the presence of circulating rotaviruses before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines to allow phylogenetic comparisons of vaccine strains in northern Taiwan.Rotavirus genotyping and sequencing of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 PCR products were performed by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA autosequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019253DOI Listing
February 2020

Rotavirus vaccination for all children or subgroups only? Comment of the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) and the European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) recommendation group for rotavirus vaccination.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Feb 22. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Munich, Germany.

Rotavirus gastroenteritis affects all children. Studies indicate that by the age of 5 years, almost all children have developed rotavirus antibodies. It has been estimated that in Europe, approximately 6550 children each year die as a result of rotavirus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03608-5DOI Listing
February 2020

Predictors of oral rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in rural Zimbabwean infants.

Vaccine 2020 Mar 19;38(13):2870-2878. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Zvitambo Institute for Maternal and Child Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe; Centre for Genomics & Child Health, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, UK; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Oral rotavirus vaccines (RVV) have poor immunogenicity in low-income countries, for reasons that remain unclear. This study identified the determinants of RVV immunogenicity among infants in rural Zimbabwe.

Methods: Anti-rotavirus IgA titres were measured among a sub-group of infants enrolled in the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial (NCT01824940). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.01.097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065039PMC

Adherence to Timely Vaccinations in the United States.

Pediatrics 2020 03 21;145(3). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Hubert Department of Global Health and

Objectives: To estimate (1) the proportion of children not adhering to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended early childhood immunization schedule and (2) associations between schedule adherence, sociodemographic characteristics, and up-to-date immunization status by 19 to 35 months of age.

Methods: We used 2014 National Immunization Survey provider-verified vaccination data to classify vaccination patterns as "recommended" (ie, in line with ACIP dose- and age-specific recommendations), "alternate" (ie, in line with either limiting the number of shots per visit or skipping at least 1 vaccine series), or "unknown or unclassifiable" (ie, not in line with ACIP recommendations or clearly limiting shots per visit or vaccine series). We evaluated the association between vaccination patterns and up-to-date status for all ACIP-recommended vaccinations (including rotavirus and hepatitis A vaccines) using Poisson regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0783DOI Listing

Acute Gastroenteritis in Children of the World: What Needs to Be Done?

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 May;70(5):694-701

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (APPSGHAN).

The incidence of gastroenteritis has greatly reduced due to improved hygiene conditions in developing countries and the use of rotavirus vaccine. Still thousands of children, however, die from gastroenteritis, most of them in poor countries. Yet gastroenteritis management is simple, inexpensive, and effective and is largely the same all over the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002669DOI Listing
May 2020
2.625 Impact Factor

Continued Evidence of the Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine in Children Less than 3 Years of Age from the US New Vaccine Surveillance Network- a Multi-Site Active Surveillance Program, 2006-2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Feb 15. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Since 2006, the New Vaccine Surveillance Network has conducted active, population-based surveillance for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits in three US counties. Trends in the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus hospitalizations and ED visits were examined from 2006-2016.

Methods: Children <3 years of age hospitalized or visiting the ED with AGE, were enrolled from January 2006-June 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa150DOI Listing
February 2020

Does rotavirus mark the spot?

J Paediatr Child Health 2020 Feb;56(2):342

Pediatric Residency Program, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.1_14661DOI Listing
February 2020