1,520 results match your criteria Pediatrics Rotavirus


Validation of parental reports of rotavirus vaccination of their children compared to the national immunization registry.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: The introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs necessitates vaccine effectiveness evaluations. Parental report of vaccination status is a simple and accessible source of information; however, its validity is unclear.

Aims: To validate parental reports of rotavirus immunization compared to documentation of vaccination in national immunization registry, and to assess vaccine effectiveness by each method. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193049
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.037DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The incidence, aetiology, and adverse clinical consequences of less severe diarrhoeal episodes among infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: a 12-month case-control study as a follow-on to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

Lancet Glob Health 2019 May;7(5):e568-e584

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) has described the incidence, aetiology, and sequelae of medically attended moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) among children aged 0-59 months residing in censused populations in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, where most child deaths occur. To further characterise this disease burden and guide interventions, we extended this study to include children with episodes of less-severe diarrhoea (LSD) seeking care at health centres serving six GEMS sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30076-2DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Risk factors for death among children 0-59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;19(1):322. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Rúa 12, Vila da Manhiça, 1929, Maputo, CP, Mozambique.

Background: Despite major improvements in child survival rates, the number of deaths due to diarrhea remains unacceptably high. We aimed to describe diarrhea-associated mortality and evaluate risk factors for death among Mozambican children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD).

Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2012, children under-five with MSD were enrolled in Manhiça district, as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter study (GEMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3948-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466733PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Rotavirus Vaccination Does Not Increase Type 1 Diabetes and May Decrease Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 May;38(5):539-541

From the Vaccine Research Center, Tampere University.

Background: Rotavirus (RV) infection has been proposed to trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and celiac disease (CD) by molecular mimicry in genetically susceptible children. If so, a live attenuated oral RV vaccine could also trigger these autoimmune diseases, or else, prevent the effect of wild-type RV infection.

Methods: In Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial, conducted between 2001 and 2003, the participant children received RotaTeq (Kenilworth, NJ) vaccine or placebo in 1:1 ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002281DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

The Burden of Acute Diarrheal Disease in Young Hospitalized Urban South African Children Five Years After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction: A Retrospective Descriptive Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

From the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences.

Background: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple interventions, including rotavirus vaccination to infants since 2009, have reduced the incidence of diarrheal disease in South African children. Our study aimed to determine the burden of diarrheal disease 5 years after rotavirus vaccine introduction at a tertiary-level hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002304DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Etiological agents of diarrhea in hospitalized pediatric patients with special emphasis on diarrheagenic in North India.

J Lab Physicians 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):68-74

Department of Microbiology, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Introduction: Infectious diarrhea is leading infectious cause of childhood morbidity, hospitalizations, and mortality particularly in children living in developing countries like India. The etiological agents differ depending on geographical area, and recent data suggest increase in drug resistance to various enteropathogens.

Aims And Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate emerging diarrheal agents and antimicrobial resistance profile of bacterial pathogens from children (<12 years of age) hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JLP.JLP_123_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437815PMC

[What have we learnt about rotavirus in Spain in the last 10 years?]

An Pediatr (Barc) 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Santiago de Compostela, España.

Introduction: Vaccines against rotavirus (RV) have been available in Spain since 2006, but they are neither recommended nor financed by the National Health System. Nevertheless, through recommendations of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics vaccination has achieved intermediate coverage.

Material And Methods: A systematic literature review was performed on studies carried out in Spain in the last 12 years (2006-2018) on RV infection and vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2019.01.024DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

No evidence of increase in the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in young children after the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

a Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine , Tel Aviv University , Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv , Israel.

Following the introduction of universal immunization against rotavirus, concerns were raised regarding pathogen-replacement of rotavirus by norovirus. The study aim was to examine the incidence and characteristics and norovirus gastroenteritis before and after the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel. We studied 1179 stool samples collected between November 2007 and December 2014 for a prospective hospital-based surveillance study of children aged 0-59 months hospitalized for gastroenteritis. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1599522DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein (MCP)-1 in Rotavirus-Associated White Matter Injury in Newborns.

Neuropediatrics 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

Recent reports have suggested an association between rotavirus infection and a distinctive pattern of white matter injury (WMI) in neonates with seizures; however, the connection between the two is not fully understood. To evaluate the underlying mechanism, we profiled and compared eight cytokines (IL [interleukin]-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN- [interferon- ], MCP-1 [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], MIP-1 [macrophage inflammatory protein-1], and TNF- [tumor necrosis factor-]) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 33 neonates with seizures who had no other well-known causes of seizures and 13 control patients (rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis but without seizures). Among the 33 neonates with seizures, 9 showed WMI and all were infected with rotavirus (R + W + ). Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0038-1677516
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1677516DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Viral complementation of immunodeficiency confers protection against enteric pathogens via interferon-λ.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Commensal microbes profoundly impact host immunity to enteric viral infections. We have shown that the bacterial microbiota and host antiviral cytokine interferon-λ (IFN-λ) determine the persistence of murine norovirus in the gut. However, the effects of the virome in modulating enteric infections remain unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0416-7DOI Listing

Function, Architecture, and Biogenesis of Reovirus Replication Neoorganelles.

Viruses 2019 Mar 21;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.

Most viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells form neoorganelles that serve as sites of viral genome replication and particle assembly. These highly specialized structures concentrate viral proteins and nucleic acids, prevent the activation of cell-intrinsic defenses, and coordinate the release of progeny particles. Reoviruses are common pathogens of mammals that have been linked to celiac disease and show promise for oncolytic applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11030288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466366PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Apparent overuse of antibiotics in the management of watery diarrhoea in children in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 21;19(1):275. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Parasitology, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 369 Sentrum, 0102, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Diarrhoea remains an important cause of childhood mortality in Nigeria, with Rotavirus and Cryptosporidium reported to have the highest contribution. However, high use of antibiotics for treatment of paediatric diarrhoea has been observed, although World Health Organization guidelines discourage the use of antibiotics for treating acute diarrhoea. Here we investigated more closely management and treatment practices for acute paediatric diarrhoea, both in home and healthcare settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3899-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429783PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Budget Impact Analysis of Rotavirus Vaccine Adoption in the Childhood Immunization Schedule of Iran.

Value Health Reg Issues 2019 Mar 14;18:91-96. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Pharmaceutical Management and Economics Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: To examine the budget impact of introducing the RotaTeq® vaccine (Merck and Co Inc, West Point, PA) to the national immunization program in Iran.

Methods: The pre- and postvaccine introduction costs were compared. The total annual costs included the vaccination and diarrhea treatment costs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vhri.2018.12.001DOI Listing

Rhinovirus-associated acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and cerebellitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Gunma Children's Medical Center, 779 Shimohakoda, Hokkitsu-machi, Shibukawa, Gunma 377-8577, Japan.

Background: Rhinovirus is a common respiratory pathogen for children throughout the year; nevertheless, its central nervous system involvement is extremely rare, and only two cases have been reported to date: meningitis and sepsis-like illness.

Patient: A previously healthy 2-year-old Japanese boy developed fever, followed by seizures and lethargy. His cerebrospinal fluid cell count and protein level were slightly increased; brain magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal intensities in the bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei, which were prominent in diffusion-weighted images. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.02.014DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Characterization of an unusual DS-1-like G8P[8] rotavirus strain from Japan in 2017: Evolution of emerging DS-1-like G8P[8] strains through reassortment.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine.

The emergence of unusual DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses having the bovine-like G8 genotype (DS-1-like G8P[8] strains) has been reported from several Asian countries. During the rotavirus surveillance program in Japan in 2017, a DS-1-like G8P[8] strain (RVA/Human-wt/JPN/SO1162/2017/G8P[8]) was identified in 43 rotavirus-positive stool samples. Strain SO1162 was shown to have a unique genotype constellation including both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2018.484DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Immunogenicity and safety of the diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine when co-administered with the human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in healthy Japanese infants: a phase IV randomized study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Feb 20:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

h Medicines Development Division , GSK , Tokyo , Japan.

Rotavirus infections have been reported to account for 40-50% of all hospitalized acute gastroenteritis cases in young children (<5 years) in Japan. Since 2011, Rotarix containing the live attenuated human rotavirus RIX4414 strain (HRV) has been licensed in Japan for infants. Vaccination against rotavirus is optional in Japan whereas administration of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and inactivated poliovirus (DPT-IPV) vaccine is part of the national routine immunization program. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1564441DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

The impact of improved water, sanitation and hygiene on oral rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in Zimbabwean infants: sub-study of a cluster-randomized trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Zvitambo Institute for Maternal and Child Health Research, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Oral vaccines have lower efficacy in developing compared to developed countries. Poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may contribute to reduced oral vaccine immunogenicity.

Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized 2x2 factorial trial in rural Zimbabwe (NCT01824940). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz140DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Equity and impact: Ontario's infant rotavirus immunization program five years following implementation. A population-based cohort study.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 11;37(17):2408-2414. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Ontario implemented a publicly-funded rotavirus (RV) immunization program in 2011. Our objectives were to evaluate its impact on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) five years after implementation.

Methods: We performed a population-based longitudinal retrospective cohort study to identify hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE in all age groups using ICD-10 codes between August 1, 2005 and March 31, 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.061DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
3.624 Impact Factor

Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP) Recommended Immunization Schedule (2018-19) and Update on Immunization for Children Aged 0 Through 18 Years.

Indian Pediatr 2018 Dec;55(12):1066-1074

Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP), Indian Academy of Pediatrics, India.

Justification: There is a need to revise/review recommendations regarding existing vaccines in view of current developments in vaccinology.

Process: Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP) of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) reviewed the new evidence, had two meetings, and representatives of few vaccine manufacturers also presented their data. The recommendations were finalized unanimously. Read More

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December 2018
51 Reads

Prevalence, levels and seasonal variations of human enteric viruses in six major rivers in Alberta, Canada.

Water Res 2019 Apr 1;153:349-356. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, 1405-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

The prevalence and seasonal variation of 7 viruses in 6 major rivers in Alberta were assessed using a combination of qPCR, cell culture and integrated cell culture with qPCR (ICC-qPCR). Water samples were collected monthly from rivers at different sites upstream and downstream of major urban centers. Seven viruses including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, JC virus and enterovirus, were detected in at least one of the water samples at each site using qPCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.01.034DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Influence of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy to pregnant inflammatory bowel disease women and their children's immunity.

Intest Res 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: The onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occurs at young age, and therefore, women IBD patients experience pregnancy during their disease progression. Recently, the use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) has been rapidly increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy related outcomes in women with IBD who were treated with anti-TNF-α during pregnancy and immunity of their children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5217/ir.2018.00071DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Persistent systemic rotavirus vaccine infection in a child with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

J Med Virol 2019 Jun 6;91(6):1008-1013. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Objective: The main aims of the present study were to elucidate the systemic group A rotavirus (RVA) infection and to clarify the genetic changes of persistent virus in the X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patient.

Methods: RotaTeq vaccine (RV5) genotype-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor viral RNA load in serially collected serum and stool samples. Next-generation sequence analysis was used to determine the genotype of the virus by sequencing 11 gene segments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25410DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads

Factors Associated With Rotavirus Vaccine Coverage.

Pediatrics 2019 Feb 17;143(2). Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Rotavirus vaccines (RVVs) were included in the US immunization program in 2006 and are coadministered with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, yet their coverage lags behind DTaP. We assessed timing, initiation, and completion of the RVV series among children enrolled in active gastroenteritis surveillance at 7 US medical institutions during 2014-2016.

Methods: We compared coverage and timing of each vaccine series and analyzed characteristics associated with RVV initiation and completion. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1824DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years hospitalized for diarrhoea, 2012 to 2016.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jan 15;19(1):69. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: In 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech, India) in 4 states of India as part of the Universal Immunization Programme, and expanded to 5 more states in 2017. We report four years of data on rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children < 5 years of age prior to vaccine introduction.

Methods: Children from 7 sites in southern and northern India hospitalized for diarrhoea were recruited between July 2012 and June 2016. Read More

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https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6406-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334384PMC
January 2019
13 Reads

Rotavirus infection beyond the gut.

Infect Drug Resist 2019 24;12:55-64. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Grupo de Investigación en Genética, Vacunas, Infecciones y Pediatría (GENVIP), Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Galicia, Spain,

The landscape of rotavirus (RV) infection has changed substantially in recent years. Autoimmune triggering has been added to clinical spectrum of this pathology, which is now known to be much broader than diarrhea. The impact of RV vaccines in these other conditions is becoming a growing field of research. Read More

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https://www.dovepress.com/rotavirus-infection-beyond-the-gut
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S186404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307677PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

[Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2019 recommendations].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2019 Jan;90(1):56.e1-56.e9

Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, España; Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Pediatría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España.

The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. As regards funded immunisations, the 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, with a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2018.10.006DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Piedmont, Italy.

Minerva Pediatr 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Citoimmunodiagnostics Laboratory, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Medical School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children, characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Co-detection of HBoV with other gastroenteric viruses was reported a lot in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: This paper presents the real-time RT-PCR Taqman assay for the detection and quantification of HBoV for clinical fecal samples collected from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Piedmont. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05365-3DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Monovalent rotavirus vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus hospitalizations among children in Zimbabwe.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 23. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Rotavirus is a leading cause of mortality among children <5 years old. Zimbabwe introduced rotavirus vaccine in May 2014. We evaluated monovalent rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) under conditions of routine use at two surveillance sites in Harare, Zimbabwe. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1096DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Mupirocin for Decolonization of Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Pediatrics 2019 Jan;143(1)

Emmes Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

: media-1vid110.1542/5849573989001PEDS-VA_2018-1565 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: (SA) is the second leading cause of late-onset sepsis among infants in the NICU. Because colonization of nasal mucosa and/or skin frequently precedes invasive infection, decolonization strategies, such as mupirocin application, have been attempted to prevent clinical infection, but data supporting this approach in infants are limited. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317770PMC
January 2019
30 Reads

Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses in children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

J Med Virol 2019 May 2;91(5):738-743. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Norovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children in developing countries. Limited data on the prevalence and genetic variability of norovirus are available in Cameroon, where early childhood mortality due to AGE is common. We tested 902 fecal specimens from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with AGE between January 2010 and December 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25380DOI Listing
May 2019
16 Reads

Non-secretor histo-blood group antigen phenotype is associated with reduced risk of clinical rotavirus vaccine failure in Malawian infants.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Histo-blood-group-antigen (HBGA) Lewis/secretor phenotypes are associated with susceptibility to genotype-specific rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). We tested the hypothesis that non-secretor/Lewis negative phenotype leads to reduced vaccine virus replication, IgA response and clinical protection following vaccination with G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Malawian infants.

Methods: Infants receiving RV1 at age six and ten weeks were recruited to a cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1067DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

The role of the sapovirus infection increased in gastroenteritis after national immunisation was introduced.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Aim: This study examined the prevalence and clinical significance of the sapovirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis before and after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccination in Finland in 2009.

Methods: We collected 1437 stool samples from children under 16 years during three prospective hospital-based surveillance studies of acute gastroenteritis at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. The children were seen in the emergency department (47%) or admitted to the ward (53%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14690DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Fucosyltransferase Gene Polymorphisms and Lewisb-Negative Status Are Frequent in Swedish Newborns, With Implications for Infectious Disease Susceptibility and Personalized Medicine.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fucosyltransferase genes FUT2 and FUT3 have been associated with susceptibility to various infectious and inflammatory disorders. FUT variations influence the expression of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) (H-type 1 and Lewis), which are highly expressed in the gut and play an important role in microbial attachment, metabolism, colonization, and shaping of the microbiome. In particular, FUT polymorphisms confer susceptibility to specific rotavirus and norovirus genotypes, which has important global health implications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy085DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Introduction of rotavirus vaccination in a Swedish region: assessing parental decision-making, obtained vaccination coverage and resulting hospital admissions.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Aim: This study evaluated the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Jönköping County, Sweden, starting in 2014. This project explored the parental factors that influenced the decision to vaccinate and studied the obtained vaccination coverage and its potential influence on hospital admissions due to acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a study-specific questionnaire (n = 356) and regional statistical data on vaccination coverage and hospital admissions in Jönköping County, Sweden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14674DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Apparent absence of Giardia infections among children under 5-years of age with acute watery diarrhoea in Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Dec 3:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Parasitology, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences,PO Box 369 Sentrum, 0102 Oslo,Norway.

Although the impact of diarrhoeal disease on paediatric health in Nigeria has decreased in recent years, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. Rotavirus is recognised as an important aetiological agent, but information on the contribution of intestinal protozoa to watery diarrhoea in this age group in Nigeria is scarce. In this cross-sectional study, faecal samples from children admitted to healthcare centres in Abakaliki, Nigeria with acute watery diarrhoea (N = 199) and faecal samples from age-matched controls (N = 37) were examined for Cryptosporidium and Giardia using immunofluorescent antibody testing and molecular methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003151DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Relationship between asymptomatic rotavirus infection and jaundice in neonates: a retrospective study.

BMC Pediatr 2018 Nov 30;18(1):376. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Chonbuk National University Medical School, 20, Geonjiro Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do, 54907, South Korea.

Background: Rotavirus (RV) infection in neonates can be mild or even asymptomatic. In RV infection, jaundice is often reported, but the relationship between jaundice and RV infection has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the importance of asymptomatic RV screening in neonates with jaundice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1352-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267884PMC
November 2018
1 Read

[Correlation between human bocavirus 2 infection in children and acute diarrhea in Beijing].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;56(12):945-949

Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

To investigate the relationship between human bocavirus 2 (HBoV2) infection and acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age in a case-control study. This was a prospective case-control study. During May 2016 to December 2016, fecal specimens were collected from children ≤5 years of age with acute diarrhea who visited the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics (case group), or from children ≤5 years of age without diarrhea from Longtan Community Medical Service Center, Beijing (control group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2018.12.011DOI Listing
December 2018
23 Reads

Attitudes of physicians concerning vaccines not included in the national immunization schedule.

Turk J Pediatr 2018 ;60(3):290-297

Departments of Social Pediatrics, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Çataklı T, Duyan-Çamurdan A, Aksakal-Baran FN, Güven AE, Beyazova U. Attitudes of physicians concerning vaccines not included in the national immunization schedule. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 290-297. Read More

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http://www.turkishjournalpediatrics.org/doi.php?doi=10.24953
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2018.03.009DOI Listing
February 2019
19 Reads

Human milk oligosaccharides, milk microbiome and infant gut microbiome modulate neonatal rotavirus infection.

Nat Commun 2018 11 27;9(1):5010. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, 77030, TX, USA.

Neonatal rotavirus infections are predominantly asymptomatic. While an association with gastrointestinal symptoms has been described in some settings, factors influencing differences in clinical presentation are not well understood. Using multidisciplinary approaches, we show that a complex interplay between human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), milk microbiome, and infant gut microbiome impacts neonatal rotavirus infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07476-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258677PMC
November 2018
35 Reads

Multicenter Trial of a Combination Probiotic for Children with Gastroenteritis.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(21):2015-2026

From the Sections of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Gastroenterology, Alberta Children's Hospital, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (S.B.F.), and the Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Alberta Children's Hospital (S.W.-U., J.X.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, the Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (K.J.F.), the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal (S.G.), Ontario Child Health Support Unit, SickKids Research Institute, the Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health (A.R.W.), the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (P.M.S.), the Divisions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (Y.F.), and the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Research Institute (S.S.), Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, the Division of Emergency Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON (N.P.), the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS (K.H.), the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Women and Children's Health Research Institute (B.E.L.) and the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health-Alberta Public Laboratories and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (X.-L.P., L.C.), University of Alberta, Edmonton - all in Canada; the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (D.S.); and Children's Minnesota and Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (M.G.).

Background: Gastroenteritis accounts for approximately 1.7 million visits to the emergency department (ED) by children in the United States every year. Data to determine whether the use of probiotics improves outcomes in these children are lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1802597DOI Listing
November 2018
55 Reads

High Temperature-Short Time Pasteurization Has a Lower Impact on the Antiviral Properties of Human Milk Than Holder Pasteurization.

Front Pediatr 2018 16;6:304. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Holder pasteurization (62. 5°C for 30 min) is recommended by all international human milk bank guidelines to prevent infections potentially transmitted by donor human milk. A drawback is that it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232822PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Human Bocavirus Infection Markers in Peripheral Blood and Stool Samples of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis.

Viruses 2018 11 15;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Rīga Stradiņš University, 5 Ratsupites St., LV-1067 Riga, Latvia.

Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 1⁻4 belong to the Parvoviridae family, and they infect the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts in children. We investigated the prevalence of HBoV1⁻4 DNAs in the blood and stool samples, and of HBoV1⁻4 IgG and IgM in the plasma samples, of children presenting with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In addition, we identified HBoV co-infections with the five most frequent gastrointestinal pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265904PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Infectious etiology of chronic diarrhea in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases.

Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Jan 12;51(1):32-37. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Summary: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are life-threatening disorders, which manifest commonly with gastrointestinal (GI) signs, mainly as chronic diarrhea. To investigate and compare infectious etiology of chronic diarrhea in different PIDs. Assessing clinical features, obtaining immunological profiles, as well as characterizing infectious etiology of diarrhea were performed in 38 PID patients with chronic diarrhea. Read More

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http://www.eurannallergyimm.com/cont/online-first/640/origin
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.77DOI Listing
January 2019
19 Reads

Preparing for safety monitoring after rotavirus vaccine introduction - Assessment of baseline epidemiology of intussusception among children <2 years of age in four Asian countries.

Vaccine 2018 11 7;36(50):7593-7598. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Intussusception is the invagination of one segment of the bowel into a distal segment, characterized by symptoms of bloody stool, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Previous studies have found regional differences in incidence but the etiology of most intussusception cases is unknown. Rotavirus vaccines were associated with a slightly of increased risk of intussusception in post-licensure evaluations in high- and middle-income countries, but not in low income African countries. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X183150
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.002DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads
3.624 Impact Factor

Suboptimal performance of rotavirus testing in a vaccinated community population should prompt laboratories to review their rotavirus testing algorithms in response to changes in disease prevalence.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Mar 11;93(3):203-207. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Paediatrics, Child and Youth Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Rotavirus vaccine has reduced disease prevalence in many countries. Consequently, we aimed to assess the reliability of a rotavirus immunoassay in the community population of Auckland and Northland, New Zealand. Between 22 October 2015 and 31 December 2016, 2873 fecal samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Rotascreen II, Microgen, UK) from 2748 patients (median age 8 years, range 0-101 years). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07328893183046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.10.003DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Rotavirus Vaccine Take in Infants Is Associated With Secretor Status.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb;219(5):746-749

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Rotaviruses bind to enterocytes in a genotype-specific manner via histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also detectable in saliva. We evaluated antirotavirus immunoglobulin A seroconversion ('vaccine take") among 166 Ghanaian infants after 2-3 doses of G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine during a vaccine trial, by HBGA status from saliva collected at age 4.1 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy573DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

secretor genotype and susceptibility to infections and chronic conditions in the ALSPAC cohort.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 25;3:65. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Population Health Science, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 2BN, UK.

The (fucosyltransferase-2) gene determines blood group secretor status. Being homozygous for the inactive "non-secretor" rs601338(A) allele confers resistance to certain infections (e.g. Read More

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https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/3-65/v1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14636.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171556.2PMC
September 2018
18 Reads

Benign afebrile convulsion with gastroenteritis - A differential to consider for afebrile seizure in children.

Authors:
R L Ng

Med J Malaysia 2018 Oct;73(5):328-329

Hospital Kulim, Department of Paediatrics, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

A 5-year-old girl presented with three brief episodes of afebrile seizure within 24 hours. There was no significant past medical history but she had symptoms of acute gastroenteritis for the past 2 days. She was mildly dehydrated with no neurological signs. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Case-Control Study of Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Compared to Test-Negative Controls or Hospital Controls.

J Epidemiol 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University.

Background: Selection of test-negative controls takes less time and costs less than traditional control selection for evaluating vaccine effectiveness (VE). Here, rotavirus VE was evaluated using hospital controls and compared with test-negative controls to determine whether using the latter can substitute for the former.

Methods: We recorded gastroenteritis in children from 2 months to 2 years of age at six medical facilities in Saga City between January 4th and May 31st, 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20180054DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Multiple Introductions and Antigenic Mismatch with Vaccines May Contribute to Increased Predominance of G12P[8] Rotaviruses in the United States.

J Virol 2019 Jan 10;93(1). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Rotavirus is the leading global cause of diarrheal mortality for unvaccinated children under 5 years of age. The outer capsid of rotavirus virions consists of VP7 and VP4 proteins, which determine viral G and P types, respectively, and are primary targets of neutralizing antibodies. Successful vaccination depends upon generating broadly protective immune responses following exposure to rotaviruses presenting a limited number of G- and P-type antigens. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01476-18
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01476-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288334PMC
January 2019
9 Reads
4.439 Impact Factor