1,799 results match your criteria Pediatrics Rotavirus


Full genome-based characterization of G4P[6] rotavirus strains from diarrheic patients in Thailand: Evidence for independent porcine-to-human interspecies transmission events.

Virus Genes 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.

The exact evolutionary patterns of human G4P[6] rotavirus strains remain to be elucidated. Such strains possess unique and strain-specific genotype constellations, raising the question of whether G4P[6] strains are primarily transmitted via independent interspecies transmission or human-to-human transmission after interspecies transmission. Two G4P[6] rotavirus strains were identified in fecal specimens from hospitalized patients with severe diarrhea in Thailand, namely, DU2014-259 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/DU2014-259/2014/G4P[6]) and PK2015-1-0001 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/PK2015-1-0001/2015/G4P[6]). Read More

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Health inequities related to vaccination: An evidence map of potentially influential factors and systematic review of interventions.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 3;39(29):3825-3833. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence (ARCHE), Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Introduction: The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) makes recommendations for vaccines in Canada. To inform considerations for equity when making recommendations, the NACI Secretariat developed a matrix of factors that may influence vaccine equity. To inform the matrix we mapped the evidence for PROGRESS And Other factors potentially associated with unequal levels of illness or death from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and systematically reviewed the evidence for interventions aimed at reducing inequities. Read More

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Rotavirus Diarrhoea among Children Aged <5 Years in Hospital Setting in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 05;67(2)

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Diarrhoea remains among the highest causes of death in children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Tanzania, rotavirus infection was the leading cause of severe diarrhoea in children below the age of 5 years but there is a paucity of studies reporting the severity of this infection after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. This hospital-based study reports the proportion of children with rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in Dar es Salaam, its severity and associated factors. Read More

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Nonconvulsive status epilepticus following rotavirus gastroenteritis in two pediatric patients.

Brain Dev 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Soka Municipal Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) comprises a range of conditions in which prolonged electrographic seizures result in nonconvulsive clinical symptoms. An understanding of NCSE is especially important in emergency care. Among the various causes of NCSE, an infectious etiology has been rarely reported to date. Read More

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Profile and Epidemiology of Intussusception in Children Under-Two Years of Age: A Prospective Surveillance.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

The INCLEN Trust International, F1/5, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase 1, New Delhi, 110020, India.

Objective: To report background intussusception epidemiology in children under-two years in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu state, India, prior to rotavirus vaccine (RVV) introduction.

Methods: Prospective sentinel surveillance was done at four hospitals in Coimbatore during April 2016 to September 2017. The children aged >1 mo and < 24 mo with diagnosed intussusception were recruited and data on clinical, treatment, diet, immunization, and sociodemography were collected. Read More

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Role of rotavirus vaccination on G9P[8] rotavirus strain during a seasonal outbreak in Japan.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 25:1-6. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Although two live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, play a critical role toward reducing disease severity, hospitalization, and death rate in RV infections, regular monitoring of vaccine effectiveness (VE) is yet necessary because the segmented genome structure and reassortment capability of RVs pose considerable threats toward waning VE. In this study, we examined the VE by a test-negative study design against G9P[8]I2 strain during a seasonal outbreak in February-May, 2018, in an outpatient clinic in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It remains important because G9P[8]I2 strain remains partially heterotypic to these vaccines and predominating in post-vaccination era. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of two monovalent rotavirus vaccines, ROTAVAC® and ROTAVAC 5D® in Zambian infants.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 12;39(27):3633-3640. Epub 2021 May 12.

PATH, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: ROTAVAC® (frozen formulation stored at -20 °C) and ROTAVAC 5D® (liquid formulation stable at 2-8 °C) are rotavirus vaccines derived from the 116E human neonatal rotavirus strain, developed and licensed in India. This study evaluated and compared the safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in an infant population in Zambia.

Methods: We conducted a phase 2b, open-label, randomized, controlled trial wherein 450 infants 6 to 8 weeks of age were randomized equally to receive three doses of ROTAVAC or ROTAVAC 5D, or two doses of ROTARIX®. Read More

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Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) position paper on the immune debt of the COVID-19 pandemic in childhood, how can we fill the immunity gap?

Infect Dis Now 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

GPIP, Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique, Créteil, France; Service de pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Armand Trousseau, Paris, France.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary. While NPIs limited the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, they also reduced the spread of other pathogens during and after lockdown periods, despite the re-opening of schools since June 2020 in France. Read More

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Sensitivity analyses of unmeasured and partially-measured confounders using multiple imputation in a vaccine safety study.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Purpose: Sensitivity analyses have played an important role in pharmacoepidemiology studies using electronic health records data. Despite the existence of quantitative bias analysis in pharmacoepidemiologic studies, simultaneously adjusting for unmeasured and partially measured confounders is challenging in vaccine safety studies. Our objective was to develop a flexible approach for conducting sensitivity analyses of unmeasured and partially-measured confounders concurrently for a vaccine safety study. Read More

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Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotavirus in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand, 2018-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 8:104898. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Emerging and Re-emerging Diarrheal Viruses Cluster, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the major viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype diversity of RVAs circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Thailand in 2018-2019. A total of 1170 stool specimens were obtained from children admitted to hospitals with diarrhea and screened for RVAs by nested RT-PCR. Read More

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Rotavirus disease and health care utilisation among children under 5 years of age in highly developed countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vaccine 2021 05 29;39(22):2917-2928. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Mittlestrasse 43, 3012 Bern, Switzerland; Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Children's University Hospital of Bern, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Rotavirus (RV) infection is the leading cause of diarrhoea-associated morbidity and mortality globally among children under 5 years of age. RV vaccination is available, but has not been implemented in many national immunisation plans, especially in highly developed countries. This systematic review aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of health care use for RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) among children aged under 5 years in highly developed countries without routine RV vaccination. Read More

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Changes and remaining challenges for the Japanese immunization program: Closing the vaccine gap.

Vaccine 2021 05 28;39(22):3018-3024. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, 3-25-13 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan.

The Japanese immunization program has made considerable progress since 2009: several new vaccines have been introduced and most are included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). In October 2020, the Japanese law on immunization was revised, which resulted in a few laudable achievements. First, rotavirus vaccines were added to the NIP, 10 years after their introduction, and noteworthy studies of vaccine effectiveness and the incidence of intussusception in Japanese children were published. Read More

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Rotavirus Strain Distribution before and after Introducing Rotavirus Vaccine in India.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004, India.

In April 2016, an indigenous monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) was introduced to the National Immunization Program in India. Hospital-based surveillance for acute gastroenteritis was conducted in five sentinel sites from 2012 to 2020 to monitor the vaccine impact on various genotypes and the reduction in rotavirus positivity at each site. Stool samples collected from children under 5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea were tested for group A rotavirus using a commercial enzyme immunoassay, and rotavirus strains were characterized by RT-PCR. Read More

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Patient, staff empowerment and hand hygiene bundle improved and sustained hand hygiene in hospital wards.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Aim: We piloted a hand hygiene (HH) project in a ward, focusing on World Health Organization moments 1 and 4. Our aim was to design highly reliable interventions to achieve >90% compliance.

Methods: Baseline HH compliance was 57 and 67% for moments 1, 4, respectively, in 2015. Read More

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Study on the effectiveness and safety of Xingpi Yanger granule combined with Saccharomyces boulardii for rotavirus enteritis in children: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25593

Department of Pediatrics, Haikou Hospital of the Matemal and Child Health, NO.6 Wentan Road, Guoxing Avenue, Qiongshan District, Haikou City, Hainan Province, China.

Background: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine preparation XPYEG combined with SBI and SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and to provide the reference in drugs for the clinical treatment of children with rotavirus enteritis.

Methods: Retrieving the English databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase; Chinese databases: CNKI, CBM and WANFANG Data. Retrieving a randomized controlled trial of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC. Read More

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Rotavirus vaccination in Japan: Efficacy and safety of vaccines, changes in genotype, and surveillance efforts.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Jul 15;27(7):940-948. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060-8543, Japan.

In Japan, a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) and a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) were launched as voluntary vaccinations in November 2011 and July 2012, respectively. Rotavirus (RV) vaccine coverage in Japan increased from 30.0% in 2012 to 78. Read More

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Formulation development of a live attenuated human rotavirus (RV3-BB) vaccine candidate for use in low- and middle-income countries.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jul 16;17(7):2298-2310. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vaccine Analytics and Formulation Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Formulation development was performed with the live, attenuated, human neonatal rotavirus vaccine candidate (RV3-BB) with three main objectives to facilitate use in low- and middle- income countries including (1) a liquid, 2-8°C stable vaccine, (2) no necessity for pre-neutralization of gastric acid prior to oral administration of a small-volume dose, and (3) a low-cost vaccine dosage form. Implementation of a high-throughput RT-qPCR viral infectivity assay for RV3-BB, which correlated well with traditional FFA assays in terms of monitoring RV3-BB stability profiles, enabled more rapid and comprehensive formulation development studies. A wide variety of different classes and types of pharmaceutical excipients were screened for their ability to stabilize RV3-BB during exposure to elevated temperatures, freeze-thaw and agitation stresses. Read More

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Molecular characterization of the first human G15 rotavirus strain of zoonotic origin from the bovine species.

J Gen Virol 2021 Apr;102(4)

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian species. Animals act as a potential reservoir to RVA human infections by direct virion transmission or by contributing genes to reassortants. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a rare human RVA strain Ni17-46 with a genotype G15P[14], isolated in Japan in 2017 during rotavirus surveillance in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Read More

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Rotavirus disease burden pre-vaccine introduction in young children in Rural Southern Mozambique, an area of high HIV prevalence.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249714. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique.

Background: Rotavirus vaccines have been adopted in African countries since 2009, including Mozambique (2015). Disease burden data are needed to evaluate the impact of rotavirus vaccine. We report the burden of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Mozambique from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) before vaccine introduction. Read More

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Paediatrics: how to manage viral gastroenteritis.

Drugs Context 2021 26;10. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Background: Viral gastroenteritis is the most common diarrhoeal disorder seen in general practice and emergency departments. This article aims to provide a narrative updated review on the evaluation and management of viral gastroenteritis in children.

Methods: A PubMed search was performed with Clinical Queries using the key term 'viral gastroenteritis'. Read More

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Rotavirus Genotype Trends and Gastrointestinal Pathogen Detection in the United States, 2014-16: Results from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network.

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Background: Following the implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) has substantially declined in USA (US) children. We report the RVA genotype prevalence as well as co-infection data from seven US New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) sites during three consecutive RVA seasons, 2014-2016.

Methods: A total of 1041 stool samples that tested positive for RVA by Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for RVA genotyping and multipathogen testing. Read More

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Characterisation of a G2P[4] Rotavirus Outbreak in Western Australia, Predominantly Impacting Aboriginal Children.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Enteric Diseases Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville 3052, Australia.

In May, 2017, an outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis was reported that predominantly impacted Aboriginal children ≤4 years of age in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. G2P[4] was identified as the dominant genotype circulating during this period and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the majority of samples exhibited a conserved electropherotype. Full genome sequencing was performed on representative samples that exhibited the archetypal DS-1-like genome constellation: G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 and phylogenetic analysis revealed all genes of the outbreak samples were closely related to contemporary Japanese G2P[4] samples. Read More

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Benign Convulsions with Mild Rotavirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis: Nationwide Data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;8(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22332, Korea.

There have been no large-scale studies on the epidemiology of benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in South Korea in 2007. This study aimed to analyze the trends in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and rotavirus-associated CwG (RaCwG) after rotavirus vaccination. Further, we aimed to analyze changes in norovirus gastroenteritis (NVGE) and norovirus-associated CwG (NaCwG) using nationwide data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Read More

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Epidemiology and Viral Etiology of Pediatric Immune Thrombocytopenia through Korean Public Health Data Analysis.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 25;10(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 42415, Korea.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is prevalent in children aged 2-5 years but may occur in all pediatric age groups. In 50-60% of pediatric patients, ITP is preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection 1-4 weeks before its onset. In this study, the relationship between the development of ITP and viral infections in children was assessed. Read More

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Genotype Diversity before and after the Introduction of a Rotavirus Vaccine into the National Immunisation Program in Fiji.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Asia-Pacific Health Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, into the Fiji National Immunisation Program in 2012 has reduced the burden of rotavirus disease and hospitalisations in children less than 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of rotavirus genotype diversity from 2005 to 2018; to investigate changes following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Fiji. Faecal samples from children less than 5 years with acute diarrhoea between 2005 to 2018 were analysed at the WHO Rotavirus Regional Reference Laboratory at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, and positive samples were serotyped by EIA (2005-2006) or genotyped by heminested RT-PCR (2007 onwards). Read More

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Bufavirus, Cosavirus, and Salivirus in Diarrheal Italian Infants.

Intervirology 2021 Mar 30:1-4. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Pediatrics Laboratory, University of Turin, Medical School, Turin, Italy.

Three newly discovered viruses have been recently described in diarrheal patients: Cosavirus (CosV) and Salivirus (SalV), 2 picornaviruses, and bufavirus (BuV), a parvovirus. The detection rate and the role of these viruses remain to be established in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in diarrheal Italian infants. From November 2016 to November 2017, stool samples were collected from 160 children <5 years old suffering from AGE and attending the Children's Hospital in Turin, Italy. Read More

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Trends in voluntary vaccination coverage in a Japanese city.

Pediatr Int 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Background: Large numbers of patients with diseases preventable by voluntary vaccines have been reported in Japan. However, it is difficult to analyze the impact of voluntary vaccination on disease prevention, as the governments do not aggregate the number of recipients of vaccines that are not included in the national immunization program. This study investigated the association between the coverage rates of two voluntary vaccines (rotavirus and mumps vaccines) and the incidence of the diseases preventable by these vaccines. Read More

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Developing a manufacturing process to deliver a cost effective and stable liquid human rotavirus vaccine.

Vaccine 2021 04 18;39(15):2048-2059. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Batavia Biosciences BV, Zernikedreef 16, 2333CL Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Despite solid evidence of the success of rotavirus vaccines in saving children from fatal gastroenteritis, more than 82 million infants worldwide still lack access to a rotavirus vaccine. The main barriers to global rotavirus vaccine coverage include cost, manufacturing capacity and suboptimal efficacy in low- and lower-middle income countries. One vaccine candidate with the potential to address the latter is based on the novel, naturally attenuated RV3 strain of rotavirus, RV3-BB vaccine administered in a birth dose strategy had a vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis of 94% at 12 months of age in infants in Indonesia. Read More

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Letter to the editor concerning the article 'Safety of vaccines administration in hereditary fructose intolerance'.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Mar 2:1-2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

The most important approach for the management of hereditary fructose intolerance is a strict avoidance of fructose, sucrose and sorbitol from the diet and medications. A safe threshold of 2.4 mg/kg/dose was recently established by the of Italy for both oral and parenteral routes, thus shouldering a safe administration of a majority of vaccines in these patients. Read More

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Suboptimal Vaccination Administration in Mothers With Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Their Biologic-Exposed Infants.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing complications from vaccine-preventable infections. We investigated the factors influencing vaccine administration in pregnant women with IBD and their infants, in addition to the safety of vaccination in the infants.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified individuals from a tertiary referral clinic whose records were linked to a provincial vaccine database. Read More

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February 2021