1,928 results match your criteria Pediatrics Rotavirus


Healthcare provider perspectives on delivering next generation rotavirus vaccines in five low-to-middle-income countries.

PLoS One 2022 23;17(6):e0270369. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

PATH, Washington, D.C., United States of America, and Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Live oral rotavirus vaccines (LORVs) have significantly reduced rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths worldwide. However, LORVs are less effective in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Next-generation rotavirus vaccines (NGRVs) may be more effective but require administration by injection or a neonatal oral dose, adding operational complexity. Read More

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Incidence of Intussusception in Bamako, Mali, Before and After the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine has been associated with a small increase in intussusception, but pre- and post-introduction data are lacking in many low-resource settings. Using chart review and prospective surveillance data, intussusception incidence was estimated in Bamako, Mali. The mean annual intussusception incidence post-introduction was not significantly different from that of pre-introduction. Read More

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Real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination in European healthcare settings: a systematic literature review.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2022 Jun 16:1-16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Center for Observational and Real-World Evidence (CORE), Merck & Co., Inc, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Introduction: Rotavirus is one of the most common pathogens causing diarrhea in children <5 years and has a major impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Since the implementation of rotavirus vaccines into childhood immunization programs across Europe, there has been a reduction in rotavirus burden, including hospitalizations, outpatient cases, costs, and deaths.

Areas Covered: A systematic literature review identified publications describing the clinical and economic impact of rotavirus vaccinations across Europe, from their introduction in 2006 to the end of 2020. Read More

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Evaluation of rotavirus vaccine administration among a 22q11.2DS patient population.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2022 Jun 11;18(1):50. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, 4480 Oak St, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) can result in array of congenital abnormalities including immune dysfunction. Read More

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Noro- and rotavirus detections in children during COVID-19 pandemic-A nationwide register study in Finland.

Acta Paediatr 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Institute of Clinical Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

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Safety and immunogenicity of the Rotavac and Rotasiil rotavirus vaccines administered in an interchangeable dosing schedule among healthy Indian infants: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 4, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Division of Epidemiology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India; Division of Bacteriology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:

Background: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. Two vaccines-Rotavac and Rotasiil-are used in routine immunisation in India. The safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines administered in a mixed regimen is not documented. Read More

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Case fatality risk of diarrhoeal pathogens: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Estimates of the relative contribution of different pathogens to all-cause diarrhoea mortality are needed to inform global diarrhoea burden models and prioritize interventions. We aimed to investigate and estimate heterogeneity in the case fatality risk (CFR) of different diarrhoeal pathogens.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported cases and deaths for 15 enteric pathogens published between 1990 and 2019. Read More

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Exploring the feasibility of integration of surveillance for intussusception into the routine monitoring of adverse events following immunization by countries of the WHO African Region for Africa.

Pan Afr Med J 2022 22;41:157. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

WHO Regional Office for Africa (WHO/AFRO), Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

Surveillance for intussusception (IS) post-rotavirus vaccine introduction in World Health Organization Africa Region (WHO/AFRO) has been restricted mainly to the large referral teaching hospitals. The choice of these facilities for surveillance was made to utilize the abundant expertise of specialists in paediatrics and surgery in these hospitals who can diagnose and manage such patients with IS. The surveillance has been well coordinated by the African Intussusception Surveillance Network established in 2012. Read More

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Increasing our understanding of rotavirus-induced central nervous system manifestations.

Authors:
Jon Soo Kim

Clin Exp Pediatr 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.

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Association of Anti-Rotavirus IgA Seroconversion with Growth, Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Enteropathogens in Rural Pakistani Infants.

Vaccine 2022 May 6;40(25):3444-3451. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Background: The underperformance of oral vaccines in children of low- and middle-income countries is partly attributable to underlying environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).

Methodology: We conducted a longitudinal, community-based study to evaluate the association of oral rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) seroconversion with growth anthropometrics, EED biomarkers and intestinal enteropathogens in Pakistani infants. Children were enrolled between three to six months of their age based on their nutritional status. Read More

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Molecular Study of Adenovirus Genotypes 40 and 41 in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine.

Background: Adenovirus is a common virus associated with acute gastroenteritis in children. There are certain genotypes that are prevalent in these infections such as genotypes 40 and 41.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of adenovirus genotypes 40 and 41 in children with acute gastroenteritis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and also to determine the possibility of Adenovirus co-infections with Rota virus. Read More

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Human milk glycosaminoglycans inhibit cytomegalovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infectivity by impairing cell binding.

Pediatr Res 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Antiviral Research, University of Turin, Orbassano (TO), Italy.

Background: The antiviral role of glycosaminoglycans in human milk (HM-GAGs) has been poorly investigated. They are highly sulfated polysaccharides, which were proposed to act as decoy receptors according to their structure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antiviral potential and the mechanism of action of total and individual HM-GAGs against three pediatric clinically relevant viruses: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and rotavirus. Read More

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Rapid spread of unusual G9P[8] human rotavirus strains possessing NSP4 genes of the E2 genotype in Japan.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Japan.

The emergence of unusual G9P[8]-E2 human rotaviruses in the Tokyo metropolis, Japan in 2018 has been reported. During rotavirus strain surveillance in different regions of Japan (Mie, Okayama, and Chiba prefectures), G9P[8]-E2 strains were detected in diarrheic children in all three prefectures. Here, we characterized the whole genomes of seven representative G9P[8]-E2 strains. Read More

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Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Unusual Complications of Norovirus Infection in Taiwan: What We Know after Rotavirus Vaccines.

Pathogens 2022 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei city 11031, Taiwan.

Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the emerging and rapidly spreading groups of pathogens threatening human health. A reduction in sporadic NoV infections was noted following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the return of NoV gastroenteritis during the COVID-19 pandemic has been noted recently. Research in recent years has shown that different virus strains are associated with different clinical characteristics; moreover, there is a paucity of research into extraintestinal or unusual complications that may be associated with NoV. Read More

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Evolutionary changes between pre- and post-vaccine South African group A G2P[4] rotavirus strains, 2003-2017.

Microb Genom 2022 04;8(4)

Next Generation Sequencing Unit and Division of Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

The transient upsurge of G2P[4] group A rotavirus (RVA) after Rotarix vaccine introduction in several countries has been a matter of concern. To gain insight into the diversity and evolution of G2P[4] strains in South Africa pre- and post-RVA vaccination introduction, whole-genome sequencing was performed for RVA positive faecal specimens collected between 2003 and 2017 and samples previously sequenced were obtained from GenBank (=103; 56 pre- and 47 post-vaccine). Pre-vaccine G2 sequences predominantly clustered within sub-lineage IVa-1. Read More

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Age-specific spectrum of etiological pathogens for viral diarrhea among children in twelve consecutive winter-spring seasons (2009-2021) in China.

J Med Virol 2022 Aug 26;94(8):3840-3846. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Viral diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. This study was conducted to disclose the etiological cause and epidemiological features of viral diarrhea among children in China. From 2009 to 2021, active surveillance was performed on pediatric patients with acute diarrhea and tested for five enteric viruses. Read More

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Clinical characteristics, health care resource utilization and direct medical costs of Rotavirus hospitalizations in Spain (2013-2018).

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Nov 18;18(5):2046961. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Medical Affairs Department, MSD, Madrid, Spain.

Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in infants and young children worldwide and is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics, healthcare resource utilization and the direct medical costs related to RVGE hospitalizations in Spain. An observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2013 to May 2018 at the pediatric departments of 12 hospitals from different Spanish regions. Read More

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November 2022

GG Counteracts Rotavirus-Induced Ion Secretion and Enterocyte Damage by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Through Specific Effects of Living and Postbiotic Preparations.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 29;12:854989. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Translational Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Background: Administration of GG (LGG) to children with gastroenteritis is recommended by universal guidelines. Rotavirus (RV) causes diarrhea through combined cytotoxic and enterotoxic effects. Aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of efficacy of LGG in an model of RV diarrhea in its viable form (LGG) and conditioned medium (mLGG). Read More

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Immunisation rates and predictors of undervaccination in infants with CHD.

Cardiol Young 2022 Apr 12:1-6. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Vaccination coverage for infants with CHD is unknown, yet these patients are at high risk for morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable illnesses. We determined vaccination rates for this population and identified predictors of undervaccination. We prospectively enrolled infants with CHD born between 1 January, 2012 and 31 December, 2015, seen in a single-centre cardiology clinic between 15 February, 2016 and 28 February, 2017. Read More

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Impact of rotavirus vaccine implementation on Israeli children: a comparison between pre- and post-vaccination era.

World J Pediatr 2022 Jun 7;18(6):417-425. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Bnai Zion Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 47 Golomb St., 31048, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Worldwide rotavirus vaccination has resulted in a substantial decrease in rotavirus-induced severe gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among children. Still, the characterization of patients warranting hospitalization needs to be further elucidated. The purpose of the study is to compare the clinical and laboratory features of children hospitalized with acute rotavirus infection before and after the introduction of routine vaccination. Read More

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Severity of Rotavirus-Vaccine-Associated Intussusception: Prospective Hospital-Based Surveillance, Australia, 2007-2018.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 06 6;41(6):507-513. Epub 2022 May 6.

From the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Westmead, New South Wales.

Background: Multiple studies have shown an association between intussusception (IS) and receipt of monovalent or pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV) in the previous 21 days. Disease severity is an important consideration for risk-benefit evaluations of RV, but no studies have compared the severity of IS within 21 days of vaccination (vaccine-associated, VA) and later (not temporally-associated, VNA).

Methods: We used active hospital-based surveillance in the Australian Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network (July 2007 to February 2018) to identify infants ≤9 months of age meeting Brighton level 1 criteria for IS. Read More

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Effect of early life antibiotic use on serologic responses to oral rotavirus vaccine in the MAL-ED birth cohort study.

Vaccine 2022 04 25;40(18):2580-2587. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Oral rotavirus vaccine efficacy is lower in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) than in high-income countries. The degree to which antibiotic use impacts rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity in LMICs is unknown. Using data from a multisite prospective birth cohort study of malnutrition and enteric disease, MAL-ED, we examined the effect of early life antibiotic use on the immune response to rotavirus vaccine. Read More

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Leveraging Beneficial Off-Target Effects of Live-Attenuated Rotavirus Vaccines.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Virology Research Group, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre 312225, Malawi.

Following the introduction of live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines in many countries, a notable reduction in deaths and hospitalisations associated with diarrhoea in children <5 years of age has been reported. There is growing evidence to suggest that live-attenuated vaccines also provide protection against other infections beyond the vaccine-targeted pathogens. These so called off-target effects of vaccination have been associated with the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), measles, oral polio and recently salmonella vaccines, and are thought to be mediated by modified innate and possibly adaptive immunity. Read More

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Case Report: Rotavirus Vaccination and Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Japan.

Front Immunol 2022 23;13:786375. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Child Health and Development, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Tokyo, Japan.

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inborn error of immunity that occurs in approximately 1 in 50,000 births, mainly due to impaired lymphocyte differentiation. Without curative treatment, such as hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or gene therapy, severe infection in the first year of life could make this condition fatal. The results of HCT are poor when patients have active infections, thus requiring early diagnosis before onset of infection. Read More

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Characterization of rotavirus strains isolated from children with acute gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

J Med Virol 2022 Jul 22;94(7):3312-3319. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Army Medical College, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Diarrhea is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries and rotavirus has been identified as the major pathogen associated with diarrheal infections. This study was conducted to detect genotypic distribution of predominant rotavirus strains circulating in children suffering from acute gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Stool specimens were collected from children ≤5 years of age, visiting Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, with signs and symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Read More

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Probiotics combined with zinc and selenium preparation in the treatment of child rotavirus enteritis.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(2):1043-1050. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Cangzhou Central Hospital Cangzhou 061000, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: To investigate clinical effect of probiotics combined with zinc and selenium preparation in the treatment of child rotavirus enteritis.

Methods: In this retrospective study, the patients were divided into two groups based on treatment method. The control group (n=42) received probiotic therapy, while the experimental group (n=43) received probiotics combined with zinc and selenium preparation. Read More

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February 2022

Benign acute childhood myositis: our experience on clinical evaluation.

Neuropediatrics 2022 Mar 9. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: Benign Acute Childhood Myositis (BACM) is a transient condition mainly affecting children of school-age characterized by muscle pain, typically localized to the calf muscle with symmetrical lower extremity pain and difficulty in walking. Usually the clinical picture is preceded by a viral infection including influenza, parainfluenza, rotavirus and mycoplasma.

Methods: The case-series was conducted in 4 pediatric hospitals in Catania, Italy, over a 12-year observational period. Read More

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Incidence, Clinical Characteristics, and Genotype Distribution of Rotavirus in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 5 Years After Introducing Rotavirus Vaccine.

Front Pediatr 2022 17;10:850839. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Uijeongbu Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University School of Medicine, Uijeongbu, South Korea.

Background: Rotavirus (RV) is a common cause of viral gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We aimed to investigate the incidence, symptoms, and genotype of RV infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in South Korea 5 years after the introduction of RV vaccination to evaluate its effect on newborn infants.

Methods: A total of 431 fecal specimens were collected from patients admitted to NICU between April 20, 2012 and September 10, 2013. Read More

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February 2022

Intestinal Colonization With Subspecies Is Associated With Length at Birth, Exclusive Breastfeeding, and Decreased Risk of Enteric Virus Infections, but Not With Histo-Blood Group Antigens, Oral Vaccine Response or Later Growth in Three Birth Cohorts.

Front Pediatr 2022 16;10:804798. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

subspecies detected in infant stool have been associated with numerous subsequent health outcomes and are potential early markers of deviation from healthy developmental trajectories. This analysis derived indicators of carriage and early colonization with and and quantified their associations with a panel of early-life exposures and outcomes. In a sub-study nested within a multi-site birth cohort, extant stool samples from infants in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania were tested for presence and quantity of two subspecies. Read More

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February 2022