5,150 results match your criteria Pediatrics Respiratory Distress Syndrome


Impact of coronavirus syndromes on physical and mental health of health care workers: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2020 Jun 25;275:48-57. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Section of Psychiatry, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk of developing physical/mental health outcomes related to coronavirus syndromes. Nature and frequency of these outcomes are undetermined.

Methods: PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant (PROSPERO-CRD42020180205) systematic review of Web of Science/grey literature until 15th April 2020, to identify studies reporting physical/mental health outcomes in HCW infected/exposed to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -SARS-, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome -MERS-, Novel coronavirus -COVID-19-. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.022DOI Listing

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): latest developments in potential treatments.

Drugs Context 2020 29;9. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Many viral respiratory infections can cause severe acute respiratory symptoms leading to mortality and morbidity. In the spring of 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak caused by SARS-CoV spread globally. In the summer of 2012, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak caused by MERS-CoV occurred in Saudi Arabia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-4-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328712PMC

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19-associated pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Perfusion 2020 Jul 9:267659120939757. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center, Northwell Health, New Hyde Park, NY, USA.

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) coronavirus has emerged as a highly contagious respiratory pathogen causing severe acute lung injury. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a standard tool for the management of life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the use of this resource-intensive therapy has come into question due to strained medical systems and limited proven treatments for COVID-19.

Case Summary: A 16-year-old female with obesity presented with fever, myalgias, cough, and tachypnea and was diagnosed with COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267659120939757DOI Listing

COVID-19 PICU guidelines: for high- and limited-resource settings.

Pediatr Res 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Departments of Critical Care Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Fewer children than adults have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clinical manifestations are distinct from those of adults. Some children particularly those with acute or chronic comorbidities are likely to develop critical illness. Recently, a Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) has been described in children with these patients often requiring care in the Pediatric ICU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-1053-9DOI Listing

Estimated fetal weight and severe neonatal outcomes in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

J Perinat Med 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Objectives Our aim was to study the association of clinical variables obtainable before delivery for severe neonatal outcomes (SNO) and develop a clinical tool to calculate the prediction probability of SNO in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). Methods This was a prospective study from October 2015 to May 2018. We included singleton pregnancies with PPROM and an estimated fetal weight (EFW) two weeks before delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0474DOI Listing

Obstetrical characteristics and neonatal outcome according to aetiology of preterm birth: a cohort study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Ghent University Hospital, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Preterm birth (PTB) can be categorised according to aetiology into: spontaneous preterm labour (SPL), preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), and iatrogenic (iatro) PTB. Outcomes could differ between these groups, which could be of interest in counselling. We aimed to explore differences between aetiologic groups of PTB in maternal demographics, obstetrical characteristics and management, and neonatal outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05673-5DOI Listing

Antenatal corticosteriods decrease forced vital capacity in infants born fullterm.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Pulmonology, Departments of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) administration to pregnant women for threatened preterm labor is standard obstetric care to reduce neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and the associated respiratory morbidity. While ACS stimulates surfactant production in the fetal lung, the effects of ACS upon the subsequent growth and development of the lung are unclear. Follow-up studies outside of the neonatal period have been primarily limited to spirometry, and most subjects evaluated were born prematurely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24941DOI Listing

A novel complete autosomal recessive STAT1 LOF variant causes immunodeficiency with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like hyperinflammation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Complete STAT1 deficiency causes a rare primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by defective IFN-dependent gene expression leading to life-threatening viral and mycobacterial infections early in life.

Objective: Characterization of a novel STAT1 loss-of-function (LOF) variant leading to pathological infection susceptibility and hyperinflammation.

Methods: Clinical, immunological and genetic characterization of a patient with severe infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-like hyperinflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.06.034DOI Listing

Treatment outcomes of Pumani bubble-CPAP versus oxygen therapy among preterm babies presenting with respiratory distress at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania-Randomised trial.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(6):e0235031. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most common respiratory disease in premature babies and the major cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm babies. Effective treatment of these babies requires exogenous surfactant and/or mechanical ventilation but these are of limited availability in low and middle income countries. A cheaper, simpler and more accessible treatment for preterms with RDS called bubble-continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) has been reported to be effective in treating RDS in preterm babies with varying levels of effectiveness ranging from 42% to 85%. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235031PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326169PMC

Clinical and Epidemiological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Patients in SARI Ward of a Tertiary Care Centre in New Delhi.

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Jul;68(7):19-26

Postgraduate Student (Medicine), ABVIMS and Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi.

Importance: Rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, prompted heightened surveillance in India. Since the first laboratory confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from Kerala on January 30, 2020 novel coronavirus infected pneumonia (NCIP) has been presenting to the hospital emergencies as severe acute respiratory illness (SARI). We aim to find out the rate of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in SARI cases and further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP in New Delhi, India. Read More

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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Contribute to Immunothrombosis in COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Blood 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Molecular Medicine Program, University of Utah, United States.

COVID-19 affects millions of patients worldwide with clinical presentation ranging from isolated thrombosis to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring ventilator support. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) originate from decondensed chromatin released to immobilize pathogens and can trigger immunothrombosis. We studied the connection between NETs and COVID-19 severity and progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007008DOI Listing
June 2020
10.452 Impact Factor

Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2020 Jun 25:1-20. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Saskatchewan , Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Coronaviruses, seven of which are known to infect humans, can cause a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death. Four human coronaviruses (hCoVs)-229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43-circulate globally, commonly infect children and typically cause mild upper respiratory tract infections. Three novel coronaviruses of zoonotic origin have emerged during the past two decades: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2020.1781356DOI Listing

Lack of Association Between Genetic Variants at and Genes Involved in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Human Quantitative Phenotypes.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:613. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide variation in expression and severity of symptoms, from very mild or no symptoms, to flu-like symptoms, and in more severe cases, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death. Large differences in outcome have also been observed between males and females. The causes for this variability are likely to be multifactorial, and to include genetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295011PMC

Main Clinical Features of COVID-19 and Potential Prognostic and Therapeutic Value of the Microbiota in SARS-CoV-2 Infections.

Front Microbiol 2020 5;11:1302. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a pandemic, infecting more than 4,000,000 people worldwide. This review describes the main clinical features of COVID-19 and potential role of microbiota in COVID-19. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have 79. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291771PMC

Antenatal PPARγ Agonist Pioglitazone Stimulates Fetal Lung Maturation Equally in Males and Females.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, United States.

Antenatal steroids (ANS) accelerate fetal lung maturation and reduce the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome. However, sex-specificity, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00376.2018DOI Listing

Antenatal corticosteroids and fetal lung immaturity in preterm birth.

Heliyon 2020 Jun 18;6(6):e04116. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Pediatrics Department, Rafidia Governmental Surgical Hospital, Nablus, Palestine.

Background: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), a consequence of lung immaturity, is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality. Administration of antenatal steroids is a standard care method for mothers with anticipated preterm labor. However, the gestational age range at which antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) provide benefit has been subjected to debate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305388PMC

Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection.

Front Immunol 2020 12;11:1022. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

A sudden outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in Wuhan, China in December 2019 quickly grew into a global pandemic, putting at risk not only the global healthcare system, but also the world economy. As the disease continues to spread rapidly, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Although some progress has been made in understanding the viral structure and invasion mechanism of coronaviruses that may cause severe cases of the syndrome, due to the limited understanding of the immune effects caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is difficult for us to prevent patients from developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF), the major complications of coronavirus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236801PMC

Suspected case of COVID-19-associated pancreatitis in a child.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Aug 6;15(8):1309-1312. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Emergency and Hospital Medicine, Lehigh Valley Health Network, USF Morsani College of Medicine, Cedar Crest Boulevard & I-78, Allentown 18103, PA, USA.

The world has been challenged by SARS CoV-2, a new virus causing pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with common symptoms of COVID-19 in pediatric patients including both respiratory and GI symptoms. There is a lack of literature implicating COVID-19 in pancreatitis, yet viruses are generally understood to be a cause of pancreatitis in children. We present a case of a previously well 7-year-old girl, who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and anorexia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275143PMC

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia predicted at birth by artificial intelligence.

Acta Paediatr 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Holbaek University Hospital, Holbaek, Denmark.

Aim: To develop a fast bedside test for prediction and early targeted intervention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to improve the outcome.

Methods: In a multicentre study of preterm infants with gestational age 24-31 weeks, clinical data present at birth were combined with spectral data of gastric aspirate samples taken at birth and analysed using artificial intelligence. The study was designed to develop an algorithm to predict development of BPD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15438DOI Listing

Effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin for children with severe COVID-19: a rapid review.

Ann Transl Med 2020 May;8(10):625

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.

Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is usually used as supportive therapy, but the treatment of COVID-19 by IVIG is controversial. This rapid review aims to explore the clinical effectiveness and safety of IVIG in the treatment of children with severe COVID-19.

Methods: We systematically searched the literature on the use of IVIG in patients with COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), including both adults and children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290641PMC

A case of an Infant with SARS-CoV-2 hepatitis early after liver transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 Jun 19:e13778. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Vagelos College of Physician and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

We present a case of a pediatric liver transplant recipient diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection four days after receiving a living donor liver allograft from her mother. The recipient was a 6-month-old with end-stage liver disease due to biliary atresia and failed Kasai. The infant had an uncomplicated implantation, excellent graft function and down-trending liver enzymes until developing fevers, diarrhea, and moderate respiratory distress requiring non-invasive respiratory support. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323125PMC

Synthetic Surfactant CHF5633 compared with Poractant Alfa in the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Multicenter, Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun 14. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Deaprtment of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of a new synthetic surfactant, CHF5633, enriched with surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C peptide analogues, with porcine surfactant, poractant alfa for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants.

Study Design: Preterm neonates on respiratory support requiring fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO) ≥0.30 from 24 to 26 weeks and FiO ≥0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.024DOI Listing

Fibrinolytic therapy for refractory COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome: Scientific rationale and review.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2020 May 12;4(4):524-531. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Center for Precision Cancer Medicine Departments of Biological Engineering and Biology Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused respiratory failure and associated mortality in numbers that have overwhelmed global health systems. Thrombotic coagulopathy is present in nearly three quarters of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit, and both the clinical picture and pathologic findings are consistent with microvascular occlusive phenomena being a major contributor to their unique form of respiratory failure. Numerous studies are ongoing focusing on anticytokine therapies, antibiotics, and antiviral agents, but none to date have focused on treating the underlying thrombotic coagulopathy in an effort to improve respiratory failure in COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267116PMC

Disseminated Tularemia: Finding the Needle in the Haystack.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 Jun 14. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

We report a case of disseminated tularemia in a previously healthy 8-month-old male. This case highlights an atypical presentation of tularemia with multisystem organ involvement. The diagnosis was complicated by concurrent primary cytomegalovirus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa066DOI Listing

An evaluation of the benefits and harms of antenatal corticosteroid treatment for women at risk of imminent preterm birth or prior to elective Caesarean-section: Study protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 25;5:38. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Antenatal corticosteroid treatment (ACT) has been widely accepted as a safe, beneficial treatment which improves outcomes following preterm birth. It has been shown to reduce respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality and is commonly used in threatened or planned preterm delivery, as well as prior to elective Caesarean-section at term. There are some concerns however, that in some cases, ACT is used in patients where clinical benefit has not been established, or may potentially increase harm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15661.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268149PMC
February 2020

Program on high value cost-conscious education in intensive care: Educational program on prediction of outcome and cost awareness on Intensive Care admission.

BMC Med Educ 2020 Jun 8;20(1):186. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Intensive Care (ICU) involves extended and long lasting support of vital functions and organs. However, current training programs of ICU residents mainly focus on extended support of vital functions and barely involve training on cost-awareness and outcome. We incorporated an educational program on high-value cost-conscious care for residents and fellows on our ICU and measured the effect of education. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02100-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282117PMC

Morbidities and rehospitalizations during the first year of life in moderate and late preterm infants: more similarities than differences?

Minerva Pediatr 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Aim: To compare neonatal morbidities in moderate and late preterm infants and to analyze rates and causes for rehospitalizations during the first year of life.

Methods: Prospective follow-up of a group of moderate and late preterm infants at a tertiary care hospital.

Results: The study population comprised 215 infants (58% males; 60% singletons; 99 moderate and 116 late preterm infants) with a median gestational age of 34 weeks and birth weight of 2100 grams; 20% of them were small for gestational age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05736-9DOI Listing

Implications of COVID-19 in pediatric rheumatology.

Rheumatol Int 2020 08 4;40(8):1193-1213. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, 06100, Turkey.

COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global public health issue threatening millions of lives worldwide. Although the infection is mild in most of the affected individuals, it may cause severe clinical manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or cytokine storm leading to death. Children are affected less, and most experience a milder disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-020-04612-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270517PMC

Continuous positive pressure ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

Pak J Med Sci 2020 May-Jun;36(4):647-651

Min Cui, Department of Pediatrics, Binzhou People's Hospital, Shandong, 256610, China.

Objective: To analyze the clinical effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) combined with pulmonary surfactant in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS).

Methods: Eighty-two NRDS patients who received treatment from August 2017 to June 2019 in our hospital were selected and divided into a control group and an observation group using random number table, 41 in each group. The control group was treated with CPAP, and the observation group was treated with pulmonary surfactant injection besides CPAP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.4.1963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260922PMC

Understanding the age divide in COVID-19: why are children overwhelmingly spared?

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020 07 3;319(1):L39-L44. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas.

The rapid emergence and subsequent global dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) has resulted in over 4 million cases worldwide. The disease has a marked predilection for adults, and children are relatively spared. Understanding the age-based differences in pathophysiological pathways and processes relevant to the onset and progression of disease both in the clinical course and in experimental disease models may hold the key to the identification of therapeutic targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00183.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324935PMC

The impact of cesarean section on neonatal outcomes at a university-based tertiary hospital in Jordan.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Jun 1;20(1):335. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical school, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a steady rise in the rate of Cesarean section delivery globally. As a result, short-term and long-term maternal and neonatal complications are rising. The objective of this study is to determine the rate and indications for Cesarean section at King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) in Jordan and to assess the resulting neonatal outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03027-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268653PMC
June 2020
2.190 Impact Factor

Overview: The history and pediatric perspectives of severe acute respiratory syndromes: Novel or just like SARS.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 07 1;55(7):1584-1591. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.

Many respiratory viral infections such as influenza and measles result in severe acute respiratory symptoms and epidemics. In the spring of 2003, an epidemic of coronavirus pneumonia spread from Guangzhou to Hong Kong and subsequently to the rest of the world. The WHO coined the acronym SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and subsequently the causative virus as SARS-CoV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301034PMC

Severe vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants: possibly no association with clinical outcomes?

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jun 1:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Faculty of Medicine Hradec Kralove, Institute of Clinical Biochemistry and Diagnostics, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

The primary objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <25 nmol/l in umbilical cord blood versus VLBW infants with 25(OH)D levels in cord blood >25 nmol/l. The secondary objective was to evaluate umbilical cord vitamin D as a risk factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. We examined 25(OH)D levels in umbilical cord blood and in infants' serum at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1762560DOI Listing

Nasal mask vs binasal prongs for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To investigate the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal masks (NM) compared with binasal prongs (BNP) on the incidence of intubation within 72 hours in preterm infants (primary outcome) via meta-analysis of clinical studies.

Data Sources: We searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science from inception through 4 December 2019.

Data Extraction/synthesis: Two independent co-authors extracting data performed the meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model to yield pooled relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24878DOI Listing

Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome presenting with bilateral choanal atresia and rectal stenosis.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Clinical Genetics, Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK.

We present the case of a male who shortly after birth developed acute respiratory distress due to bilateral choanal atresia, following which he was found to have rectal stenosis. Genetic testing for CHARGE syndrome was negative, but whole genome sequencing identified heterozygosity for a pathogenic missense variant in TP63 (c.727C > T, p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61628DOI Listing

Vaping-Associated Lung Injury: A New Cause of Acute Respiratory Failure.

J Adolesc Health 2020 Jun;66(6):754-757

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Marshfield Children's Hospital, Marshfield, Wisconsin.

E-cigarette-and vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI) is a new diagnosis with at least 2,807 hospitalizations and 68 deaths since 2019. This clinical observation describes one of the first cases of EVALI in a teenager who presented with nic-sick symptoms and developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumomediastinum. The manuscript also reviews the presentation, work-up, recommended management, and proposed etiology of the condition and summarizes recent national vaping regulations enacted to address the EVALI epidemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.03.019DOI Listing

SP-D loaded PLGA nanoparticles as drug delivery system for prevention and treatment of premature infant's lung diseases.

Int J Pharm 2020 Jul 27;585:119387. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. Electronic address:

Preterm infants, particularly those who born between 23 and 28 weeks' gestation, suffer from a very high incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) related to pulmonary immaturity and inability to make Pulmonary Surfactant (PS). These infants are supported by the use of oxygen, ventilators, and routine administration of surfactant replacement. The currently commercial surfactant replacement therapies do not contain hydrophilic surfactant proteins such as Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119387DOI Listing

Compliance and Psychological Impact of Quarantine in Children and Adolescents due to Covid-19 Pandemic.

Indian J Pediatr 2020 07 29;87(7):532-536. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India.

Objectives: To examine a cohort of children and adolescents quarantined during Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in India and to describe their understanding of, compliance with and the psychological impact of quarantine experience.

Methods: One hundred twenty one children and adolescents along with their parents were interviewed regarding their compliance and psychological distress during the quarantine period. A comparable data was also obtained from 131 children and adolescents who were not quarantined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03347-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257353PMC
July 2020
0.919 Impact Factor

The importance of anti-vaping vigilance-EVALI in seven adolescent pediatric patients in Northeast Ohio.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jul 3;55(7):1719-1724. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Centre for Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Children's, Cleveland, Ohio.

As of 18 February 2020, the e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) epidemic has claimed the lives of 68 patients in the USA with the total number of reported cases standing at 2807 to date. We present the clinical and radiologic findings, course of illness, and treatment of EVALI in seven adolescent patients in Northeast Ohio. Five of our patients required supplemental oxygen with four requiring intensive care unit care for respiratory support during admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24872DOI Listing

Less invasive surfactant administration: all that glitters is not gold.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Aug;179(8):1295-1296

Department of Pediatrics, Spaarne Gasthuis, Hoofddorp/Haarlem, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03688-3DOI Listing

Successful use of Protek Duo cannula to provide veno-venous extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation and right ventricular support for acute respiratory distress syndrome in an adolescent with complex congenital heart disease.

Perfusion 2020 May 27:267659120923880. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Stead Family Children's Hospital, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Rescuing patients with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and right heart failure after left ventricular assist device placement remains a challenge in patients with congenital heart disease. TandemLife Protek Duo (TandemLife, Pittsburg, PA) is a double-lumen cannula introduced via the internal jugular vein that can provide veno-venous extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation and right heart support. To our knowledge, we report the first case of successfully using the TandemLife Protek Duo cannula to provide veno-venous extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation and right ventricle support in an adolescent male with an existing right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit and the melody pulmonary valve who developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after the placement of left ventricular assist device. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267659120923880DOI Listing

Minimally Invasive Surfactant Administration for the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Multicenter Randomized Study in China.

Front Pediatr 2020 7;8:182. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) was recommended as the initial respiratory support for spontaneous breathing in infants with very low birth weight and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) and minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) have been reported to reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study aimed to explore the applicability of minimally invasive surfactant administration (MISA) in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221055PMC

Intubation precautions in a pediatric patient with severe COVID-19.

J Pediatr Surg Case Rep 2020 Jul 18;58:101495. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, USA.

We present the case of a child diagnosed with COVID-19 soon after open-heart surgery who required an urgent second surgery. The patient suffered from severe COVID-19 disease. The utility of preoperative COVID-19 testing, determination of recovery by an array of inflammatory markers and perioperative management are described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsc.2020.101495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233244PMC

Optimal Ventilation and Surfactant Therapy in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Resource-Restricted Regions.

Neonatology 2020 May 26:1-8. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

In resource-restricted regions, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) data are often underreported, making the determination of effective interventions and their outcome difficult. The combination of oxygen, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and surfactant therapy has the potential to prevent 42% of RDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the financial implications. This article provides a brief overview on the status of RDS management, mainly nasal CPAP and surfactant therapy in very-low-birth-weight infants, in resource-restricted regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506987DOI Listing

Prognostic relevance and inter-observer reliability of chest-imaging in pediatric ARDS: a pediatric acute respiratory distress incidence and epidemiology (PARDIE) study.

Intensive Care Med 2020 Jul 25;46(7):1382-1393. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: Definitions of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include radiographic criteria, but there are concerns about reliability and prognostic relevance. This study aimed to evaluate the independent relationship between chest imaging and mortality and examine the inter-rater variability of interpretations of chest radiographs (CXR) in pediatric ARDS (PARDS).

Methods: Prospective, international observational study in children meeting Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) criteria for PARDS, which requires new infiltrate(s) consistent with pulmonary parenchymal disease, without mandating bilateral infiltrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06074-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246298PMC

Variability in the Efficacy of a Standardized Antenatal Steroid Treatment is Not Due to Maternal or Fetal Plasma Drug Levels. Evidence from a Sheep Model of Pregnancy.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Centre for Perinatal and Neonatal Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan; School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Antenatal steroids (ANS) are standard of care for women judged to be at imminent risk of preterm delivery. Worldwide, there is significant variation in ANS dosing strategy, selection for treatment criteria, and agent choice. This, combined with very limited optimization of ANS use per se means that treatment efficacy is highly variable and the rate of respiratory distress syndrome is decreased perhaps as little as 40%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.032DOI Listing
May 2020
4.704 Impact Factor

The immunologic status of newborns born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers in Wuhan, China.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Jul 11;146(1):101-109.e1. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Clinical Medicine Research Center of Prenatal Diagnosis and Birth Health in Hubei Province, Wuhan, China.

Background: Immunologic dysfunction due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely related to clinical prognosis, and the inflammatory response of pregnant women may affect the directional differentiation and function of fetal immune cells.

Objective: We sought to analyze the immune status of newborns from mothers with COVID-19 in the third trimester.

Methods: Along with collecting the clinical data from 51 newborns and their respective mothers, we recorded the immunophenotypes and cytokine and immunoglobulin levels of the newborns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211641PMC

Endotracheal Surfactant Combined With Budesonide for Neonatal ARDS.

Front Pediatr 2020 5;8:210. Epub 2020 May 5.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition characterized by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury and severe hypoxemia. In 2017, the Montreux Consensus defined diagnostic criteria for ARDS in the neonatal period. The management of ARDS includes strict adherence to lung-protective ventilation strategies and therapeutic agents to improve gas exchange. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214613PMC

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents: An update on current clinical and diagnostic characteristics.

Acta Biomed 2020 05 11;91(2):184-194. Epub 2020 May 11.

First Department of Paediatrics, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is defined as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, fatigue, cough, breathing difficulty that may lead to respiratory distress; a small population of patients may have diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. The highest infection rate occurs in adults; however, neonates, children, and adolescents can also be infected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i2.9543DOI Listing