166 results match your criteria Pediatrics Reactive Airway Disease


LPS decreases CFTR open probability and mucociliary transport through generation of reactive oxygen species.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 30;43:101998. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serves as the interface between gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and the innate immune response in respiratory epithelial cells (REC). Herein, we describe a novel biological role of LPS that permits GNB to persist in the respiratory tract through inducing CFTR and mucociliary dysfunction. LPS reduced cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulater (CFTR)-mediated short-circuit current in mammalian REC in Ussing chambers and nearly abrogated CFTR single channel activity (defined as forskolin-activated Cl currents) in patch clamp studies, effects of which were blocked with toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 inhibitor. Read More

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Association of transcutaneous CO with respiratory support: a prospective double blind observational study in children with bronchiolitis and reactive airway disease.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, 530 NE Glen Oak Ave., Peoria, IL, 61637, USA.

The use of clinical scoring to assess for severity of respiratory distress and respiratory failure is challenging due to subjectivity and interrater variability. Transcutaneous Capnography (TcpCO) can be used as an objective tool to assess a patient's ventilatory status. This study was designed to assess for any correlation of continuous monitoring of TcpCO with the respiratory clinical scores and deterioration in children admitted for acute respiratory distress. Read More

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Hedgehog signaling pathway gene variant influences bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants.

World J Pediatr 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Newborn Medicine Division, The Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Maria Fareri Children's Hospital At Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Background: Genome wide association study identified hedgehog interacting protein gene (HHIP) variants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Loss of HHIP, a key regulator of the hedgehog signaling pathway, leads to impaired lung morphogenesis and lethality in animal models, through unimpeded sonic hedgehog expression blocking mesenchymal-expressed fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10). Since bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is also associated with altered lung development and worsens with stimuli including mechanical ventilation, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation, HHIP and FGF10 may be candidate genes. Read More

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miR-125b/NRF2/HO-1 axis is involved in protection against oxidative stress of cystic fibrosis: A pilot study.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 2;21(6):585. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, I-00161 Rome, Italy.

In the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), oxidative stress implications are recognized and widely accepted. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) defects disrupt the intracellular redox balance causing CF pathological hallmarks. Therefore, oxidative stress together with aberrant expression levels of detoxification genes and microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) may be associated with clinical outcome. Read More

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Respiratory morbidity in very low birth weight infants through childhood and adolescence.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neonatology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Objective: To describe the long-term (up to 18 years of age) respiratory outcomes of children and adolescents born at very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤1500 g) in comparison with that of children born >1500 g.

Methods: An observational, longitudinal, retrospective study comparing VLBW infants with matched controls, registered at a large health maintenance organization in Israel. Pulmonary outcomes collected anonymously from the electronic medical files included respiratory illness diagnoses, purchased medications for respiratory problems, office visits with either a pediatric pulmonologist or cardiologist and composite respiratory morbidity combining all these parameters. Read More

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Unremitting Pain and Fever in a 15-Year-Old Boy With Osteomyelitis.

Pediatrics 2021 Mar 9;147(3). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Departments of Pediatrics,

A previously healthy 15-year-old boy from a rural county in the southeastern United States was evaluated in the emergency department with fever and worsening toe pain in the absence of trauma. He initially presented to his primary care physician 4 weeks before with upper respiratory symptoms and was treated with corticosteroids for presumed reactive airway disease. His respiratory symptoms resolved. Read More

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High flow in children with respiratory failure: A randomised controlled pilot trial - A paediatric acute respiratory intervention study.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Feb 30;57(2):273-281. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

Aims: High-flow is increasingly used in children with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), despite limited evidence. The primary feasibility endpoint for this pilot-study was the proportion of treatment failure, secondary outcomes being intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and proportion of patients requiring escalation of care. We measured duration of hospital stay, duration of oxygen therapy and rates of ICU admission. Read More

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February 2021

Ceramide in apoptosis and oxidative stress in allergic inflammation and asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 29;147(5):1936-1948.e9. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Va. Electronic address:

Background: Nothing is known about the mechanisms by which increased ceramide levels in the lung contribute to allergic responses and asthma severity.

Objective: We sought to investigate the functional role of ceramide in mouse models of allergic airway disease that recapitulate the cardinal clinical features of human allergic asthma.

Methods: Allergic airway disease was induced in mice by repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite or the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata. Read More

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Immunopathological features of air pollution and its impact on inflammatory airway diseases (IAD).

World Allergy Organ J 2020 Oct 5;13(10):100467. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

INSERM U 1168, VIMA: Ageing and Chronic Diseases Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, Villejuif, France.

Air pollution causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory airway diseases (IAD) such as allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress in patients with IAD can induce eosinophilic inflammation in the airways, augment atopic allergic sensitization, and increase susceptibility to infection. We reviewed emerging data depicting the involvement of oxidative stress in IAD patients. Read More

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October 2020

Effects of Boldine on Antioxidants and Allied Inflammatory Markers in Mouse Models of Asthma.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2020 ;39(3):225-234

Department of Pediatrics, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Asthma is marked by chronic irritation in the airway lumen of the lungs due to the accretion of inflammatory cells that influence the regular inhalation process. An extended buildup of inflammation leads to oxidative pressure and the repression of antioxidant functions. In the current study, a potential compound, boldine, was tested for the containment of provocative markers along the path of antiasthmatic activity in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model. Read More

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September 2020

Neonatal therapy with PF543, a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor, ameliorates hyperoxia-induced airway remodeling in a murine model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020 09 22;319(3):L497-L512. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Hyperoxia (HO)-induced lung injury contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm newborns. Intractable wheezing seen in BPD survivors is associated with airway remodeling (AWRM). Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling promotes HO-mediated neonatal BPD; however, its role in the sequela of AWRM is not known. Read More

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September 2020

Aberrant DNA methylation levels of the 1/2/3 genes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea and its clinical phenotypes.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(6):2521-2537. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine Kaohsiung 83301, Taiwan.

Background: FPR1 over-expression and insufficiency of FPR2 and FPR3 are associated with disease severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that epigenetic modification of the genes may underlie intermittent hypoxia with re-oxygenation (IHR) injury in OSA.

Methods: DNA methylation levels over 17 CpG sites of the genes and their gene expression levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined in 40 treatment-naïve OSA patients, 12 severe OSA patients under long-term continuous positive airway pressure treatment, 16 primary snoring (PS) subjects, and 10 healthy non-snorers (HS). Read More

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Evaluation of airway and circulating inflammatory biomarkers for cystic fibrosis drug development.

J Cyst Fibros 2021 Jan 1;20(1):50-56. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Introduction: Biomarkers of inflammation in blood and sputum can play a critical role in anti-inflammatory drug development in cystic fibrosis (CF). The objectives of this analysis were to examine relationships between airway and systemic measurements of inflammation, associations between inflammatory biomarkers and FEV, differences in airway and systemic inflammation by baseline covariates, reproducibility of serum biomarkers, and to assess the effects of freezing and delayed processing on sputum analyte measurements.

Methods: We analyzed baseline and serial concentrations of inflammatory markers in blood and induced sputum collected from individuals with CF ages 10 years and older who participated in a multicenter clinical trial. Read More

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January 2021

UPR modulation of host immunity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2020 07;134(14):1911-1934

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, U.S.A.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive multiorgan autosomal recessive disease with devastating impact on the lungs caused by derangements of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Morbidity and mortality are caused by the triad of impaired mucociliary clearance, microbial infections and chronic inflammation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main respiratory pathogen in individuals with CF infecting most patients in later stages. Read More

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress Leads to an Increase in Labile Zinc Pools in Lung Epithelial Cells.

mSphere 2020 05 27;5(3). Epub 2020 May 27.

Clinical and Cellular Virology Laboratory, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Zinc supplementation in cell culture has been shown to inhibit various viruses, like herpes simplex virus, rotavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, whether zinc plays a direct antiviral role in viral infections and whether viruses have adopted strategies to modulate zinc homeostasis have not been investigated. Results from clinical trials of zinc supplementation in infections indicate that zinc supplementation may be beneficial in a pathogen- or disease-specific manner, further underscoring the importance of understanding the interaction between zinc homeostasis and virus infections at the molecular level. Read More

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Double Aortic Arch Mimics the Clinical Characteristics of Severe Reactive Airway Disease in a Pediatric Patient.

J Pediatr Intensive Care 2020 Jun 8;9(2):141-144. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Reactive airway disease is a prevalent condition that can be detected in the early infancy period. The condition might also deteriorate into asthma in some cases. If infants do not respond to the treatment of persistent wheeze and coughing, other rare causes should be investigated. Read More

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Viral etiology of life-threatening pediatric pneumonia: A matched case-control study.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2020 07 8;14(4):452-459. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens and Christophe Merieux Laboratory, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Pediatric pneumonia remains a significant health challenge, while the viral risk factors for adverse outcomes in pediatric pneumonia are not yet fully clear.

Methods: A matched case-control study of pediatric patients with pneumonia was carried out in Beijing, China, between 2007 and 2015. The study enrolled 334 intensive care unit patients who developed life-threatening diseases and 522 controls matched to the sex, age, ethnicity, admission dates, and residing district of the cases suffered from pneumonia. Read More

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International expert consensus on the management of allergic rhinitis (AR) aggravated by air pollutants: Impact of air pollution on patients with AR: Current knowledge and future strategies.

World Allergy Organ J 2020 Mar 3;13(3):100106. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, Eye and Ear University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.

Allergic rhinitis affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Air pollution not only causes morbidity, but nearly 3 million people per year die from unhealthy indoor air exposure. Furthermore, allergic rhinitis and air pollution interact. Read More

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Alleviation of methyl isocyanate-induced airway obstruction and mortality by tissue plasminogen activator.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 11 31;1479(1):134-147. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Methyl isocyanate (MIC, "Bhopal agent") is a highly reactive, toxic industrial chemical. Inhalation of high levels (500-1000 ppm) of MIC vapor is almost uniformly fatal. No therapeutic interventions other than supportive care have been described that can delay the onset of illness or death due to MIC. Read More

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November 2020

[Association of YKL-40 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with airway damage in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Dec;21(12):1188-1192

Department of Pediatrics, Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital, Guangzhou 510010, China.

Objective: To investigate the association of YKL-40 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with airway damage in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP).

Methods: A total of 60 children with MPP who were admitted to the hospital were enrolled as the MPP group, and 12 children with bronchial foreign bodies were enrolled as the control group. According to the imaging findings, the MPP group was further divided into 3 subgroups: pulmonary patchy shadow (n=34), pulmonary consolidation (n=19) and pulmonary ground-glass opacity (n=7). Read More

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December 2019

Association of In Utero HIV Exposure With Obesity and Reactive Airway Disease in HIV-Negative Adolescents and Young Adults.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 02;83(2):126-134

Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: HIV-negative individuals with in utero HIV exposure represent an emerging population, exceeding 18 million people worldwide. Long-term clinical outcomes among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) individuals into adolescence and young adulthood remain unknown.

Setting: US academic health system. Read More

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February 2020

The role of C-reactive protein levels on the association of physical activity with lung function in adults.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(9):e0222578. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Regular physical activity may be associated with improved lung function via reduced systemic inflammation, although studies exploring this mechanism are rare. We evaluated the role of C-reactive protein in blood, which is a common marker of systemic inflammation, on the association of physical activity with forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity.

Methods: Cross-sectional data on spirometry, C-reactive protein levels and self-reported physical activity (yes/no; ≥2 times and ≥1hr per week of vigorous physical activity) were available in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (N = 2347 adults, 49. Read More

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Colony-stimulating factor 1 and its receptor are new potential therapeutic targets for allergic asthma.

Allergy 2020 02 11;75(2):357-369. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: A new approach targeting aeroallergen sensing in the early events of mucosal immunity could have greater benefit. The CSF1-CSF1R pathway has a critical role in trafficking allergens to regional lymph nodes through activating dendritic cells. Intervention in this pathway could prevent allergen sensitization and subsequent Th2 allergic inflammation. Read More

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February 2020

Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy in Children With Histoplasmosis.

J Surg Res 2019 12 25;244:558-565. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Mediastinal lymphadenopathy (ML) in children can arise from malignancy, infection, or rheumatic illness among others, and may be found incidentally on imaging or during workup for a variety of symptoms. Our aim was to describe the clinical presentation and natural history of histoplasmosis in children who present to a tertiary care center with ML in an endemic area of the country.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study of all children (aged < 21 y) presenting with proven (positive serologies) or suspected histoplasmosis (negative serologies, negative tuberculosis testing, and benign outcomes in follow-up) over a 5-y period was done. Read More

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December 2019

Protective Effects of Licochalcone A Improve Airway Hyper-Responsiveness and Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

Cells 2019 06 20;8(6). Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Division of Allergy, Asthma, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City 33303, Taiwan.

Licochalcone A was isolated from and previously reported to have antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Licochalcone A has also been found to inhibit the levels of Th2-associated cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic mice. However, the molecular mechanism underlying airway inflammation and how licochalcone A regulates oxidative stress in asthmatic mice are elusive. Read More

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Metabonomics reveals altered metabolites related to inflammation and energy utilization at recovery of cystic fibrosis lung exacerbation.

Metabol Open 2019 Sep 8;3:100010. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Dept. Pediatrics, Division Metabolism and Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

Background: Cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterized by chronic bacterial infections in the setting of mucus abnormalities. Patients experience periodic exacerbations that manifest with increased respiratory symptoms that require intensification of therapy with enhanced airway clearance and intravenous (IV) antibiotics.

Objectives: In an observational study we tested if the profile of metabolites in serum distinguished the pre-from post-exacerbation state and which systemically measurable pathways were affected during the process to recovery. Read More

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September 2019

Cystic Fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the Host-Microbe Interface.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2019 06 29;32(3). Epub 2019 May 29.

The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA

In human pathophysiology, the clash between microbial infection and host immunity contributes to multiple diseases. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a classical example of this phenomenon, wherein a dysfunctional, hyperinflammatory immune response combined with chronic pulmonary infections wreak havoc upon the airway, leading to a disease course of substantial morbidity and shortened life span. is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly infects the CF lung, promoting an accelerated decline of pulmonary function. Read More

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Mitochondrial bioenergetics and pulmonary dysfunction: Current progress and future directions.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2020 Apr 12;34:37-45. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

This review summarizes current understanding of mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction applicable to mechanisms of lung diseases and outlines challenges and future directions in this rapidly emerging field. Although the role of mitochondria extends beyond the term of cellular "powerhouse", energy generation remains the most fundamental function of these organelles. It is not counterintuitive to propose that intact energy supply is important for favorable cellular fate following pulmonary insult. Read More

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Respiratory tract virus infections in the elderly with pneumonia.

BMC Geriatr 2019 04 16;19(1):111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: In children suffering from severe lower airway illnesses, respiratory virus detection has given good prognostic information, but such reports in the elderly are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to study whether the detection of nasopharyngeal viral pathogens and conventional inflammatory markers in the frail elderly correlate to the presence, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia.

Methods: Consecutive episodes of hospital care of patients 65 years and older with respiratory symptoms (N = 382) were prospectively studied as a cohort. Read More

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Asthma control test reflects not only lung function but also airway inflammation in children with stable asthma.

J Asthma 2020 06 10;57(6):648-653. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

Various numerical asthma control tools have been developed to distinguish different levels of symptom control. We aimed to examine whether the asthma control test (ACT) is reflective of objective findings such as lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and laboratory data in patients with stable asthma. We included patients who were enrolled in the Korean Childhood Asthma Study. Read More

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