293 results match your criteria Pediatrics Pyloric Stenosis


Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis: 10 Years' Experience with Standard Open and Laparoscopic Approach.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2021 May 4;24(3):265-272. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, Dentistry, Paediatrics and Gynecology, Woman and Child Hospital; Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is the most common cause of gastric obstruction in newborns. Extra-mucosal pyloromyotomy can be performed through a small laparotomy or laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to compare the two surgical techniques. Read More

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Infant presenting with pyloric stenosis and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA).

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 19;14(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Pediatrics, Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, New Jersey, USA.

This case report describes a premature male infant born after a pregnancy complicated by oligohydramnios of unknown aetiology but otherwise unremarkable prenatal scans. He had sudden onset of projectile emesis and severe hypertension in the third week of life, and further investigations revealed both pyloric stenosis and polycystic kidneys, at just 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). His course thereafter was complicated by severe refractory hypertension requiring multiple antihypertensive agents in order to gain control, although his renal function remained normal. Read More

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Protocol: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of fetal and infantile environmental exposure in etiopathogenesis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0247003. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Departments of Occupational Health and Safety, Hacettepe University Institute of Public Health, Ankara, Turkey.

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is one of the hallmark pediatric surgical diseases. However, its etiology remains incompletely understood. By systematically reviewing the literature, we aim to clarify the effect of the effect of occupational and environmental factors and role of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in the etiopathogenesis of IHPS. Read More

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February 2021

Getting it right first time: implementation of laparoscopic pyloromyotomy without a learning curve.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 Feb;103(2):130-133

Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Introduction: Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy is now an accepted procedure for the treatment of pyloric stenosis. However, it is clear that during the implementation period there are significantly higher incidences of mucosal perforation and incomplete pyloromyotomy. We describe how we introduced a new laparoscopic procedure without the complications associated with the learning curve. Read More

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February 2021

New insight into clinical heterogeneity and inheritance diversity of FBLN5-related cutis laxa.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 01 28;16(1):51. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Medical Genetics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: FBLN5-related cutis laxa (CL) is a rare disorder that involves elastic fiber-enriched tissues and is characterized by lax skin and variable systemic involvement such as pulmonary emphysema, arterial involvement, inguinal hernias, hollow viscus diverticula and pyloric stenosis. This type of CL follows mostly autosomal recessive (AR) and less commonly autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance.

Results: In this study, we detected a novel homozygous missense variant in exon 6 of FBLN5 gene (c. Read More

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January 2021

Prolonged neuromuscular block after rocuronium administration in laparoscopic pyloromyotomy patients: A retrospective bayesian regression analysis.

Paediatr Anaesth 2021 Mar 22;31(3):290-297. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Infants undergoing pyloromyotomy are at a high risk of aspiration, making rapid sequence induction the preferred method of induction. Since succinylcholine use in infants can be associated with complications, rocuronium is frequently substituted despite its prolonged duration of action.

Aims: To examine the likelihood of non-reversibility to neostigmine at the end of surgery in laparoscopic pyloromyotomies and its correlation to both rocuronium dose and out of operating room time. Read More

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Epidural versus general anesthesia for open pyloromyotomy in infants: A retrospective observational study.

Paediatr Anaesth 2021 Apr 29;31(4):452-460. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Anesthesia, General Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Thoracic epidural anesthesia for open infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis surgery is a controversial issue in the presence of little comparative data.

Aims: To compare this approach to general anesthesia for desaturation events (≤90% oxygen saturation) and absolute values of minimal oxygen saturation, minimal heart frequency, operating-room occupancy time, and durations of surgery in a retrospective study design.

Methods: Data were retrieved for patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis managed by thoracic epidurals under sedation or general anesthesia with rapid sequence induction between 01/2007 and 12/2017. Read More

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Leveraging a phenome-wide approach to identify novel exposure-birth defect associations: A proof of concept using maternal smoking and a spectrum of birth defects.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Mar 4;113(5):439-445. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Center for Epidemiology and Population Health, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: There are often questions about the impact of exposures on a range of birth defects, but there are few rigorous approaches for evaluating these associations. Using maternal smoking as an example we applied a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach to evaluate the impact of this exposure on a comprehensive range of birth defects.

Methods: Cases were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for the period 1999-2015. Read More

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ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Vomiting in Infants.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 Nov;17(11S):S505-S515

Specialty Chair, Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Vomiting in infants under the age of 3 months is one of the most common reasons for parents to seek care from their doctor or present to an emergency room. The imaging workup that ensues is dependent on several factors: age at onset, days versus weeks after birth, quality of emesis, bilious or nonbilious vomiting, and the initial findings on plain radiograph, suspected proximal versus distal bowel obstruction. The purpose of these guidelines is to inform the clinician, based on current evidence, what is the next highest yield and most appropriate imaging study to pursue a diagnosis. Read More

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November 2020

Safety of azithromycin in pediatrics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Dec 17;76(12):1709-1721. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmacy/Evidence-based Pharmacy Center, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity of azithromycin in neonates, infants, and children.

Methods: A systematic review was performed for relevant studies using Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. We calculated the pooled incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with azithromycin based on prospective studies (RCTs and prospective cohort studies) and analyzed the risk difference (RD) of ADRs between azithromycin and placebo or other antibiotics using meta-analysis of RCTs. Read More

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December 2020

Duodenal Stenosis: A Diagnostic Challenge in a Neonate With Poor Weight Gain.

Cureus 2020 Jun 11;12(6):e8559. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Pediatrics, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, USA.

Cases of isolated duodenal stenosis in the neonatal period are minimally reported in pediatric literature. Causes of small bowel obstruction such as duodenal atresia or malrotation with midgut volvulus have been well documented and are often diagnosed due to their acute clinical presentation. Duodenal stenosis, however, causes an incomplete intestinal obstruction with a more indolent and varying clinical presentation thus making it a diagnostic challenge. Read More

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Postoperative Opioid Analgesia Impacts Resource Utilization in Infants Undergoing Pyloromyotomy.

J Surg Res 2020 11 8;255:594-601. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Opioid analgesia is often avoided in infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. Previous studies highlight an association between opioid use and prolonged hospitalization after pyloromyotomy. However, the impact of opioid use on healthcare resource utilization and cost is unknown. Read More

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November 2020

Pediatric Surgery Simulation-Based Training for the General Surgery Resident.

J Surg Res 2021 02 16;258:339-344. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois; Rush Center For Clinical Skills and Simulation, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Surgical simulation-based training (SBT) can increase resident confidence and improve performance. SBT in pediatric surgery is in its infancy and often geared toward training pediatric surgery fellows. Since case volume for various pediatric surgery-specific procedures can be low based on the rarity of the pathology involved and the level of care provided by the institution, our aim was to create a pediatric surgery simulation-based curriculum for general surgery residents to address this need. Read More

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February 2021

Anesthetic Management of Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy for Pyloric Stenosis in a Neonate with Hereditary Spherocytosis.

Cureus 2020 Mar 15;12(3):e7277. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Anesthesiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, USA.

We describe a case of hereditary spherocytosis in a neonate with pyloric stenosis requiring laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Hereditary spherocytosis is the most commonly inherited hemolytic anemia causing hyperbilirubinemia and mild anemia. Anesthetic management for laparoscopic pyloromyotomy is challenging. Read More

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Neonatal eosinophilic gastroenteritis mimicking hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Pediatr Int 2020 Jan;62(1):99-101

Department of Pediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Society, Wakayama Medical Center, Wakayama, Japan.

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January 2020

50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Pyloric Stenosis in the Racial Groups of Hawaii.

J Pediatr 2020 01;216:50

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein School of Medicine and Children's Hospital at Montefiore, New York, New York.

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January 2020

Pyloric Stenosis: National Trends in the Incidence Rate and Resource Use in the United States From 2012 to 2016.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 12 20;9(12):923-932. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut

Objectives: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common reason for abdominal surgery in infants; however, national-level data on incidence rate and resource use are lacking. We aimed to examine the national trends in hospitalizations for IHPS and resource use in its management in the United States from 2012 to 2016.

Methods: We performed a retrospective serial cross-sectional study using data from the National Inpatient Sample, the largest health care database in the United States. Read More

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December 2019

Genome-wide association studies of structural birth defects: A review and commentary.

Birth Defects Res 2019 11 25;111(18):1329-1342. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: While there is strong evidence that genetic risk factors play an important role in the etiologies of structural birth defects, compared to other diseases, there have been relatively few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these conditions. We reviewed the current landscape of GWAS conducted for birth defects, noting novel insights, and future directions.

Methods: This article reviews the literature with regard to GWAS of structural birth defects. Read More

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November 2019

Imaging Acute Non-Traumatic Abdominal Pathologies in Pediatric Patients: A Pictorial Review.

J Radiol Case Rep 2019 Jul 31;13(7):29-43. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

The dilemma of acute non-traumatic abdominal pathologies in the pediatric population depends on the age of the patients and symptoms. Surgical etiologies in patients younger than 2 years of age include intussusception, pyloric stenosis, malrotation and midgut volvulus. In older patients, considerations become closer to differential etiologies in adults including acute appendicitis. Read More

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Homozygous variants in MAPRE2 and CDON in individual with skin folds, growth delay, retinal coloboma, and pyloric stenosis.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 12 9;179(12):2454-2458. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Cases with multiple molecular diagnoses are challenging to diagnose clinically, yet may be resolved by unbiased exome sequencing analysis. We report an infant with developmental delay, severe growth delay, dysmorphic features, and multiple congenital anomalies including retinal coloboma, congenital pyloric stenosis, and circumferential skin creases. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant in MAPRE2 and a homozygous stopgain (nonsense) variant in CDON. Read More

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December 2019

Differences in Outcomes Based on Sex for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Pyloromyotomy.

J Surg Res 2020 01 14;245:207-211. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of General Surgery, University Of California - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Pediatric Surgery, UCLA Mattel Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Males and females are known to have varied responses to medical interventions. Our study aimed to determine the effect of sex on surgical outcomes after pyloromyotomy.

Materials And Methods: Using the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 2003-2012, we performed a serial, cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of all patients aged <1 y who underwent pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Read More

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January 2020

The Association Between Opioid Use and Outcomes in Infants Undergoing Pyloromyotomy.

Clin Ther 2019 09 10;41(9):1690-1700. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and variation of opioid use across hospitals in infants undergoing pyloromyotomy and to determine the impact of opioid use on postoperative outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study (2005-2015) was conducted by using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, including infants (aged <6 months) with pyloric stenosis who underwent pyloromyotomy. Infants with significant comorbidities were excluded. Read More

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September 2019

Late-Onset Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis in a 14-Weeks-Old Full Term Male Infant.

Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 2019 ;62(2):82-84

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, Split, Croatia.

Background: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction in infants, and classically presents at 2 to 6 weeks of age. Delayed presentation is an extremely rare occurrence after early infancy.

Case Report: A 14-weeks-old full term male infant presented with non-bilious vomiting, dehydration and hypocloremic metabolic alkalosis. Read More

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February 2020

Changes in cerebral and renal oxygenation during laparoscopic pyloromyotomy.

J Clin Monit Comput 2020 Aug 19;34(4):699-703. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Although a laparoscopic approach may be preferred over open procedures for abdominal surgery, there are limited data on the effect of laparoscopic procedures on cerebral and renal oxygenation in neonates and young infants. Here, we evaluated the effect in neonates and infants. In this two-center prospective observational study, we evaluated changes in cerebral and renal regional oxygen saturation (rSO) in infants during laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Read More

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Efficacy of macrolides on gastric motility in extremely low birth weight infants.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2019 ;12(3):295-300

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The efficacy of macrolide treatment on gastrointestinal motility and acquirement of feeding tolerance in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate clinical effects of parenterally administered erythromycin (EM) and clarithromycin (CAM) on gastrointestinal motility in ELBW infants.

Methods: ELBW infants treated in Tokyo Medical University Hospital were retrospectively studied. Read More

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February 2020

Bowel Imaging in Children: Part 1.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 09 14;86(9):805-816. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

The bowel is a challenging abdominal organ to image. The main reason is the variable location, convoluted morphology and motility. A variety of bowel disorders such as congenital, developmental, inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic lesions can affect children and most of them are either unique to this age group or have a distinct clinico-radiological appearance compared to adults. Read More

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September 2019

Caterpillar Sign in an Infant with Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis.

J Pediatr 2019 May 2;208:292. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of General Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

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Presentation and outcomes in hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: An 11-year review.

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Oct 24;55(10):1183-1187. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Monash Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: To evaluate the trend in presentation and postoperative outcomes of infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) over the last decade.

Methods: This was a multicentre retrospective study in two tertiary paediatric centres between 2005 and 2015 inclusive. Participants included 626 infants who underwent a pyloromyotomy for HPS. Read More

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October 2019

Bart's Syndrome with Novel Frameshift Mutations in the COL7A1 Gene.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2019 Feb 7;38(1):72-79. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

c Department of Dermatology , Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital , Yangsan , Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Bart's syndrome, a hereditary mechanobullous disorder characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) with epidermolysis bullosa (EB), has not been genotyped frequently.

Case Report: A full-term female neonate had well-demarcated absence of skin on both legs at birth, with blisters and erosive patches developing immediately after birth. Electron microscopy showed blister formation under the lamina densa layer. Read More

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February 2019