8,862 results match your criteria Pediatrics Pneumonia


Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for bacterial pneumonia in children - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 Jul 2:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The predictive role of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia, a leading cause of death, is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia. Major bibliographic databases were searched from inception through September 2019 using pre-defined index terms, including 'procalcitonin,' 'pneumonia' and 'children'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1788719DOI Listing

Antibiotics for Childhood Pneumonia - Do We Really Know How Long to Treat?

N Engl J Med 2020 07;383(1):77-79

From the Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, and the Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane (A.B.C.), the Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, QLD (A.B.C.), and the School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, and the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Paediatrics, Gold Coast Health, Gold Coast (K.G.) - all in Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2016328DOI Listing

Amoxicillin for 3 or 5 Days for Chest-Indrawing Pneumonia in Malawian Children.

N Engl J Med 2020 07;383(1):13-23

From the Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington Clinical Trial Center, Seattle (A.-S.G., R.S., J.H., S.M.); the University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe Medical Relief Fund Trust, Tidziwe Centre (T.M., M.P., C.B.N.), and Acute Respiratory Infection and Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment, Malawi Ministry of Health (N.L.), Lilongwe, and the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre (A.P.) - all in Malawi; Save the Children, Fairfield, CT (E.N.); and Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (E.D.M.).

Background: Evidence regarding the appropriate duration of treatment with antibiotic agents in children with pneumonia in low-resource settings in Africa is lacking.

Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial in Lilongwe, Malawi, to determine whether treatment with amoxicillin for 3 days is less effective than treatment for 5 days in children with chest-indrawing pneumonia (cough lasting <14 days or difficulty breathing, along with visible indrawing of the chest wall with or without fast breathing for age). Children not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were 2 to 59 months of age and had chest-indrawing pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin twice daily for either 3 days or 5 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1912400DOI Listing

Age-dependent Differences in T Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 12244, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Respiratory infections from influenza A virus cause substantial morbidity and mortality in children relative to adults. T cells play a critical role in the host response to influenza A virus by supporting the innate and humoral responses, mediating cytotoxic activity, and promoting recovery. There are age-dependent differences in the number, subsets, and localization of T cells, which impact the host response to pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2020-0169TRDOI Listing

No evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 after induction of labour in an immune-suppressed SARS-CoV-2-positive patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 30;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

We present a case of a 38+1 weeks pregnant patient (G1P0) with a proven COVID-19 infection, who was planned for induction of labour because of pre-existent hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, respiratory problem of coughing and mild dyspnoea without fever during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. To estimate the risk of vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during labour and delivery, we collected oropharyngeal, vaginal, urinary, placental and neonatal PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 during the period of admission. All PCRs, except for the oropharyngeal, were negative and vertical transmission was not observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235581DOI Listing

4-month-old boy coinfected with COVID-19 and adenovirus.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 30;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

A 4-month-old boy with a history of muscular ventricular septal defect and atopic dermatitis presented with decreased oral intake, loose stools, stuffy nose, mild cough and diaphoresis. The patient had an in-home exposure to COVID-19. The initial respiratory pathogen panel was positive for adenovirus, consistent with his symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236264DOI Listing

Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Pneumonia in Children Hospitalized with Pneumonia in Ujjain, India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 27;17(13). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Childhood pneumonia is a major public health problem. The aim of this prospective hospital-based study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for community-acquired severe pneumonia in children in Ujjain, India. The study includes 270 children, 161 (60%) boys and 109 (40%) girls, aged between 2 months and 5 years with World Health Organization defined and radiologically confirmed severe pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134637DOI Listing

Febuxostat therapy in outpatients with suspected COVID-19: A clinical trial.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Jun 30:e13600. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of febuxostat (FBX) in comparison with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and chest CT findings in outpatients with moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection.

Methods: We conducted a clinical trial involving adult outpatients with the moderate respiratory illness following COVID-19 infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either FBX or HCQ for 5 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13600DOI Listing

Clinical and Epidemiological Features of SARS-CoV-2 Patients in SARI Ward of a Tertiary Care Centre in New Delhi.

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 Jul;68(7):19-26

Postgraduate Student (Medicine), ABVIMS and Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi.

Importance: Rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, prompted heightened surveillance in India. Since the first laboratory confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from Kerala on January 30, 2020 novel coronavirus infected pneumonia (NCIP) has been presenting to the hospital emergencies as severe acute respiratory illness (SARI). We aim to find out the rate of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in SARI cases and further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP in New Delhi, India. Read More

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Stress ulcer prophylaxis versus placebo-a blinded randomized control trial to evaluate the safety of two strategies in critically ill infants with congenital heart disease (SUPPRESS-CHD).

Trials 2020 Jun 29;21(1):590. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Critically ill infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often prescribed stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding, despite the low incidence of stress ulcers and limited data on the safety and efficacy of SUP in infants. Recently, SUP has been associated with an increased incidence of hospital-acquired infections, community-acquired pneumonia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the feasibility of performing a randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of withholding SUP in infants with congenital heart disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04513-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322718PMC

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Nowadays, reports in the literature support that patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at higher risk to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, the interpretation of -positive cultures from the airways in critically ill COPD is still a challenge. Indeed, as the patient could be merely colonized, tissue samples are required to ascertain IPA diagnosis but they are rarely obtained before death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1702210DOI Listing

Dysregulation of angiopoietin-Tie-2 axis in ugandan children hospitalized with pneumonia.

Cytokine 2020 Jun 26;133:155175. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Distinguished Researcher, Stollery Science Lab, Canada; Member, Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under 5, with the highest burden in resource-limited countries. Endothelial activation occurs in pneumonia and can be assessed using quantitative levels of biomarkers angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and Ang-2. We examined admission levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in pediatric pneumonia and their association with disease severity and outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155175DOI Listing

Childhood COVID-19: a multi-center retrospective study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital 315012.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

Methods: Pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 15 to March 15, 2020, from seven hospitals in Zhejiang Province were collected retrospectively and analyzed.

Results: Thirty-two children with COVID-19, ranging from 3 months to 18 years old, were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319932PMC

First Case of Meningitis in a Term Newborn: A but Pathogen.

Front Pediatr 2020 12;8:308. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY, United States.

is a Gram-negative, catalase positive and anaerobic enterobacterium first described in 1983. Infections caused by this pathogen, such as bacteremia and pneumonia, are extremely rare and primarily occur in patients with underlying pathologies or immunosuppression. There is still a debate as to whether is a real pathogen or if it can be considered an opportunistic infectious agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303839PMC

Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in the oldest-old continent.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Microbiology and Virology Unit, University Hospital Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy.

SARS-CoV-2 dramatically revealed the sudden impact of respiratory viruses in our lives. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality, and an important burden on healthcare systems worldwide, especially in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to identify severity predictors in the oldest-old admitted with influenza and/or RSV infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03959-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320245PMC

Paediatrics in Theresienstadt ghetto.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2020 Jun;28(2):155-160

Faculty of Education, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

The main objective of this study is to describe the most common childhood diseases occurring in the Theresienstadt ghetto during the Second World War as well as applied anti-epidemic measures. A partial objective is to describe medical and nursing care of sick child prisoners. The data was obtained by the method of synthesis of primary and secondary data with the highest importance after adequate external source criticism using selected monographs, memoirs, survivor diaries, Orders of the day by the Council of the Elders and Reports of the Jewish self-government of the Theresienstadt ghetto from 1941 to 1945, the Archives of the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Ghetto Museum, the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, Post Bellum online electronic collection of oral historical interviews, and witness accounts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a5557DOI Listing

Population pharmacokinetics and dose optimization of ceftriaxone for children with community-acquired pneumonia.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 44, Wenhua West Road, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Purpose: To assess ceftriaxone population pharmacokinetics in a large pediatric population and describe the proper dose for establishing an optimized antibiotic regimen.

Methods: From pediatric patients using ceftriaxone, blood samples were obtained and the concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection. The NONMEM software program was used for population pharmacokinetic analysis, for which data from 99 pediatric patients (2 to 12 years old) was collected and 175 blood concentrations were obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-02939-4DOI Listing

Value of Blood Cultures in the Management of Children Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Cureus 2020 May 21;12(5):e8222. Epub 2020 May 21.

Pediatrics, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.

Background and objectives Current guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children recommend obtaining a blood culture for children with moderate to severe pneumonia; yet, there is no guidance to assess the severity of the disease. Thus, a blood culture is obtained for the majority of children admitted with CAP, regardless of the severity of their symptoms. The study was designed to investigate and identify the prevalence of bacteremia in pediatric patients hospitalized with CAP and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables associated with bacteremia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306671PMC

Lack of Association Between Genetic Variants at and Genes Involved in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Human Quantitative Phenotypes.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:613. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide variation in expression and severity of symptoms, from very mild or no symptoms, to flu-like symptoms, and in more severe cases, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death. Large differences in outcome have also been observed between males and females. The causes for this variability are likely to be multifactorial, and to include genetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295011PMC

Prediction Rule for Scrub Typhus Meningoencephalitis in Children: Emerging Disease in North India.

J Child Neurol 2020 Jun 25:883073820933148. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: To evaluate the proportion of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis among children with acute encephalitis syndrome and to outline its differentiating features. To develop a prediction rule for scrub typhus meningoencephalitis.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care public hospital in Northern India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073820933148DOI Listing

A Case of Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Temporally Associated with COVID-19 in South Dakota.

S D Med 2020 Jun;73(6):246-251

Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Critical Care, Avera McKennan Children's Hospital and University Health Center.

Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was deemed a worldwide pandemic by the World Health Organization in February 2020. The U.S. Read More

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Interleukin-22 Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Production by Blocking Virus-Mediated Subversion of Cellular Autophagy.

iScience 2020 Jun 10;23(7):101256. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3459 Fifth Avenue, MUH 628 NW, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe bronchiolitis in infants requiring hospitalization, whereas the elderly and immunocompromised are prone to RSV-induced pneumonia. RSV primarily infects lung epithelial cells. Given that no vaccine against RSV is currently available, we tested the ability of the epithelial-barrier protective cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) to control RSV production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317237PMC

Hydroxyurea Dose Escalation for Sickle Cell Anemia in Sub-Saharan Africa.

N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(26):2524-2533

From the Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University, Indianapolis (C.C.J.); the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University (R.O.O., H.A.H., C.N., P.K., C.M.N.), Global Health Uganda (R.O.O., C.N.), and Mulago Hospital (P.K.) - all in Kampala, Uganda; the Division of Hematology, Department of Pediatrics (T.S.L., A.L., R.E.W.), and the Global Health Center (R.E.W.), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (A.L., R.E.W.) - all in Cincinnati; and the Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal (H.A.H.).

Background: Hydroxyurea has proven safety, feasibility, and efficacy in children with sickle cell anemia in sub-Saharan Africa, with studies showing a reduced incidence of vaso-occlusive events and reduced mortality. Dosing standards remain undetermined, however, and whether escalation to the maximum tolerated dose confers clinical benefits that outweigh treatment-related toxic effects is unknown.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial, we compared hydroxyurea at a fixed dose (approximately 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) with dose escalation (approximately 30 mg per kilogram per day). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000146DOI Listing

Clinical Characteristics of Acute Respiratory Syndrome with SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children in South China.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital (GDPH), Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: A retrospective study was conducted to summarize the clinical information of childhood infections during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.

Methods: Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 11 hospitals from three provinces of South China were included in the study. Clinical information was collected and compared with children and adults infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24921DOI Listing

Prevalence and clinical significance of common respiratory pathogens in the upper respiratory tract of children with community-acquired pneumonia in Zunyi, China.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University (The First People's Hospital of Zunyi City), Zunyi, Guizhou, P. R. China.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory pathogens among children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Zunyi City, Guizhou, China, and to assess whether the presence of common respiratory pathogens in patients is associated with disease severity.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of common respiratory viruses and bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of among infants and children aged 1 month to 5 years hospitalized with radiologically confirmed CAP between April 2017 and March 2018. Direct immunofluorescence assay and bacterial culture were used to identify viruses and bacteria in the upper airway specimens, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24922DOI Listing

Critical care practice in India: Results of the intensive care unit need assessment survey (ININ2018).

World J Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 5;9(2):31-42. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Critical Care, United Memorial Medical Center, Houston, TX 77091, United States.

Background: A diverse country like India may have variable intensive care units (ICUs) practices at state and city levels.

Aim: To gain insight into clinical services and processes of care in ICUs in India, this would help plan for potential educational and quality improvement interventions.

Methods: The Indian ICU needs assessment research group of diverse-skilled individuals was formed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5492/wjccm.v9.i2.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298589PMC

Hypothermia from a two-component mixture comprising Amoxicillin and Sulbactam.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Jun 10;8(6):1101-1103. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Pediatrics Department Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy Haiphong Vietnam.

Hypothermia might be an adverse effect of Amoxicillin and/or Sulbactam, and clinicians should be aware of this effect. Further clinical and laboratory investigations are also needed to confirm and clarify the underlying mechanism of this side effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303855PMC

Impact of COVID-19 on pediatric clinical research in France.

CMAJ 2020 05;192(21):E589

Professor of pediatrics, French Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (F-CRIN) - PEDSTART, University of Tours, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Tours, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.75416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259967PMC

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the Newborn.

Authors:
Fahri Ovalı

Front Pediatr 2020 22;8:294. Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects people at all ages and it may be encountered in pregnant women and newborns also. The information about its clinical features, laboratory findings and prognosis in children and newborns is scarce. All the reported cases in pregnant women were in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and only 1% of them developed severe disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256185PMC

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Neonates and Children From China: A Review.

Front Pediatr 2020 15;8:287. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus began to spread in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The confirmed cases increased nationwide rapidly, in part due to the increased population mobility during the Chinese Lunar New Year festival. The World Health Organization (WHO) subsequently named the novel coronavirus pneumonia Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and named the virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243210PMC

Estimating the prevalence and risk of COVID-19 among international travelers and evacuees of Wuhan through modeling and case reports.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(6):e0234955. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China and has spread through other provinces and countries through infected travelers. On January 23rd, 2020, China issued a quarantine and travel ban on Wuhan because travelers from Wuhan were thought to account for the majority of exported COVID-19 cases to other countries. Additionally, countries evacuated their citizens from Wuhan after institution of the travel ban. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234955PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310725PMC

Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination coverage in children aged 2-59 months in Malawi.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-3. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

University of Washington Clinical Trial Center , Seattle, WA, USA.

High vaccination coverage with type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is critical to addressing childhood pneumonia's high mortality. The Innovative Treatments in Pneumonia project in Lilongwe, Malawi collected Hib and pneumococcal vaccination information from children's health passports and found the majority demonstrated inadequate and inconsistent documentation. We were unable to confidently assess the impact of Hib and pneumococcal vaccination on pneumonia treatment failure in our study population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1773142DOI Listing

COVID-19 and comorbidities: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Postgrad Med 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Centre , Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

1.0 Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic that began with an outbreak of pneumonia cases in the Hubei province of China. Knowledge of those most at risk is integral for treatment, guideline implementation and resource allocation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2020.1786964DOI Listing

Review of influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in ICU patients and proposal for a case definition: an expert opinion.

Intensive Care Med 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Centre of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly reported in patients with influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Classification of patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) using the current definitions for invasive fungal diseases has proven difficult, and our aim was to develop case definitions for IAPA that can facilitate clinical studies.

Methods: A group of 29 international experts reviewed current insights into the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of IAPA and proposed a case definition of IAPA through a process of informal consensus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06091-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306567PMC

Suspected case of COVID-19-associated pancreatitis in a child.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Aug 6;15(8):1309-1312. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Emergency and Hospital Medicine, Lehigh Valley Health Network, USF Morsani College of Medicine, Cedar Crest Boulevard & I-78, Allentown 18103, PA, USA.

The world has been challenged by SARS CoV-2, a new virus causing pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with common symptoms of COVID-19 in pediatric patients including both respiratory and GI symptoms. There is a lack of literature implicating COVID-19 in pancreatitis, yet viruses are generally understood to be a cause of pancreatitis in children. We present a case of a previously well 7-year-old girl, who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and anorexia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275143PMC

[Value of sTREM-1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, APACHE II score, and SOFA score in evaluating the conditions and prognosis of children with severe pneumonia].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jun;22(6):626-631

Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230001, China.

Objective: To study the significance of the level of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in evaluating the conditions and prognosis of children with severe pneumonia.

Methods: A total of 76 children with severe pneumonia who were admitted from August 2017 to October 2019 were enrolled as the severe pneumonia group. According to the treatment outcome, they were divided into a non-response group with 34 children and a response group with 42 children. Read More

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COVID-19 in jails and prisons: A neglected infection in a marginalized population.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 06 22;14(6):e0008409. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307724PMC

EARLY CHALLENGES IN ISOLATION AND DE-ISOLATION OF CHILDREN DURING THE SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS-2 PANDEMIC.

J Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jun;56(6):997-998

Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children's Medical Institute, National University Health System, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14962DOI Listing

Financial Burden of Hospitalization of Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 under the National Health Insurance Service in Korea.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Jun 22;35(24):e224. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in an ongoing pandemic; however, the socioeconomic burden of COVID-19 treatment in the pediatric population remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the hospitalization periods and medical costs among children with COVID-19. In total, 145 billing statements for pediatric patients receiving healthcare services because of COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to March 31, 2020 were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308138PMC

Chest computed tomography for the diagnosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a rapid review and meta-analysis.

Ann Transl Med 2020 May;8(10):622

School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a massive impact on the whole world. Computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in the diagnosis of this novel pneumonia. This study aims to understand the role of CT for the diagnosis and the main imaging manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290647PMC

Serum Cytokines and FeNO in School-Aged Children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

Med Sci Monit 2020 Jun 21;26:e923449. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Zhejiang Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that is particularly prevalent in school-aged children. This study explored the potential involvement of cytokines in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS Children aged 3-7 years who were hospitalized due to CAP infection were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: an MPP group (n=33) and a NMPP group (n=38), along with 21 age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923449DOI Listing

Rapid establishment of a COVID-19 biobank in NHRI by National Biobank Consortium of Taiwan.

Biomed J 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.

By the request of the Minister of Health and Welfare, NHRI Biobank was assigned to establish a COVID-19 biobank in early Feb, 2020 to collect COVID-19 patients' blood samples for Taiwan researchers and industries in an emergent way. It was set up in less than 3 weeks and quickly opened for application. This biobank can provide applicants with biosamples, such as serum, DNA and RNA, and also the clinical and genomic data, so as to accelerate the COVID-19 treatment and prevention research in Taiwan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2020.05.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7258802PMC

Upper airways colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults aged 60 years and older: A systematic review of prevalence and individual participant data meta-analysis of risk factors.

J Infect 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Colonisation with Streptococcus pneumoniae can lead to invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia. Pneumococcal acquisition and prevalence of colonisation are high in children. In older adults, a population susceptible to pneumococcal disease, colonisation prevalence is reported to be lower, but studies are heterogeneous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.06.028DOI Listing

Temporal profiling of plasma cytokines, chemokines and growth factors from mild, severe and fatal COVID-19 patients.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 06 19;5(1):100. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0211-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303571PMC

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and/or adolescents: a meta-analysis.

Pediatr Res 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Section of General Medicine, Hypertension and Liver Unit, University and Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: To assess the overall prevalence of clinical signs, symptoms, and radiological findings in children and/or adolescents with COVID-19.

Methods: We systematically researched in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases observational studies describing COVID-19 in children and/or adolescents until April 11, 2020. Data regarding clinical and radiological features were extracted from eligible studies and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-1015-2DOI Listing

Effects of short-term fine particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infection in children.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2020 Jun 15;229:113571. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies on the association between fine particulate matter (PM) exposure and acute respiratory infection in children are scarce and present inconsistent results. We estimated the association between short-term PM exposure and acute respiratory infection among children aged 0-4 years using a difference-in-differences approach.

Methods: We used data on the daily PM concentrations, hospital admissions for acute respiratory infection, and meteorological factors of the 15 regions in the Republic of Korea (2013-2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113571DOI Listing

A SARS-CoV-2 Infection Model in Mice Demonstrates Protection by Neutralizing Antibodies.

Cell 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; The Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology & Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of human infections. One limitation to the evaluation of potential therapies and vaccines to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and ameliorate disease is the lack of susceptible small animals in large numbers. Commercially available laboratory strains of mice are not readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 because of species-specific differences in their angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284254PMC

School Nurses on the Front Lines of Healthcare: Serious Infections in Students and Their Common Presenting Complaints.

NASN Sch Nurse 2020 Jun 19:1942602X20933680. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Professor, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Attending Pediatric Emergency Medicine physician, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.

School nurses occasionally deal with students presenting with serious infections associated with common chief complaints. Although rare, the implications of missing the signs and symptoms of these infections are potentially life-threatening and devastating, with both immediate and long-term complications. Rapid recognition and stabilization, with immediate transfer to the closest emergency department via emergency medical services for antibiotic administration, is the key to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X20933680DOI Listing

A case of severe pseudohyperkalaemia due to muscle contraction.

Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2020 Jun;30(2):021004

Clinical Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Severe hyperkalaemia is a serious medical condition requiring immediate medical attention. Before medical treatment is started, pseudohyperkalaemia has to be ruled out.

Case Description: A 10-month old infant presented to the emergency department with fever and coughing since 1 week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11613/BM.2020.021004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271752PMC

COVID-19: the effects on the practice of pediatric emergency medicine.

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2020 Jun 19;17(Suppl 6-3):1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Consultant, Jackson Heights, NY.

An informal survey of 65 pediatric emergency department leaders in North America-from 30 U.S. states and 4 Canadian provinces-revealed changes in operations, infrastructure, staffing, and clinical care that were undertaken as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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