7,509 results match your criteria Pediatrics Pneumonia


Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Findings in 57 Patients With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) From India.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:23. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatric Immunology and Leukocyte Biology, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), Mumbai, India.

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders characterized by impaired cellular and humoral immune responses. Here, we report the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in 57 patients diagnosed with SCID from India. Majority of our patients (89%) presented within 6 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369708PMC
February 2019

Help, hinder, hide and harm: what can we learn from the interactions between and during respiratory infections?

Thorax 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Recent studies of human respiratory secretions using culture-independent techniques have found a surprisingly diverse array of microbes. Interactions among these community members can profoundly impact microbial survival, persistence and antibiotic susceptibility and, consequently, disease progression. Studies of polymicrobial interactions in the human microbiota have shown that the taxonomic and structural compositions, and resulting behaviours, of microbial communities differ substantially from those of the individual constituent species and in ways of clinical importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212616DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular Design of Sequence-minimized, Structure-optimized, and Hydrocarbon-stapled Helix-Helix Interactions in the Trimer-of-Hairpins Motif of Pediatric Pneumonia RSV-F Protein.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Shandong Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinan, 250101, China.

The respiratory syncytial virus fusion (RSV-F) protein is a primary target for vaccine and drug development against respiratory infection and pediatric pneumonia. The RSV-F core forms a trimer-of-hairpins (TOH) motif in post-fusion conformation, which is characterized by a six-helix bundle (6HB) where the three N-terminal HRn helices define a central coiled-coil, while three C-terminal HRc helices pack on the coiled-coil surface in an antiparallel manner. Here, one tightly packed HRn-HRc helix-helix interaction is stripped from the 6HB, which represents the minimum unit of RSV-F TOH motif. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.13501DOI Listing
February 2019

Paediatric use of antibiotics in children with community acquired pneumonia: A survey from Da Nang, Vietnam.

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Discipline of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Children's Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Aim: To characterise paediatricians' antibiotic-prescribing behaviour when managing community acquired pneumonia.

Methods: We conducted a knowledge and attitudes survey of paediatric doctors practicing at a regional provincial hospital in central Vietnam over a 2-week period (from 12 December 2017 to 29 December 2017).

Results: Of 79 eligible paediatric doctors, 69 (87. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14413DOI Listing
February 2019

Acute Respiratory Illness in Rural Haiti.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. USA.

Objectives: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the most common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Haiti. Our objective was to detect pathogens found in children with ARI in rural Haiti to help develop evidence-based guidelines for treatment and prevention.

Methods: Retrospective study of students with ARI at four schools in rural Haiti. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia as an initial manifestation of hyper-IgM syndrome in an infant: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(7):e14559

Department of Pediatrics.

Rationale: Pneumocystis jirovecii causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignancy, solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplantation, and primary immune deficiency compose the risk factors for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in children, and PCP can be an initial clinical manifestation of primary immune deficiency.

Patient Concerns: A 5-month-old infant presented with cyanosis and tachypnea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014559DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

New biomarkers of Kawasaki disease identified by urine proteomic analysis.

FEBS Open Bio 2019 Feb 20;9(2):265-275. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Cardiology Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University Beijing China.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that mainly afflicts infants and young children. The symptoms of KD are similar to those of various febrile diseases. Here, we attempted to develop accurate diagnostic biomarkers of KD by performing urine proteomic analysis of samples from healthy controls, patients with KD, and patients with another febrile disease, pneumonia (two patients). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356163PMC
February 2019
1 Read

[The effectiveness of the complete lateral position method in elderly patients with severe dysphagia].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2019 ;56(1):59-66

Department of Surgery, Hida City Hospital.

Aim: This study aimed to clarify the effectiveness of using the complete lateral position method to treat elderly patients with severe dysphagia.

Methods: We enrolled 47 patients >65 years of age who had been diagnosed with severe dysphagia using a video endoscopic examination of swallowing at Hida City Hospital between February 1, 2015, and October 31, 2017. We collected and analyzed data pertaining to patient characteristics, the onset of aspiration pneumonia, and treatment outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3143/geriatrics.56.59DOI Listing
January 2019

A Case of Fulminant Bacillus cereus Lung Necrosis in a Preterm Neonate.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2019 Feb 13:1093526619825895. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

5 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous Gram-positive rod seldom considered pathogenic in clinical isolates. However, it possesses multiple virulence factors explaining why it has been linked to fulminant and pyogenic infections in vulnerable hosts. Its recovery from sterile samples in immunocompromised patients cannot be disregarded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1093526619825895DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Exhaled breath metabolomics reveals a pathogen-specific response in a rat pneumonia model for two human pathogenic bacteria: a proof-of-concept study.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research, Philips Research, Netherlands.

Introduction: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can reflect host and pathogen metabolism and might be used to diagnose pneumonia. We hypothesized that rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae ( SP) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( PA) pneumonia can be discriminated from uninfected controls by thermal desorption - gas chromatography - mass-spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and selected ion flow tube - mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) of exhaled breath.

Methods: Male adult rats ( n=50) received an intra-tracheal inoculation of 1) 200 µL saline, 2) 1x10 colony forming units (CFU) of SP or 3) 1x10 CFU of PA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00449.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Metabolomics Reveals Anaerobic Bacterial Fermentation and Hypoxanthine Accumulation for Fibrinous Pleural Effusions in Children with Pneumonia.

J Proteome Res 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Imaging Core Laboratory, Institute for Radiological Research, and Clinical Metabolomics Core Laboratory, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, College of Medicine , Chang Gung University , Taoyuan 333 , Taiwan.

Fibrin formation in infectious parapneumonic effusion (IPE) characterizes complicated parapneumonic effusion and is important for providing guidelines for the management of IPEs that require aggressive interventions. We aim to identify metabolic mechanisms associated with bacterial invasion, inflammatory cytokines, and biochemical markers in cases of fibrinous infectious pleural effusions in children with pneumonia. Pleural fluid metabolites were determined by H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00864DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
4.245 Impact Factor

The incidence, prevalence and clinical features of MECP2 duplication syndrome in Australian children.

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and prevalence of MECP2 duplication syndrome in Australian children and further define its phenotype.

Methods: The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit was used to identify children with MECP2 duplication syndrome between June 2014 and November 2017. Reporting clinicians were invited to complete a questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14399DOI Listing
February 2019
1.193 Impact Factor

First Onset Herpesviral Infection and Lung Injury in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Univ Michigan, Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States ;

Rationale: "Non-infectious" pulmonary complications are significant causes of morbidity and mortality post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Early onset viral reactivations or infections are common after transplant. Whether the first onset viral infection causes "non-infectious" pulmonary complications is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201809-1635OCDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

HDAC5 promotes Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced inflammation in macrophages through NF-κB activation.

Life Sci 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Paediatrics, First Subsidiary Hospital, University of Science and Technology of He'nan, 471000, China.

Excessive inflammation is fundamental in the pathophysiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)-induced respiratory infection in children. Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) is involved in the regulation of inflammation, however, whether it associates with immunity against MP infection is not determined. We report here that HDAC5 expression is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) children as well as in MP-infected peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The prevention of severe pertussis and pertussis deaths in young infants.

Authors:
James D Cherry

Expert Rev Vaccines 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

a Department of Pediatrics , David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA , Los Angeles , CA , USA.

Introduction: Today, in the developed world, virtually all deaths due to Bordetella pertussis illnesses occur in young infants. Therefore, it is important to discuss severe pertussis and its prevention. Areas Covered: These infant deaths are frequently misdiagnosed. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14760584.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1581065DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Epidemiology of infection in mechanical circulatory support: A global analysis from the ISHLT Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support Registry.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

James and John Kirklin Institute for Research in Surgical Outcomes (KIRSO), University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Despite advances in device technology and treatment strategies, infection remains a major cause of adverse events (AEs) in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) patients. To characterize the epidemiology of MCS infection, we examined the type, location, and timing of infection in the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry (ISHLT) for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (IMACS) over 3 years, 2013 to 2015.

Methods: Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) definitions were used to categorize AE infections occurring in MCS patients within IMACS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Radiologic Diagnosis and Hospitalization among Children with Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Biomed Res Int 2019 9;2019:6202405. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Hawassa University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pediatrics and Child health, Hawassa, P.O. Box 1560, Ethiopia.

Objectives: This study was designed to assess the role of chest radiography for the diagnosis of pneumonia and assess the association of clinical characteristics with radiologic findings and predictors of hospitalization among children with severe community acquired pneumonia.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 122 children between ages of 3 month and 14 years admitted to pediatric emergency unit with diagnosis of severe pneumonia from September 1 to November 30, 2017. Eligible children were subjected to chest radiography which was read by two senior radiologists independently ( and ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6202405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343177PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Canadian and UK/Ireland practice patterns in lumbar puncture performance in febrile neonates with bronchiolitis.

Emerg Med J 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Serious bacterial infections in young infants with bronchiolitis are rare. Febrile infants <1 month old with bronchiolitis often receive a lumbar puncture (LP), despite limited data for this practice and lack of clinical practice guidelines for this population. The primary objective was to investigate practice patterns in performance of LPs in the ED management of febrile infants aged ≤30 days with bronchiolitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2018-208000DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Assessment of a storage system to deliver uninterrupted therapeutic oxygen during power outages in resource-limited settings.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(2):e0211027. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Intellectual Ventures Laboratory, Bellevue, Washington, United States of America.

Access to therapeutic oxygen remains a challenge in the effort to reduce pneumonia mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries. The use of oxygen concentrators is common, but their effectiveness in delivering uninterrupted oxygen is gated by reliability of the power grid. Often cylinders are employed to provide continuous coverage, but these can present other logistical challenges. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211027PLOS
February 2019

Neonatal Pneumonia Induces an Aberrant Airway Smooth Muscle Phenotype and AHR in Mice Model.

Biomed Res Int 2019 6;2019:1948519. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Our previous study showed that neonatal infection aggravated airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in an OVA-induced allergic asthma model. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays a pivotal role in AHR development, we aim to investigate the effects of neonatal pneumonia on ASM structure and AHR development. Non-lethal neonatal pneumonia was established by intranasally infecting 1-week-old BALB/C mice with the strain D39. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2019/1948519/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1948519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339730PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Association of chorioamnionitis and its duration with neonatal morbidity and mortality.

J Perinatol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: To investigate the association of chorioamnionitis, and secondarily its duration, on neonatal adverse outcomes for infants born <34 weeks vs. ≥34 weeks.

Study Design: A secondary analyss from the observational U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-019-0322-0DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

stimulates nuclear sphingosine-1-phosphate generation and epigenetic regulation of lung inflammatory injury.

Thorax 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. Nuclear sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to regulate histone acetylation, and therefore could mediate pro-inflammatory genes expression.

Methods: Profile of sphingolipid species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue of mice challenged with () was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212378DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Genetic polymorphisms associated with treatment failure and mortality in pediatric Pneumocystosis.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 4;9(1):1192. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nephrology, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Data on the genetic diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii causing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) among children are still limited, and there are no available data from the Indian subcontinent, particularly associations between genotypes and clinical characteristics. A total of 37 children (62 days-12 years [median 5.5 years]) were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38052-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361943PMC
February 2019
2 Reads
5.078 Impact Factor

Comparison of high-dose and low-dose corticosteroid therapy for refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan; Division of Neonatology, Center for Maternal-Neonatal Care, Nagoya University Hospital, Japan.

Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is generally a self-limiting disease, but it may become refractory. It is thought that refractory MPP is linked to the excessive immunologic responses of the host. Consequently, the use of adjunctive systemic corticosteroids may have beneficial effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.01.003DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Long term outcome of WHIM syndrome in 18 patients: high risk of lung disease and HPV-related malignancies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

the Department of Pediatrics & Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Institute of Molecular Medicine "Angelo Nocivelli", University of Brescia & Asst Spedali Civili of Brescia, Brescia.

Background: In the Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections, and Myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome variable phenotypic expression may delay diagnosis. Panleukopenia, malignancy and chronic lung disease all affect morbidity and mortality risks. Routinely used treatments include immunoglobulins, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and antibiotics; recent trials with a target CXCR4 antagonist show promising results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.01.045DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A New Way of Managing Pediatric Pneumonia.

Authors:
Kenneth McIntosh

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Emeritus Chief, Division of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz086DOI Listing
February 2019

Long-term Association of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Implementation With Rates of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val-de-Marne, St Maur-des-Fossés, France.

Importance: In several countries, 5 years after 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) implementation, serotype replacement has been reported for invasive pneumococcal disease, which raises concerns about the long-term outcome of PCV13 implementation. The long-term effect of vaccination on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unknown.

Objective: To assess the long-term outcome of PCV13 implementation on CAP in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.5273DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The use of multiplex PCR for the detection of atypical pathogens in Egyptian children with CAP: a high rate of in early infancy.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2019 18;94(1). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Atteia Abd El Hadi St., El Maadi, Cairo, 11562 Egypt.

Background: Atypical pathogen infections played an important role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Pathogen-specific clinical symptoms are often lacking, and it is difficult to detect atypical pathogens by culture methods. The use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods enables testing for many pathogens simultaneously in a single analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42506-018-0003-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338716PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

The Double Life of Group B Streptococcus: Asymptomatic Colonizer and Potent Pathogen.

J Mol Biol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, WA, USA; Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle 98101, WA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle 98195, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a β-hemolytic gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the lower genital tract of approximately 18% of women globally as an asymptomatic member of the gastrointestinal and/or vaginal flora. If established in other host niches, however, GBS is highly pathogenic. During pregnancy, ascending GBS infection from the vagina to the intrauterine space is associated with preterm birth, stillbirth, and fetal injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.01.035DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Bacteriologic Profile and Susceptibility Pattern of Mechanically - Ventilated Pediatric Patients with Pneumonia.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Alexandria University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Shatby Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt. Electronic address:

Purpose: Therapy of severe pneumonia is very challenging in view of the current widespread bacterial resistance to many antibiotics especially extended spectrum ß-lactams, carbapenems, and anti-pseudomonal drugs. The current study aimed at assessing antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and optimization of the antibiotic stewardship program applied in a university affiliated pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Subjects And Methods: This prospective cohort study included all patients aged 1 month to 12 years, admitted to the PICU with severe pneumonia episodes indicated for mechanical ventilation, and were followed up and investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.01.028DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Round pneumonia due to in a child.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Apr 18;14(4):436-438. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Saitama National Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

Round pneumonia is a disease commonly recognized in the pediatric age group, especially under the age of 8 years. is the most common agent causing this characteristic type of pneumonia. We herein report a case of a 6-year-old boy with only mild cough and low-grade fever who was then diagnosed with round pneumonia due to . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2019.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348194PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Heart Failure in Ethiopian Children: Mirroring the Unmet Cardiac Services.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2019 Jan;29(1):811-818

College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: HeartFailure (HF) is a progressive clinical and pathophysiological syndrome caused by cardiovascular and noncardiovascular abnormalities. Childhood HF has not been well studied in Sub-Sharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed at describing the pattern and outcome of pediatrics HF at a referral-teaching hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v29i1.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341439PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Spread of ceftriaxone non-susceptible pneumococci in South Korea: Long-term care facilities as a potential reservoir.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(1):e0210520. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Despite the availability of a pneumococcal National Immunization Program, which provides free PPSV23 vaccination for older adults aged ≥65 years in South Korea, pneumococcal pneumonia remains one of the most common respiratory infections, with increasing antimicrobial resistance. From January to December in 2015, all pneumococcal isolates were collected from a 1,050-bed teaching hospital in South Korea. All isolates were analyzed for serotype, genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210520PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353129PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Respiratory Morbidity Following Foreign Body Aspiration Among South Indian Children: A Descriptive Study.

Cureus 2018 Nov 23;10(11):e3629. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Paediatrics, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, IND.

Aim Our work aimed to study the clinical features and radiological signs of foreign body aspiration in South Indian children. Materials and methods We conducted this prospective cross-sectional study for one year in the Department of Paediatrics, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India in 56 cases. Our study included children younger than 14 years attending our hospital with a history of foreign body aspiration with or without respiratory distress, suspected cases of foreign body aspiration showing evidence of unilateral hyperinflation with or without evidence of collapse of the opposite lungs on chest X-ray (posterior-anterior view), and unexplained cough associated with X-ray evidence of unilateral hyperinflation or bronchiectasis. Read More

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https://www.cureus.com/articles/15961-respiratory-morbidity-
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347440PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Therapeutic plasma exchange for pediatric nonrenal disease indications and outcomes: A single-center experience.

Asian J Transfus Sci 2018 Jul-Dec;12(2):127-135

Department of Paediatrics, Apollo Children's Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Outcome data in pediatric plasma exchange, especially in nonrenal indications are scarce. We aimed to evaluate its role and outcome in our patients.

Subjects And Methods: A retrospective study of children admitted in the year 2016 to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit requiring plasma exchange for nonrenal indications was undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajts.AJTS_123_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327757PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Adult emergency department referrals from urgent care centers.

Am J Emerg Med 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Although urgent care centers (UCCs) can often evaluate and treat minor injuries/illnesses, patients may present with life threatening conditions that require immediate recognition, stabilization, and transfer to a higher level of care, beyond the capabilities of most UCCs.

Objective: To describe adult ED referrals from UCCs and to determine the percentage of referrals considered critical, complex, and simple.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted between 8/2016-8/2017 on patients >18 years referred directly to our ED from surrounding UCCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.01.029DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Macrolide prescription in Dutch children: compliance with guidelines.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

For reasons of antibiotic resistance and side effects, macrolides should be prescribed with care in the pediatric population. We evaluated the adherence to Dutch guidelines of macrolide prescription in children and estimated the risk of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated pneumonia based on Fischer's decision tree. In this retrospective study, we included children aged 0-18 years who were treated with azithromycin or clarithromycin for pulmonary disease in four settings from general practice to hospital ward for (1) the prescriptions not in accordance with the guideline of the Dutch Association of Pediatrics and (2) the risk of M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03473-7DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Patient Outcomes in a Pediatric Hospital Medicine Service Staffed With Physicians and Advanced Practice Providers.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 Feb;9(2):121-128

Division of Hospitalist Medicine and.

Objectives: Hospitals are employing more nurse practitioners and physician assistants on inpatient pediatric units. With this study, we compared patient outcomes in high-volume inpatient diagnoses on pediatric hospital medicine services staffed by attending physician hospitalists and residents (hospitalist and resident service [HRS]) with 1 staffed by attending physician hospitalists and advanced practice providers (HAPPS).

Methods: A historical cohort study was implemented by using administrative data for patients admitted to HRS and HAPPS from 2007 to 2011 with asthma, bronchiolitis, cellulitis, and pneumonia with severity levels 1 and 2 for all-patient refined diagnosis-related groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2018-0028DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

[Status of antibiotic use in hospitalized children with community-acquired pneumonia in multiple regions of China].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Jan;21(1):11-17

First Clinical Medical Institute, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110032, China.

Objective: To investigate the use of antibiotics in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in multiple regions of China, and to provide a reference for CAP standard treatment and rational antibiotic use in children.

Methods: The medical data of 1 383 children with CAP who were hospitalized in the department of pediatrics in 10 grade A tertiary hospitals from 9 cities between April 14, 2014 and January 1, 2016 were reviewed, to analyze the status of antibiotic use in hospitalized children in North China, Northeast China, East China, and South China.

Results: The overall rate of antibiotic use in children with CAP was 89. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

The use of bedside echocardiography for measuring cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance in pediatric patients with septic shock.

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2018 Oct-Dec;30(4):460-470

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University - Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Follow-up of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index by bedside echocardiography until resuscitation.

Methods: A set of hemodynamic parameters was obtained, including cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, velocity time integral, myocardial performance index, capillary refill time, and heart rate at 0 hours after fluid boluses before the start of inotropes, and followed up after 6 hours and 24 hours.

Results: Included were 45 patients with community-acquired septic shock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0103-507X.20180067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334480PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

Lung Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children-A Metaanalysis and a Review of Pediatric Lung Imaging.

Ultrasound Q 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Third Department of Pediatrics, Clinic of Immunology and Rheumatology of Developmental Age, Medical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Pneumonia is one of the most frequent widespread and severe infectious diseases in pediatric patients worldwide. Pneumonia is characterized by high incidence and possibility of complications in the course of the disease in pediatric patients. For this reason, there is a need to have a rapid and safe diagnostic method to recognize it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RUQ.0000000000000411DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Measuring hospital-specific disparities by dual eligibility and race to reduce health inequities.

Health Serv Res 2019 Feb;54 Suppl 1:243-254

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objective: To propose and evaluate a metric for quantifying hospital-specific disparities in health outcomes that can be used by patients and hospitals.

Data Sources/study Setting: Inpatient admissions for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia to all non-federal, short-term, acute care hospitals during 2012-2015.

Study Design: Building on the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services methodology for calculating risk-standardized readmission rates, we developed models that include a hospital-specific random coefficient for either patient dual eligibility status or African American race. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341208PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Current antimicrobial management of community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-infected children.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2019 Jan 21:1-14. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

a Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Cape Town and Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital , Cape Town , South Africa.

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality amongst HIV-infected infants and children. Polymicrobial infection is common and, due to the difficulties in confirming the etiology of pneumonia, empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy is frequently used. Areas covered: The author based this article on literature identified from PubMed. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14656566.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2018.1561864DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Rhinoviruses and Their Receptors.

Chest 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are picornaviruses that can cause a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses, including the common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma. There are currently > 160 known types of RVs classified into three species (A, B, and C) that use three different cellular membrane glycoproteins expressed in the respiratory epithelium to enter the host cell. These viral receptors are intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (used by the majority of RV-A and all RV-B types), low-density lipoprotein receptor family members (used by 12 RV-A types), and cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3; used by RV-C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.12.012DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Pneumonia-Associated Acute Glomerulonephritis: Report of 2 Cases.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2019 Jan 18:9922818825157. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

1 Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922818825157DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Novel dihydropteroate synthase gene mutation in Pneumocystis jirovecii among HIV-infected patients in India: Putative association with drug resistance and mortality.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nephrology, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Objectives: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a debilitating cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) combinations are the most effective anti-Pneumocystis treatment and prophylaxis. Long term usage of this combination has raised alarms about emergence of resistant organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Clinical and epidemiological impact of varicella infection in children prior to the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule of Argentina.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):12-18

Servicio de Infectología Pediátrica.

Introduction: In Argentina, an estimated 400 000 varicella cases occur annually. Given the under-recording of existing cases, the actual burden of disease is unknown.

Objective: To assess the burden of varicella before the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.eng.12DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Cells under stress: The mechanical environment shapes inflammasome responses to danger signals.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Many intracellular signals, such as host danger-associated molecules and bacterial toxins during infection, elicit inflammasome activation. However, the mechanical environment in tissues may also influence the sensitivity of various inflammasomes to activation. The cellular mechanical environment is determined by the extracellular tissue stiffness, or its inverse, tissue compliance. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/JLB.3MIR1118-417R
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MIR1118-417RDOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

MHC Class II Deficiency with Normal CD4+ T Cell Counts: A Case Report.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Dec 4;17(6):594-600. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran AND Department of Immunology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) with less than 200 cases worldwide. Here, we report an 8 month-old girl with MHC class II deficiency with a novel homozygous mutation in RFXANK gene (NM_001278728: exon 5: c.495G>A: p. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads