7,630 results match your criteria Pediatrics Pneumonia


Protective impacts of long noncoding RNA taurine-upregulated 1 against lipopolysaccharide-evoked injury in MRC-5 cells through inhibition of microRNA-127.

J Cell Biochem 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining, China.

Background: Pneumonia is a respiratory disease, which is triggered by pathogenic microorganisms or physical/chemical factors. Increasing evidence confirmed the vital impacts of long noncoding RNAs on various inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, the influence of taurine-upregulated 1 (TUG1) in pneumonia remains vague. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28755DOI Listing

Atypical and Typical Bacteria in Children with Community Acquired Pneumonia.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Basic Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

This seeks to determine the pathogens in respiratory specimens and blood serum obtained from children who present with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiological evidence. The study group consisted of 46 hospitalized children aged 1-11 years. The material for research consisted of pharyngeal swabs and samples of blood serum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_377DOI Listing

What US hospitals are currently doing to prevent common device-associated infections: results from a national survey.

BMJ Qual Saf 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Despite focused initiatives to reduce device-associated infection among hospitalised patients, the practices US hospitals are currently using are unknown. We thus used a national survey to ascertain the use of several established and novel practices to prevent device-associated infections.

Methods: We mailed surveys to infection preventionists in a random sample of nearly 900 US acute care hospitals in 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2018-009111DOI Listing

Efficacy of aerosolized rifaximin versus tobramycin for the treatment of pneumonia in mice.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755-9320

is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that can cause chronic lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The current preferred treatment for CF lung infections includes inhaled tobramycin (TOB); however, studies suggest TOB cannot effectively inhibit biofilm formation. Using a NIH small compounds drug library approved for safe use in humans, we identified rifaximin (RFX), a semisynthetic, rifamycin family, non-systemic antibiotic that inhibits alginate production and growth in Inhibition of alginate production was further analyzed using the uronic acid carbazole assay and a promoter reporter assay that measures the transcription of the alginate biosynthetic operon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02341-18DOI Listing

Usefulness of Gastric Aspirate Culture for Diagnosing Congenital Immunodeficiency in an Infant with Fungal Pneumonia Caused by Rasamsonia piperina.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2019 04;247(4):265-269

Department of Pediatrics, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine.

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a type of primary immunodeficiency disease, which increases susceptibility to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are often obtained using bronchoscopy from adult patients for pathogenic diagnosis, although this approach is much more invasive for infants. We report the case of a 2-month-old boy with CGD, in which gastric aspirate culture was used to diagnose fungal pneumonia. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/247/4/247_265/_art
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.247.265DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Wheezing independently predicts viral infection in children with community-acquired pneumonia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Brazil.

Aim: To assess whether there was a difference in the frequency of symptoms and signs among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with viral or bacterial infection.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Children less than 5-years-old hospitalized with CAP were recruited. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ppul.24339
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24339DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Conversion Disorder Manifesting as Functional Visual Loss.

Authors:
Hemant S Agarwal

J Emerg Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Background: Children with conversion disorder experience neurological symptoms without a definable organic cause. Clinical presentation of conversion disorders is uncommon in the emergency department (ED).

Case Report: An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to the ED for management of lobar pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.02.008DOI Listing

Measurement of Typhim Vi IgG as a Diagnostic Tool to Determine Anti-polysaccharide Antibody Production Deficiency in Children.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:654. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Immunology, IML and IdSSC, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

The assessment of specific polysaccharide antibody production plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of humoral primary immunodeficiencies (PID). The response to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of polysaccharide antibodies. However, in Spain, the interpretation of pure polysaccharide 23-valent immunization is hampered by the high endemicity of pneumococcal disease and the generalization of the 13-valent adjuvant pneumococcal vaccination. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00654
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455213PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Invasive Salmonella infections among children in Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo: a 6-year retrospective review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18;19(1):330. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Invasive Salmonella infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Asia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever are reported to be the major invasive Salmonella infections, while invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are believed to be uncommon. Data from Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, are limited. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3963-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.613 Impact Factor

Benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for macrolide resistant Mycoplasma Pneumoniae pneumonia in children.

Authors:
Hyeon-Jong Yang

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Center, Department of Pediatrics, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, however emergence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MRMP) has made the treatment of MPP challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after 2000s, especially in the Eastern Asia. MRMPs are more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treatments of MP infections in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07367DOI Listing

[Non-specific interstitial pneumonia : a rare clinical entity in adolescents].

Rev Med Liege 2019 Apr;74(4):197-203

CHC Liège, Clinique de l'Espérance, Liège, Belgique.

Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) is an anatomo-clinical entity within the group of Diffuse Infiltrative Pulmonary Diseases (DPID). It is very rarely found in pediatrics. Main symptoms are dry cough and dyspnea. Read More

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April 2019
1 Read

Respiratory tract virus infections in the elderly with pneumonia.

BMC Geriatr 2019 Apr 16;19(1):111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: In children suffering from severe lower airway illnesses, respiratory virus detection has given good prognostic information, but such reports in the elderly are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to study whether the detection of nasopharyngeal viral pathogens and conventional inflammatory markers in the frail elderly correlate to the presence, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia.

Methods: Consecutive episodes of hospital care of patients 65 years and older with respiratory symptoms (N = 382) were prospectively studied as a cohort. Read More

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https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1125-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469155PMC
April 2019
7 Reads

Risk factors for death among children 0-59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 15;19(1):322. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Rúa 12, Vila da Manhiça, 1929, Maputo, CP, Mozambique.

Background: Despite major improvements in child survival rates, the number of deaths due to diarrhea remains unacceptably high. We aimed to describe diarrhea-associated mortality and evaluate risk factors for death among Mozambican children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD).

Methods: Between December 2007 and November 2012, children under-five with MSD were enrolled in Manhiça district, as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter study (GEMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3948-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466733PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Where do mothers take their children for pneumonia care? Findings from three Indian states.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(4):e0214331. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Samarth, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Childhood pneumonia accounts for 17% of IMR in India, posing a major health burden. With cultural beliefs influencing care seeking behaviour and disparities existing in health infrastructure across the country, an understanding of the underlying issues merits exploration. Study assessed prevalence of probable pneumonia and examined care seeking behaviour of mothers in three states, Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Tamil Nadu (TN). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214331PLOS
April 2019
3 Reads

Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound in Detecting Causes of Pediatric Chest X-Ray Opacity.

Turk Thorac J 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Computed tomography is considered as the diagnostic gold standard for following up the majority of pediatric chest X-ray (CXR) opacities. However, radiation, cost, and waiting times have led to search for diagnostic alternatives. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasound (US) in detecting the causes of pediatric CXR opacities. Read More

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http://turkthoracj.org/eng/makale/1105/154/Full-Text
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2018.18087DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Application of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Surveillance Criteria for Ventilator-Associated Events to a Cohort of PICU Patients Identifies Different Patients Compared With the Previous Definition and Physician Diagnosis.

Crit Care Med 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Section of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Objectives: We sought to compare the performance of the 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric criteria for ventilator-associated pneumonia, the 2013 Adult Ventilator-Associated Condition criteria, the new Draft Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Condition criteria, and physician-diagnosed ventilator-associated pneumonia in a cohort of PICU patients.

Design: Secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective observational study.

Setting: PICU within a tertiary care children's hospital between April 1, 2010, and April 1, 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003766DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Mortality pattern of elderly patients at a tertiary care hospital: A study from Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Feb;8(2):426-431

Department of Paediatrics, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradoon, Uttarakhand, India.

Background: Currently, in developing countries like India, there is a paradigm shift in the mortality patterns of elderly from communicable to noncommunicable diseases.

Objective: This study is aimed at providing an insight on mortality patterns of elderly patients within a 2-year period in a tertiary hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, India.

Materials And Methods: This study is a retrospective review of mortality patterns of elderly patients from March 2016 to March 2018 occurring in the Department of General Medicine, in AIIMS, Rishikesh, India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_416_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436249PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthase deficiency due to FLAD1 mutation presenting as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency-like disease: A case report.

Brain Dev 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Shimane University, Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan.

Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), also known as glutaric acidemia type II, is classically caused by a congenital defect in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH). Flavin adenine dinucleotide synthase (FADS) deficiency caused by mutations in FLAD1 was recently reported as a novel riboflavin metabolism disorder resembling MADD. Here, we describe a Japanese boy with FADS deficiency due to a novel mutation (p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Hemorrhagic Pneumonia as the First Manifestation of Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Immunodeficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10875-019-00626-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00626-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Identification of influenza C virus in young South Korean children, from October 2013 to September 2016.

J Clin Virol 2019 Mar 27;115:47-52. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Asia Pacific Influenza Institute, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Influenza C virus has been largely neglected, compared to influenza A orB viruses, and is not routinely tested in clinical practices. However, several studies have indicated that influenza C virus causes severe acute respiratory illness and pneumonia in all ages.

Objective: We conducted a study to identify influenza C virus among young children in South Korea. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13866532193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.016DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Epidemiological relationship between pneumonia and recurrent wheezing episode in children: an observational study at a single hospital in Korea.

BMJ Open 2019 Apr 11;9(4):e026461. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicne, The Catholic University of Kora, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate epidemiological and clinical relationship between (MP) infection and childhood recurrent wheezing episode (RWE).

Design: Retrospective case note review.

Setting: Paediatric department at a single Korean institution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026461DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of the ELITe InGenius PCR for Detection of .

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA

, Mpn, is the leading cause of bacterial community acquired pneumonia in persons of all ages. Due to the fastidious nature of this bacteria and the necessary specialized growth media, nucleic acid amplification testing is currently the most reliable means for patient diagnostics. Analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical performance of the ELITe InGenius automated PCR platform with its MGB Alert Real-Time PCR research use only reagents (ELITechGroup, Inc. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.00287-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00287-19DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review.

Paediatr Respir Rev 2019 Jan 20. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Objectives: To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Design: Systematic review. We searched electronic databases and reference lists published between 1967 and 2018, restricted to non-accidental cases. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15260542183013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Clinical characteristics and etiologies of bronchiectasis in Korean children: A multicenter retrospective study.

Respir Med 2019 Apr 6;150:8-14. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Bronchiectasis is a chronic pulmonary disease characterized by progressive and irreversible bronchial dilatation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the etiologies and clinical features of bronchiectasis in Korean children.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records for children diagnosed with bronchiectasis between 2000 and 2017 at 28 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2019.01.018DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: A potential complication of sirolimus therapy.

Authors:
Avinash K Shetty

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Apr;55(4):484

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14392DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the management of critically ill children in a Malawian paediatric unit: an observational study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2019 8;6(1):e000280. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Malawian College of Medicine, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Introduction: In low-resource countries, respiratory failure is associated with a high mortality risk among critically ill children. We evaluated the role of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in the routine care of critically ill children in Lilongwe, Malawi.

Methods: We conducted an observational study between 26 February and 15 April 2014, in an urban paediatric unit with approximately 20 000 admissions/year (in-hospital mortality <5% approximately during this time period). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2018-000280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424262PMC
March 2019
1 Read

High Prevalence of Viral Infections Among Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients in Equatorial Sarawak, Malaysia.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 13;6(3):ofz074. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Although pneumonia is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in Sarawak, Malaysia, the etiology and epidemiology of pneumonia are not well described in this equatorial region. Routine clinical diagnostics for pneumonia etiology at government hospitals in Sarawak had historically involved only bacterial diagnostics. Viral diagnostics were only obtained through outside consultations. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofz07
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440682PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Human bocaviruses and paediatric infections.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), belonging to the Parvoviridae family, was discovered in 2005, in nasopharyngeal samples from children with respiratory tract infections. Three additional bocaviruses, HBoV2-4, were discovered in 2009-10. These viruses have mainly been found in faecal samples and their role in human diseases is still uncertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30057-4DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal infections in hospitalised adult patients in a Lebanese medical centre, 2006-2015.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

This is a retrospective medical file review of adult inpatients with Streptococcus pneumoniae infections admitted to a Lebanese hospital between 2006 and 2015. We revisited the clinical scenarios of these infections in view of increasing antibiotic resistance in Lebanon. One hundred and three patients were included; 92% were eligible for pneumococcal vaccination, yet none were vaccinated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Points & Pearls: Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis and management in the emergency department

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2019 Apr 1;16(Suppl 4):1-2. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Chief Resident, Emergency Medicine & Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable. Read More

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April 2019
5 Reads

Identification of potential diagnostic biomarkers for pneumonia caused by adenovirus infection in children by screening serum exosomal microRNAs.

Mol Med Rep 2019 May 29;19(5):4306-4314. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120, P.R. China.

Human adenovirus (HAdV) infection causes serious pneumonia in children, leading to significant morbidity and mortality rates. However, diagnostic biomarkers for HAdV‑associated pneumonia are unavailable. Serum microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) have been recently reported as diagnostic biomarkers for several diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6471624PMC
May 2019
2 Reads
1.484 Impact Factor

Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children.

BMC Pulm Med 2019 Apr 2;19(1):71. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.

Background: Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.

Methods: Western Australian children (≤17 years) hospitalized with radiologically-confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were recruited and clinical symptoms and management data were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0835-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444754PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: clinical perspectives.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2019 13;15:397-403. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Baylor Scott and White Medical Center, Temple, TX, USA,

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an eosinophilic lung disease that is typically diagnosed by a triad of clinical symptoms including pulmonary symptoms, eosinophilia and characteristic radiographic abnormalities. It requires a high index of suspicion given its overlap with other eosinophilic conditions and lack of a specific diagnostic test. The diagnosis is made after careful consideration of other secondary causes of eosinophilia, such as infectious, drugs, or toxic etiologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S157882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420789PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Comparisons between ethnic groups in hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in Israel.

PLoS One 2019 1;14(4):e0214197. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Ethnic disparities have been shown in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. However, it is unclear whether such differences are related to access to care. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of Arab and Jewish children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis in Israel, a country with universal health insurance. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214197PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443173PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Home Smoke Exposure and Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with Acute Respiratory Illness.

J Hosp Med 2019 Apr;14(4):212-217

Division of Hospital Medicine, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Objective: This study aims to assess whether secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with acute respiratory illness (ARI).

Methods: This study was nested within a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children (two weeks to 16 years) with ARI (emergency department visits for croup and hospitalizations for croup, asthma, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia) between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2016. Subjects were surveyed upon enrollment for sociodemographics, healthcare utilization, home SHS exposure (0 or ≥1 smoker in the home), and child HRQOL (Pediatric Quality of Life Physical Functioning Scale) for both baseline health (preceding illness) and acute illness (on admission). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12788/jhm.3164DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Learning to Beat the Shock Clock: A Low-Fidelity Simulation Board Game for Pediatric and Emergency Medicine Residents.

MedEdPORTAL 2019 Feb 11;15:10804. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Associate Professor, University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Introduction: Resident physicians may have difficulty with identifying and managing pediatric septic shock due to limited patient encounters. Simulation-based interventions can enhance competency. We developed a low-fidelity tabletop simulation game to teach pediatric septic shock and compared residents' knowledge of and comfort with recognition and management of septic shock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415010PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Molecular characterization and analysis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae among patients of all age with community-acquired pneumonia during an epidemic in China.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Lab, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Analysis of the molecular characteristics of isolates is very important for clinical and epidemiological study of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by M. pneumoniae.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2012, an epidemic period, M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.03.028DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Risk of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcal infection in youths with celiac disease - A population-based study.

Dig Liver Dis 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology Section, University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Objective: Assess the risk of hospitalizations for bacterial pneumonia or pneumococcal infections, in a cohort of young individuals with celiac disease (CD) compared to matched references.

Study Design: The cohort consists of 213,635 individuals, born in 1989-2012 and resident in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). Through pathology reports, hospital discharge records or co-payment exemptions, we identified 1294 CD patients and 6470 reference individuals matched by gender and birth year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Children in a Well-vaccinated South African Birth Cohort: Spectrum of Disease and Risk Factors.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Childhood lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause substantial morbidity and under-5 child mortality. The epidemiology of LRTI is changing in low- and middle-income countries with expanding access to conjugate vaccines, yet there are few data on the incidence and risk factors for LRTI in these settings.

Methods: A prospective birth cohort enrolled mother-infant pairs in 2 communities near Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz017DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Continuous positive airway pressure in children with severe pneumonia and hypoxaemia in Papua New Guinea: an evaluation of implementation.

Acta Paediatr 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Aim: To prospectively evaluate the use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in children with very severe pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory infections, during its trial introduction in a low resource hospital in Papua New Guinea.

Methods: Prospective observational study of children treated with CPAP who had severe pneumonia and severe respiratory distress with hypoxaemia (SpO <90%). CPAP was driven by oxygen concentrators in which the fraction of inspired oxygen could be adjusted, and using low-resistance tubing and nasal oxygen prongs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14796DOI Listing
March 2019
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Impact of atopy on the severity and extrapulmonary manifestations of childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

J Clin Lab Anal 2019 Mar 29:e22887. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Tianjin Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Objectives: The impact of atopy on disease severity and extrapulmonary manifestations in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is unknown.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with MP pneumonia between January 2016, and December 2017, were enrolled in this study. A total of 150 MP pneumonia patients were enrolled at diagnosis and divided into the atopic group (n = 48) and the nonatopic group (n = 102). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.22887DOI Listing
March 2019
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Identifying Etiological Agent for Childhood Pneumonia: An Ongoing Need.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-019-02931-6DOI Listing
March 2019
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Safety of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Outside Intensive Care Units for Previously Healthy Children With Bronchiolitis.

Respir Care 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, New York.

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), a form of noninvasive respiratory support, is effective for the treatment of respiratory distress in ICUs. Although HFNC has been used outside of the ICU, there is little research that examines its safety in this less-monitored setting.

Methods: Children ≤ 24 months old admitted with bronchiolitis to a pediatric floor at a tertiary care center from April 1 2013, to March 31 2015, were identified by using standard diagnostic codes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.06352DOI Listing
March 2019
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[Accidentally diagnosed distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis - a case report].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2019 Mar;46(273):146-148

Medical University of Warsaw, Poland: Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology.

Distal renal tubular acidosis is a defect of acidification of urine in distal tubule. Full-blown form is characterized by polyuria, growth deficiency, nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Mutations in genes encoding Cl-/HCO3 - exchanger (autosomal dominant) or H+-ATPase (autosomal recessive) are the most frequent in children. Read More

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March 2019
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Application of metabolomics in viral pneumonia treatment with traditional Chinese medicine.

Chin Med 2019 12;14. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Disease, Institute of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, No. 138, Xianlin Avenue, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210023 China.

Nowadays, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been reported to provide reliable therapies for viral pneumonia, but the therapeutic mechanism remains unknown. As a systemic approach, metabolomics provides an opportunity to clarify the action mechanism of TCMs, TCM syndromes or after TCM treatment. This review aims to provide the metabolomics evidence available on TCM-based therapeutic measures against viral pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-019-0229-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6417174PMC
March 2019
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Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis and management in the emergency department.

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2019 Apr 1;16(4):1-28. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA.

Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable. Read More

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April 2019
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A mixed method multi-country assessment of barriers to implementing pediatric inpatient care guidelines.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(3):e0212395. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Introduction: Accelerating progress in reducing child deaths is needed in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal child mortality target. This will require a focus on vulnerable children-including young children, those who are undernourished or with acute illnesses requiring hospitalization. Improving adherence to inpatient guidelines may be an important strategy to reduce child mortality, including among the most vulnerable. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212395PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433255PMC
March 2019
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Evaluation of a phased pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Mongolia using enhanced pneumonia surveillance and community carriage surveys: a study protocol for a prospective observational study and lessons learned.

BMC Public Health 2019 Mar 21;19(1):333. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Pneumococcal Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has the potential to dramatically reduce disease burden. As with any vaccine, it is important to evaluate PCV impact, to help guide decision-making and resource-allocation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6639-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429832PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

A Mini-Review on Ceftaroline in Bacteremia Patients with Methicillin-Resistant (MRSA) Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2019 Mar 20;8(1). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Larkin University College of Pharmacy, 18301 North Miami Ave, Miami, FL 33169, USA.

Objective: The objective of this review is to describe the outcomes of patients treated with ceftaroline in the non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) infections in both pediatric and adult populations.

Data Sources: A systematic overview was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and The Cochrane Library up to January 2019.

Study Selection And Data Extraction: All English-language clinical trials and case reports related to the efficacy of ceftaroline in new, not-yet-approved FDA indications in MRSA infections in pediatric or adult populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8010030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466573PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Giant lung cysts following necrotizing pneumonia: Resolution with conservative treatment.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Departments of Paediatrics, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel.

Rationale: Necrotizing pneumonia is characterized by destruction and liquefaction of the lung tissue and loss of the normal pulmonary parenchymal architecture. During the course of resolution areas of hyperlucency are formed, sometimes with the development of giant lung cysts that can be a field with fluid resembling lung abscess. There is no consensus on the management of these abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24321DOI Listing
March 2019
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