2,266 results match your criteria Pediatrics Pertussis


Immunologic and Virologic Factors Associated with Hospitalization in HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Pathology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Few studies have examined whether particular infections and/or immune responses are associated with hospitalization among HEU infants born in the United States.

Methods: We evaluated a subset of HEU infants enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1025 and/or Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities studies. Read More

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Epidemiology, prevention and control of pertussis in Spain: New vaccination strategies for lifelong protection.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Pediatrics, Hospital Materno Infantil, Badajoz, Spain.

Pertussis is a highly contagious, vaccine-preventable respiratory tract infection, with high morbidity and mortality and a particularly severe effect on newborns and infants under 2 months. The first pertussis vaccines were introduced in the 1940s. Since 1980, however, the incidence of cases has risen despite the extensive vaccination programmes and antibiotic adjuvant treatments available. Read More

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Hospital-based prospective study of pertussis in infants and close contacts in Tehran, Iran.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 18;21(1):586. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Center for Translational Science, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: Pertussis remain a global health concern, especially in infants too young to initiate their vaccination. Effective vaccination and high coverage limit the circulation of the pathogen, yet duration of protection is limited and boosters are recommended during a lifetime. In Iran, boosters are given at 18 months and 6 years old using whole pertussis vaccines for which efficacy is not known, and pertussis surveillance is scant with only sporadic biological diagnosis. Read More

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Impact and projections of the COVID-19 epidemic on attendance and routine vaccinations at a pediatric referral hospital in Cameroon.

Arch Pediatr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Mother and Child Center Chantal BIYA Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: At the beginning of March 2020, Cameroon experienced its first cases of infection with the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). Very quickly, there was a drop in the rate of hospital attendance. The purpose of this study was to observe the variations in the uptake of pediatric consultations and vaccinations in a pediatric hospital. Read More

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Vaccination in Pregnancy.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2021 Apr;118(15):262-268

Gynecologist's office, Munich; Member of STIKOGynecologist's office, MunichDepartment of Pediatrics, University Hospital WürzburgInstitute of Virology, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm; Member of STIKOWorking Group Vaccination in Pregnancy, German Professional Association of Gynecologists, Munich.

Background: Vaccination during pregnancy can protect both the expecting mother and the unborn and newborn child from infectious diseases.

Methods: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective literature search on the immunological particularities of infectious diseases affecting pregnant women, unborn children, and neonates, with particular attention to the guidelines of the German Standing Committee on Vaccinations (Ständige Impfkommission, STIKO) and the pertinent guidelines.

Results: Vaccination during pregnancy protects the expecting mother from a severe course of a number of different infectious diseases. Read More

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Is it time to administer acellular pertussis vaccine to childbearing age/pregnant women in all areas using whole-cell pertussis vaccination schedule?

Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother 2021 25;9:25151355211015842. Epub 2021 May 25.

Research Center of Pediatric Infectious diseases, Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine administration is still advocated for children under 7 years of age in Iran. However, there is no recommendation for the administration of a dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to childbearing age/pregnant women in the Iranian vaccination program and it has increased the risk of infection through waning immunity during women's childbearing age life. The study aimed to assess the levels of anti- antibodies in childbearing age women of different ages in Iran. Read More

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Recommendation for use of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, and hepatitis B vaccine in infants.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

In April 2020, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety licensed a hexavalent combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated to tetanus protein, and hepatitis B (HepB) (recombinant DNA) vaccine, DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB (Hexaxim®; Sanofi Pasteur), for use as a three-dose primary series in infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months. The DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and provides a long-term immune response based on studies performed in a variety of settings in many countries, including Korea. This report summarizes the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society guidelines for the use of this newly introduced hexavalent combination vaccine. Read More

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Vaccination in pregnancy: Challenges and evidence-based solutions.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Canada.

Vaccination in pregnancy (VIP) is dually beneficial - it protects the mother and the baby from tetanus, influenza, and pertussis. VIP uptake is low in many countries. Vaccine hesitancy, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a "delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite the availability of vaccination services" is one of WHO's ten threats to global health per 2019. Read More

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Cytokine expression patterns in hospitalized children with Bordetella pertussis, Rhinovirus or co-infection.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):10948. Epub 2021 May 26.

Multifactorial Disease and Complex Phenotype Research Area, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital (IRCCS), Piazza S. Onofrio, 4, 00165, Rome, Italy.

Mechanisms of interaction between Bordetella pertussis and other viral agents are yet to be fully explored. We studied the inflammatory cytokine expression patterns among children with both viral-bacterial infections. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples were taken from children, aged < 1 year, positive for Rhinovirus, Bordetella pertussis and for Rhinovirus and Bordetella pertussis. Read More

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Impact that the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood vaccinations and challenges ahead: A narrative review.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Aim: To document the decline in vaccination coverage in the first months of 2020 as an indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We performed a literature review in medical databases. Overall, 143 articles were initially retrieved, out of which 48 were selected and included in the review. Read More

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Patient and clinician factors associated with uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among adolescent patients of a primary care network.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 19;39(26):3528-3535. Epub 2021 May 19.

University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 2540 48th Street, Suite 1600, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates for adolescents remain relatively low. The purpose of this study is to examine patient and clinician factors associated with HPV vaccination among patients, ages 11-17, of a large community-based primary care network.

Methods: Electronic health records and administrative data from a large primary care network from January 2017 - June 2018 for patients ages 11-17 (n = 10,682) and the 198 primary care clinicians that saw them were analyzed. Read More

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The role and mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in regulating the Rho-kinase signaling pathway in asthmatic rats.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Apr;10(4):773-782

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Background: Bronchial asthma (referred to as asthma in the present study) is the most common chronic airway inflammatory disease in childhood. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)D] on VDR expression, which is closely associated with asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), and explored its role and mechanism in the Rho-kinase signaling pathway.

Methods: The acute asthma model was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and pertussis bacillus, and ASMCs obtained from asthmatic rats were cultured . Read More

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Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) position paper on the immune debt of the COVID-19 pandemic in childhood, how can we fill the immunity gap?

Infect Dis Now 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

GPIP, Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique, Créteil, France; Service de pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Armand Trousseau, Paris, France.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary. While NPIs limited the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, they also reduced the spread of other pathogens during and after lockdown periods, despite the re-opening of schools since June 2020 in France. Read More

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Public awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding the role of pharmacists as immunizers.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 14:1-14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Dalhousie University, IWK Health and Nova Scotia Health, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Vaccine coverage is below desired levels in Canada, despite National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommendations. One solution to improve coverage is to offer vaccines in pharmacies. We explore the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the general public in four communities in Nova Scotia (NS) and New Brunswick (NB) about the changing role of pharmacists as immunizers. Read More

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Risk of Vaccine-Preventable Infections in Swiss Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Digestion 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of infection and are frequently not up to date with their immunizations.

Objectives: This study aims to review vaccination status and evaluate whether age, disease type, or treatment regimen could predict the absence of seroprotection against selected vaccine-preventable infection in adults with IBD.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using questionnaire, immunization records review, and assessment of tetanus-specific, varicella-specific, and measles-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations. Read More

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Pertussis immunization during pregnancy: assessment of the role of maternal antibodies on immune responses in term and preterm born infants.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Limited data exist on the impact of maternal Tetanus, Diphtheria, acellular Pertussis (aP) (Tdap) vaccination for preterm born infants. We report its effect at birth and on antibody-mediated immune responses to a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T vaccine in preterm compared to term infants.

Methods: Women delivering at term or prematurely were either vaccinated with a Tdap vaccine (Boostrix®, GSK) during pregnancy or not vaccinated in the last 5 years. Read More

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Immune Response of Indian Preterm Infants to Pentavalent Vaccine Varies With Component Antigens and Gestational Age.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:592731. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Communicable Diseases, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed To Be University) University, Pune, India.

Childhood vaccination plays critical role in protecting infants from several dreaded diseases. Of the global 15 million preterm (PT) infants with compromised immune system born annually, India contributes to >3.5 million. Read More

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Changes and remaining challenges for the Japanese immunization program: Closing the vaccine gap.

Vaccine 2021 05 28;39(22):3018-3024. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, 3-25-13 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan.

The Japanese immunization program has made considerable progress since 2009: several new vaccines have been introduced and most are included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). In October 2020, the Japanese law on immunization was revised, which resulted in a few laudable achievements. First, rotavirus vaccines were added to the NIP, 10 years after their introduction, and noteworthy studies of vaccine effectiveness and the incidence of intussusception in Japanese children were published. Read More

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Immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases among paediatric healthcare workers in Denmark, 2019.

Euro Surveill 2021 Apr;26(17)

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

BackgroundHealthcare workers (HCW) have been identified as index cases in disease outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in hospitals.AimWe investigated whether Danish paediatric HCW were protected against selected serious VPD.MethodsWe included 90% of staff members from two paediatric departments. Read More

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Health Outcomes in Young Children Following Pertussis Vaccination During Pregnancy.

Pediatrics 2021 May 19;147(5). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada;

Background And Objectives: Maternal immunization with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is routinely recommended in many countries as a strategy to protect young infants against severe pertussis infection; few studies have assessed whether prenatal exposure to the vaccine is associated with any longer-term adverse health effects in children. We evaluated the long-term safety of exposure to Tdap vaccination during pregnancy.

Methods: Population-based retrospective cohort study conducted in Ontario, Canada using multiple linked province-wide health administrative databases. Read More

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Obstetric and perinatal health outcomes after pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E349. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute (Fakhraei, Sucha, Fell); Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (Fakhraei, Hawken, Wilson, Walker), Ottawa, Ont.; ICES Central (Crowcroft, Hawken, Kwong, Fell); University of Toronto (Crowcroft, Bolotin, Biringer, Dubey, Jamieson, Kwong); Public Health Ontario (Bolotin, Jamieson, Kwong), Toronto, Ont.; ICES uOttawa (Sucha); University of Ottawa (Hawken, Cook, Walker, Laverty, Fell); Bruyère Research Institute (Wilson), Ottawa, Ont.; Kingston Health Sciences Centre (Gaudet); Queen's University (Gaudet), Kingston, Ont.; Public Health England (Amirthalingam), London, UK; Mount Sinai Hospital (Biringer), Toronto, Ont.; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (Cook), Ottawa, Ont.; Toronto Public Health (Dubey), Toronto, Ont.; Canadian Centre for Vaccinology (Halperin), Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS; Vaccine Evaluation Center (Sadarangani), BC Children's Hospital Research Institute; Department of Pediatrics (Sadarangani), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC

Background: In February 2018, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommended maternal vaccination with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy to prevent severe pertussis infection in young infants. This study assessed the relation between maternal Tdap vaccination and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in Ontario.

Methods: We performed a population-based cohort study of all births from April 2012 to March 2017 using multiple linked health administrative databases. Read More

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Healthcare providers' interpretations of product labelling information developed through a consensus stakeholder approach.

Vaccine 2021 05 10;39(19):2652-2659. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, 5980 University Ave, B3K 6R8 Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University IWK Health Centre, 5850 University Avenue, P. O. Box 9700, B3K 6R8 Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The World Health Organization recommends immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. Yet, product labelling information for IIV and Tdap sends a different message. In a previous study, we developed evidence-based statements about vaccination in pregnancy that could be included in product information. Read More

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National Inpatient Immunization Patterns: Variation in Practice and Policy Between Vaccine Types.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 May 5;11(5):462-471. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

The Saban Research Institute and Southern California Clinical and Translational Science Institute Biostatistics Core, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; and.

Background: Many hospitalized children are underimmunized, yet little is known about current systems supporting inpatient vaccination. We aim to describe national pediatric inpatient immunization practices and determine if variation exists among adolescent, childhood, and influenza vaccines.

Methods: An electronic survey regarding hospital vaccination practices was sent to physician, nurse, and pharmacy leaders via the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network in spring 2019. Read More

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Addressing Parental Vaccine Hesitancy and Other Barriers to Childhood/Adolescent Vaccination Uptake During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:663074. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Informatics, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Routine childhood immunizations are proven to be one of the most effective public health interventions at controlling numerous deadly diseases. Therefore, the CDC recommends routine immunizations for children and adolescent populations against vaccine-preventable diseases e.g. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly with other paediatric vaccines in toddlers: a phase III randomised study.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 Apr 5;149:e90. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Global Clinical Sciences, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA, USA.

Invasive meningococcal disease has high morbidity and mortality, with infants and young children among those at greatest risk. This phase III, open-label, randomised study in toddlers aged 12-23 months evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT), a tetanus toxoid conjugated vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y, when coadministered with paediatric vaccines (measles, mumps and rubella [MMR]; varicella [V]; 6-in-1 combination vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b [DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib] and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13])(NCT03205371). Immunogenicity to each meningococcal serogroup was assessed by serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Read More

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Pertussis among patients with clinically compatible illness in the Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 29;106:421-428. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

Background: Pertussis is an acute respiratory tract disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. In 2014, 24.1 million pertussis cases, resulting in 160,700 deaths, were estimated to have occurred worldwide. Read More

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Breast milk antibody levels in Tdap vaccinated women after preterm delivery.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centre for the Evaluation of Vaccination (CEV); Vaccine & Infectious Diseases Institute (VAXINFECTIO), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Introduction/background & Aims: Enrichment of breast milk (BM) with immunoglobin (Ig)A and IgG, through maternal vaccination, could help young infants combat targeted pathogens. However, evidence on this effect after preterm delivery is lacking. This study investigated the total and anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) specific IgA and IgG production in BM after term or preterm delivery in the presence of maternal Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccination. Read More

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Maternal Self-Report of Tetanus Diphtheria Pertussis Vaccination during Pregnancy Correlates with Patient-Specific Electronic Medical Records.

J Pediatr 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY; Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra Northwell, Hempstead, NY. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the concordance between maternal report of antepartum tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccination and vaccination status documented in the electronic medical record (EMR), as well as factors associated with discordance.

Study Design: A survey was completed by a convenience sample of postpartum patients in a New York metropolitan hospital. The survey collected patients' demographic information, health beliefs, and whether they received Tdap vaccine during this pregnancy. Read More

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