2,384 results match your criteria Pediatrics Otitis Media


A2ML1 and otitis media: novel variants, differential expression and relevant pathways.

Hum Mutat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Colorado School of Medicine (CUSOM), Aurora, Colorado, USA.

A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, and Finnish and Pakistani families with otitis media. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/humu.23769
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23769DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from pediatric patients with acute otitis media after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Japan.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Acute otitis media (AOM) occurs commonly in pediatric populations. We examined resistance genotype, antibiotic susceptibility, quinolone (QL) resistance, and multilocus sequence type (MLST) among Haemophilus influenzae isolates causing AOM following introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Japan. The AOM surveillance group included 69 participating otolaryngologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.019DOI Listing

Rare case of a 3-year-old with skull base osteomyelitis: lessons to be learnt.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK.

Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is a serious and rare condition most commonly seen in elderly diabetic or immunocompromised patients as a complication of otitis externa. We present the case of a previously healthy 3-year-old girl who presented to the paediatric emergency department with vomiting, fever, lethargy, headache and left-sided facial nerve palsy. The initial CT head revealed left-sided otitis media with otomastoiditis and she was managed with intravenous antibiotics and myringotomy with grommet insertion with initial improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228026DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

A Healthy Toddler With Fever and Lethargy.

Pediatrics 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Division of Hospital Medicine and

A 21-month-old previously healthy girl presented to the emergency department initially with fever, rhinorrhea, and poor oral intake. She was subsequently discharged from the hospital on amoxicillin for treatment of acute otitis media but presented hours later on the same day with continued poor oral intake, decreased urine output, and lethargy. The patient was afebrile on examination without a focal source of infection or evidence of meningismus, but she was lethargic and minimally responsive to pain and had reduced strength in the upper and lower extremities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0412DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Preventing unnecessary tympanostomy tube placement in children.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Mar 28;122:40-43. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology, 7.104 John Sealy Annex, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: In 2013 the American Academy of Otolaryngology published tympanostomy tube guidelines for children; Action Statement 6 recommends against tube placement without middle ear effusion (MEE) at time of assessment. To date, little research has directly evaluated this recommendation in reducing the need for ear tubes. We evaluated the effectiveness of this recommendation and potential risk factors that influence the success of watchful waiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.03.031DOI Listing

Human bocaviruses and paediatric infections.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), belonging to the Parvoviridae family, was discovered in 2005, in nasopharyngeal samples from children with respiratory tract infections. Three additional bocaviruses, HBoV2-4, were discovered in 2009-10. These viruses have mainly been found in faecal samples and their role in human diseases is still uncertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30057-4DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

A case of de novo 18p deletion syndrome with panhypopituitarism.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 31;24(1):60-63. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Deletion on the short arm of chromosome 18 is a rare disorder characterized by intellectual disability, growth retardation, and craniofacial malformations (such as prominent ears, microcephaly, ptosis, and a round face). The phenotypic spectrum is wide, encompassing a range of abnormalities from minor congenital malformations to holoprosencephaly. We present a case of a 2-year-old girl with ptosis, a round face, broad neck with low posterior hairline, short stature, and panhypopituitarism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.6065/apem.2019.24.1.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449612PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Immunity-targeted approaches to the management of chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract disorders in children.

Clin Otolaryngol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, National Institute of Pediatrics, Cuicuilco, Mexico.

Background/objective Of Review: Summarise the current evidence and address key questions concerning the use of conservative and immunity-targeted approaches to recurrent and chronic upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), with a focus on the paediatric population.

Search Strategy/evaluation Method: Literature searches were conducted in March 2017 and updated in September 2017 using: Academic Search Complete; CENTRAL; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; MEDLINE; clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13335DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Antibiotic Prescribing in Ambulatory Care of Pediatric Patients with Respiratory Infections].

Acta Med Port 2019 Feb 28;32(2):101-110. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Departamento de Medicina Geral e Familiar. Unidade de Saúde Familiar Viseu-Cidade. Agrupamento Centros de Saúde Dão Lafões. Viseu. Portugal.

Introduction: Respiratory tract infections represent the most frequent conditions in pediatric clinical practice that motivate antibiotic prescribing. The objective was to identify the frequency and pattern of antibacterial prescribing in respiratory diseases.

Material And Methods: Over a period of two years (divided by the presentation of the clinical guideline standards) data was collected from clinical records of children with respiratory disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20344/amp.11111DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Proceedings of the 3rd BEAT-PCD Conference and 4th PCD Training School.

BMC Proc 2018 18;12(Suppl 16):64. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Danish PCD & Child Centre, CF Centre Copenhagen, Paediatric Pulmonary Service, ERN Accredited, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a chronic suppurative airways disease that is usually recessively inherited and has marked clinical phenotypic heterogeneity. Classic symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic rhinitis since early childhood, chronic otitis media, recurrent airway infections leading to bronchiectasis, chronic sinusitis, laterality defects with and without congenital heart disease including abnormal situs in approximately 50% of the cases, and male infertility. Lung function deteriorates progressively from childhood throughout life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12919-018-0161-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297936PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Association between otitis media infection and failed hearing screenings in children.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212777. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America.

This study aims to assess prospectively whether there is an association between frequencies of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) or asthma in early childhood and failed otoacoustic emission (OAE) screenings later in life. There are no clear recommendations for hearing testing following acute otitis media (AOM) infection. This is a retrospective, practice based chart review. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212777PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386476PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Nasal microbial composition and chronic otitis media with effusion: A case-control study.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212473. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Objectives: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) in children can cause prolonged hearing loss, which is associated with an increased risk of learning delays and behavioural problems. Dispersal of bacterial pathogens from the nasal passages to the middle ear is implicated in COME. We sought to determine whether there is an association between nasal microbial composition and COME in children. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212473PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386383PMC
February 2019
3.234 Impact Factor

Acute otitis media in children presenting to the emergency department: Is it diagnosed and managed appropriately?

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Medicine, Bond University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: To describe the diagnostic and management practice in children with acute otitis media (AOM) presenting to the emergency department (ED) and compare diagnosis and management against existing guidelines.

Methods: We performed a retrospective descriptive cohort study of patients ≤15 years of age who presented to two EDs in Southeast Queensland between January 2016 and June 2017 with an ED diagnosis of AOM. Likelihood of diagnosis was based on medical records and classified as likely, possible or unlikely using paediatric practice guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14414DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Polymicrobial anaerobic meningitis caused by Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Slackia exigua in a patient with mastoiditis following otitis media.

Anaerobe 2019 Apr 14;56:95-97. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Marmara University, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

We have reported a case of mastoiditis which progressed to meningitis in a 16-year old male patient. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) anaerobic culture revealed four species of isolated anaerobic bacteria. This is the first case in the literature in which a patient survived childhood polymicrobial anaerobic meningitis diagnosed by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.02.003DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Prenatal Maternal Psychological Distress and Offspring Risk for Recurrent Respiratory Infections.

J Pediatr 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objective: To assess the relation between maternal prenatal psychological distress, comprising depression and anxiety symptoms and relationship quality, and the risk of recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) in children up to 2 years of age. Children with RRIs frequently use health care services and antibiotics. Prenatal maternal psychological distress can be one, previously unidentified risk factor for RRIs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223476183182
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.050DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Child with intermittent diplopia after otitis media.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.

QUESTION 1: What is the diagnosis in this patient?Brain abscessAcute suppurative mastoiditisOptic neuritisCerebral venous sinus thrombosisSubdural haematoma QUESTION 2: What are the most common clinical presentations of this condition? QUESTION 3: How should this patient be managed? Read More

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http://ep.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/archdischild-2018-31630
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316307DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

PCV7- and PCV10-Vaccinated Otitis-Prone Children in New Zealand Have Similar Pneumococcal and Densities in Their Nasopharynx and Middle Ear.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jan 31;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Disease, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth 6009, Australia.

Otitis media (OM) is a major reason for antibiotic consumption and surgery in children. Nasopharyngeal carriage of otopathogens, and nontypeable (NTHi), is a prerequisite for development of OM, and increased nasopharyngeal otopathogen density correlates with disease onset. Vaccines can reduce or eliminate otopathogen carriage, as demonstrated for pneumococcal serotypes included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466140PMC
January 2019

Acute otitis media in infants younger than two months of age: Epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Apr 23;119:123-130. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Division of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiology, microbiology, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution and serious bacterial infections (SBIs) occurrence in infants <2 months of age with tympanocentesis-documented acute otitis media (AOM), before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs).

Methods: The medical records of all hospitalized infants with AOM who underwent tympanocentesis during 2005-2014 were reviewed.

Results: Of the 303 infants with AOM who were diagnosed by an ENT specialist, 182 underwent tympanocentesis, 92 during 2005-2009 (prevaccine period) and 90 during 2010-2014 (postvaccine period). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.01.031DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Otologic Findings Based on no Complaints in a Pediatric Examination.

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jan 25;23(1):36-40. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey.

 the otological evaluation is highly significant in those branches of medicine in which the general evaluation of the patient is conducted by general practitioners and pediatricians.  To investigate the otologic findings and their incidences in the sample, which consisted of patients who presented to the pediatric outpatient clinic with non-otologic complaints.  Patients, aged between 2 and 16 years, who had neither otorhinolaryngological complaints nor history of surgery by the otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat, ENT) department were included in the present study. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0038-1667007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1667007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331296PMC
January 2019
17 Reads

Antibiotic Recommendations for Acute Otitis Media and Acute Bacterial Sinusitis.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Feb;38(2):217

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, Department of Pediatrics, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002085DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Antibiotic Prescribing for Children in United States Emergency Departments: 2009-2014.

Pediatrics 2019 Feb 8;143(2). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

: media-1vid110.1542/5972296744001PEDS-VA_2018-1056 OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare ambulatory antibiotic prescribing for children in US pediatric and nonpediatric emergency departments (EDs).

Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study of patients aged 0 to 17 years discharged from EDs in the United States was conducted by using the 2009-2014 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey ED data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1056DOI Listing
February 2019
42 Reads

Lymphocyte subgroups and recurrent infections in children with Down syndrome - a prospective case control study.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2018 30;43(3):248-254. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Paediatrics Department, Genetic Unit, Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt.

Down syndrome (DS) is the commonest genetic disorder and more liable for recurrent infections. We aimed to determine the differences in lymphocyte subgroups between DS children and the healthy population and to study the pattern and likelihood for recurrent infections and hospital admission due to infection. Our study was carried out in the Genetic Unit of Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Egypt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2018.80042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305610PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Large-scale otoscopic and audiometric population assessment: A pilot study.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Feb 30;117:148-152. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States; Department of Epidemiology Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Large-scale otoscopic and audiometric assessment of populations is difficult due to logistic impracticalities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We report a novel assessment methodology based on training local field workers, advances in audiometric testing equipment and cloud-based technology.

Methods: Prospective observational study in Bohol, Philippines. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01655876183060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.11.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338678PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Ibuprofen in the treatment of children's inflammatory pain: a clinical and pharmacological overview.

Minerva Pediatr 2019 Feb;71(1):82-99

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Unlike fever, which is often over-treated especially in children, pain is underestimated and under-treated in pediatric age. The pharmacological agents approved for treating pain in these patients are few, also considering the recent limitation for codeine in children younger than 12 years. Paracetamol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen are the most used at this purpose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05453-1DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Adaptation of pain scales for parent observation: are pain scales and symptoms useful in detecting pain of young children with the suspicion of acute otitis media?

BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 20;18(1):392. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: The assessment of ear pain is challenging in young, mostly preverbal children. Our aim was to investigate whether pain scales are useful tools for parents to detect pain in their young children with the suspicion of acute otitis media (AOM), and to assess associations between 16 symptoms and the severity of pain.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 426 children (6-35 months) with symptoms suggestive of AOM. Read More

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https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1361-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302518PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Mutations in bacterial genes induce unanticipated changes in the relationship between bacterial pathogens in experimental otitis media.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Nov 14;5(11):180810. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, The Research Institute at the Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Otitis media (OM) is a common polymicrobial infection of the middle ear in children under the age of 15 years. A widely used experimental strategy to analyse roles of specific phenotypes of bacterial pathogens of OM is to study changes in co-infection kinetics of bacterial populations in animal models when a wild-type bacterial strain is replaced by a specific isogenic mutant strain in the co-inoculating mixtures. As relationships between the OM bacterial pathogens within the host are regulated by many interlinked processes, connecting the changes in the co-infection kinetics to a bacterial phenotype can be challenging. Read More

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http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281918PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Probiotics in the treatment of otitis media. The past, the present and the future.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jan 19;116:135-140. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Herston, Australia. Electronic address:

Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the leading cause for medical consultations and antibiotic prescription in this population. The burden of disease associated with OM is greater in developing nations and indigenous populations where the associated hearing loss contributes to poor education and employment outcomes. Current treatment and prevention is largely focused on vaccination and antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.10.023DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with acute otitis media in Liuzhou, China.

BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 15;18(1):388. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: There have been few studies focused on the prevalence, bacterial etiology, antibiotic resistance, and genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in children with acute otitis media (AOM) in China.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1366-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295064PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from patients with ear discharge in Jimma Town, Southwest, Ethiopia.

BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord 2018 4;18:17. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Otitis media is among the leading causes of childhood illnesses although it can also affect the adults resulting in frequent physician visits, drug prescription and a key contributor to antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors, bacterial profile, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from patients with discharging ears which clinically equates to draining otitis media in developing countries with limited medical resources such as otoscope.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 173 patients with draining otitis media. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12901-018-0065-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278048PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Antibodies against the Majority Subunit (PilA) of the Type IV Pilus of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Disperse Moraxella catarrhalis from a Dual-Species Biofilm.

MBio 2018 12 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Otitis media (OM) is often polymicrobial, with nontypeable (NTHI) and (Mcat) frequently cocultured from clinical specimens. Bacterial biofilms in the middle ear contribute to the chronicity and recurrence of OM; therefore, strategies to disrupt biofilms are needed. We have focused our vaccine development efforts on the majority subunit of NTHI type IV pili, PilA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02423-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299487PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Comparison of a Smartphone Otoscope and Conventional Otoscope in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Nov 21:9922818812480. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

1 Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of health encounters and antimicrobial prescriptions in children worldwide. We assessed (1) the rates of antimicrobial prescribing by pediatric emergency department clinicians using a smartphone otoscope device as compared with a conventional otoscope and (2) clinician acceptability of the smartphone device. We conducted a randomized control study in children's hospital emergency departments over 6 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922818812480DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Knowledge of pharmacists and parents towards antibiotic use in pediatrics: a cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

Pharm Pract (Granada) 2018 Jul-Sep;16(3):1194. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Faculty of Pharmacy & Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Hadat (Lebanon).

Objectives: to assess the knowledge of both parents and community pharmacists regarding antibiotics use and resistance in pediatrics in Lebanon.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2017 in community pharmacies. A pre-established questionnaire targeting knowledge of parents and pharmacists regarding antibiotics use/misuse was carried out. Read More

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https://www.pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/articl
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2018.03.1194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207355PMC
August 2018
11 Reads

First Otitis Media and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Serotypes in Infants.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Dec;37(12):e351-e352

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH Université Paris Est, IMRB-GRC GEMINI, Unité Court Séjour, Petits Nourrissons, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002030DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Variation in Outpatient Antibiotic Dispensing for Respiratory Infections in Children by Clinician Specialty and Treatment Setting.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Dec;37(12):1248-1254

Medical and Clinical Pharmacy Policy, Anthem, Inc, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). This study describes the distribution of ARI diagnoses and specifically quantifies antibiotic dispensing for bronchitis and upper respiratory infection (URI) by treatment setting and specialty.

Methods: This retrospective, observational cross-sectional study used data from the HealthCore Integrated Research Environment containing claims from 14 commercial health plans for 2012 to 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002004DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Oral steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children aged 2-8 years: the OSTRICH RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2018 11;22(61):1-114

Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Children with hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion (OME) are commonly managed through surgical intervention, hearing aids or watchful waiting. A safe, inexpensive, effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Small, poorly conducted trials have found a short-term benefit from oral steroids. Read More

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https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/hta22610
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta22610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6253325PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

FUT2 Variants Confer Susceptibility to Familial Otitis Media.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 Nov 25;103(5):679-690. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Non-secretor status due to homozygosity for the common FUT2 variant c.461G>A (p.Trp154) is associated with either risk for autoimmune diseases or protection against viral diarrhea and HIV. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00029297183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6217759PMC
November 2018
36 Reads

The unsolved problem of otitis media in indigenous populations: a systematic review of upper respiratory and middle ear microbiology in indigenous children with otitis media.

Microbiome 2018 11 5;6(1):199. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Otitis media (OM) imposes a great burden of disease in indigenous populations around the world, despite a variety of treatment and prevention programs. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of OM in indigenous populations is required to advance treatment and reduce prevalence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature exploring the upper airway and middle ear microbiota in relation to OM in indigenous children. Read More

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https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0577-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219068PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Stroke in Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis: Population-Based Epidemiology.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Dec 21;89:11-18. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Community Health Services, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Bacterial meningitis is a severe infection of the nervous system with a high complication rate including stroke. The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence, risk factors, patterns, and outcomes in pediatric meningitis complicated by stroke.

Methods: The study design was a population-based, 10-year retrospective (2002 to 2012) cohort study set in Southern Alberta, Canada. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08878994183089
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.09.005DOI Listing
December 2018
24 Reads

Serotypes & penicillin susceptibility of isolated from children admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

Indian J Med Res 2018 Aug;148(2):225-231

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background & Objectives: Streptococcus Pneumoniae: (pneumococcus) is a highly invasive extracellular pathogen that causes diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis. This study was undertaken to determine the serotype diversity and penicillin susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolated from paediatric patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1987_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206763PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

Antibiotic Use in Febrile Children Presenting to the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review.

Front Pediatr 2018 8;6:260. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of General Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

While fever is the main complaint among pediatric emergency services and high antibiotic prescription are observed, only a few studies have been published addressing this subject. Therefore this systematic review aims to summarize antibiotic prescriptions in febrile children at the ED and assess its determinants. We extracted studies published from 2000 to 2017 on antibiotic use in febrile children at the ED from different databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186802PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Amplitude Modulation Detection in Children with a History of Temporary Conductive Hearing Loss Remains Impaired for Years After Restoration of Normal Hearing.

J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2019 Feb 17;20(1):89-98. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 629, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is considered a form of relative sensory deprivation that often occurs during a critical period of language acquisition in children. Animal studies have demonstrated that hearing loss during early development can impair behavioral sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM), critical for speech understanding, even after restoration of normal hearing thresholds. AM detection in humans with a history of OME-associated conductive hearing loss (CHL) has not been previously investigated. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10162-018-00699-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10162-018-00699-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364263PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Moraxella catarrhalis Restriction-Modification Systems Are Associated with Phylogenetic Lineage and Disease.

Genome Biol Evol 2018 11 1;10(11):2932-2946. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-adapted pathogen, and a major cause of otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The species is comprised of two main phylogenetic lineages, RB1 and RB2/3. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are among the few lineage-associated genes identified in other bacterial genera and have multiple functions including defense against foreign invading DNA, maintenance of speciation, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evy226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241649PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

From paper to practice: Strategies for improving antibiotic stewardship in the pediatric ambulatory setting.

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2018 Nov 13;48(11):289-305. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's National Health System, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, United States. Electronic address:

Antibiotic stewardship aims to better patient outcomes, reduce antibiotic resistance, and decrease unnecessary health care costs by improving appropriate antibiotic use. More than half of annual antibiotic expenditures for antibiotics in the United States are prescribed in the ambulatory setting. This review provides a summary of evidence based strategies shown to improve antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory care settings including: providing education to patients and their families, providing education to clinicians regarding best practices for specific conditions, providing communications training to clinicians, implementing disease-specific treatment algorithms, implementing delayed prescribing for acute otitis media, supplying prescribing feedback to providers with peer comparisons, using commitment letters, and prompting providers to justify antibiotic prescribing for diagnoses for which antibiotics are not typically recommended. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2018.09.003DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Otitis media, antibiotics, and risk of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2018 Oct 3;11(10):1432-1440. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Stanley Division of Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Otitis media infections and antibiotic treatment have been linked to the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder. Broad-spectrum antibiotics may alter the composition of the gut flora microbiota, which is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of the immune system. This study examines the interplay among otitis media, antibiotics, and the subsequent risk of developing autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2015DOI Listing
October 2018
16 Reads

Variation in Use of Tympanostomy Tubes: Impact of Privately Owned Ambulatory Surgery Centers.

J Pediatr 2019 01 26;204:183-190.e1. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Department of Otolaryngology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.

Objective: To determine whether privately owned ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) increase pediatric tympanostomy tube use in their surrounding communities.

Study Design: We studied children <5 years of age who underwent outpatient tympanostomy tube placement in New York or Florida in 2010-2014. Data came from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Ambulatory Surgery Databases, which include all outpatient surgeries in these states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.08.030DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Antibiotic prescription patterns for management of acute otitis media in Lebanon.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Nov 16;114:44-50. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The high incidence of Acute Otitis Media (AOM) along with low antibiotic efficacy in the treatment of AOM is particularly favorable for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The promotion of more conservative antibiotic prescription habits has become an important focus of governments and academic societies. Little is known about the awareness and use of AOM practice guidelines by physicians in the Middle East. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.08.014DOI Listing
November 2018
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A mixed-methods study of the management of hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children with Down syndrome.

Clin Otolaryngol 2019 Jan 8;44(1):32-38. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

evidENT, Ear Institute, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To scope current service provision across England for management of otitis media with effusion and hearing loss in children with Down syndrome; to explore professional decision-making about managing otitis media with effusion and hearing loss; and to explore patient and public views on the direction of future research.

Design: Mixed methods including a service evaluation of NHS clinical practice through a structured telephone survey; a qualitative study of professional decision-making with in-depth interviews collected and analysed using grounded theory methods; patient/public involvement consultations.

Participants: Twenty-one audiology services in England took part in the evaluation; 10 professionals participated in the qualitative study; 21 family members, 10 adults with Down syndrome and representatives from two charities contributed to the consultations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13228DOI Listing
January 2019
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Transient Nutrient Deprivation Promotes Macropinocytosis-Dependent Intracellular Bacterial Community Development.

mSphere 2018 09 12;3(5). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Nutrient limitation restricts bacterial growth in privileged sites such as the middle ear. Transient heme-iron restriction of nontypeable (NTHI), the major causative agent of chronic and recurrent otitis media (OM), promotes new and diverse phenotypes that can influence planktonic, biofilm, and intracellular lifestyles of NTHI. However, the bacterial responses to nutrient restriction that impact intracellular fate and survival of NTHI are unknown. Read More

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http://msphere.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mSphere.00286-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00286-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135960PMC
September 2018
30 Reads

A 2-year-old girl with chronic crackles after respiratory syncytial virus infection: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Sep 12;12(1):258. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Pediatrics and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. While the majority of infants display only mild upper respiratory tract infection or occasionally otitis media, around one-third will develop an infection of the lower respiratory tract, usually bronchiolitis. There is now convincing evidence from a number of cohorts that respiratory syncytial virus is a significant, independent risk factor for later wheezing, at least within the first decade of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1797-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134501PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Variability in Antibiotic Prescribing for Upper Respiratory Illnesses by Provider Specialty.

J Pediatr 2018 12 5;203:76-85.e8. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Tufts Medical Center, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA; Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.

Objective: To evaluate variation in antibiotic prescribing between pediatric and nonpediatric providers for common upper respiratory illnesses.

Study Design: Patient encounters for children aged <18 years from a regional health care system were identified. Electronic medical records from 2011 to 2016 were extracted for diagnoses of upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis, acute otitis media, and sinusitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.044DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads