2,368 results match your criteria Pediatrics Otitis Media


Polymicrobial Anaerobic Meningitis Caused By Bacteroides Fragilis, Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron, Fusobacterium Necrophorum And Slackia Exigua In A Patient With Mastoiditis Following Otitis Media.

Anaerobe 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Marmara University, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

We have reported a case of mastoiditis which progressed to meningitis in a 16-year old male patient. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) anaerobic culture revealed four species of isolated anaerobic bacteria. This is the first case in the literature in which a patient survived childhood polymicrobial anaerobic meningitis diagnosed by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry) . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Prenatal Maternal Psychological Distress and Offspring Risk for Recurrent Respiratory Infections.

J Pediatr 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objective: To assess the relation between maternal prenatal psychological distress, comprising depression and anxiety symptoms and relationship quality, and the risk of recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) in children up to 2 years of age. Children with RRIs frequently use health care services and antibiotics. Prenatal maternal psychological distress can be one, previously unidentified risk factor for RRIs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223476183182
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.050DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Child with intermittent diplopia after otitis media.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.

QUESTION 1: What is the diagnosis in this patient?Brain abscessAcute suppurative mastoiditisOptic neuritisCerebral venous sinus thrombosisSubdural haematoma QUESTION 2: What are the most common clinical presentations of this condition? QUESTION 3: How should this patient be managed? Read More

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http://ep.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/archdischild-2018-31630
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316307DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

PCV7- and PCV10-Vaccinated Otitis-Prone Children in New Zealand Have Similar Pneumococcal and Densities in Their Nasopharynx and Middle Ear.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jan 31;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Disease, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth 6009, Australia.

Otitis media (OM) is a major reason for antibiotic consumption and surgery in children. Nasopharyngeal carriage of otopathogens, and nontypeable (NTHi), is a prerequisite for development of OM, and increased nasopharyngeal otopathogen density correlates with disease onset. Vaccines can reduce or eliminate otopathogen carriage, as demonstrated for pneumococcal serotypes included in pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010014DOI Listing
January 2019

Acute otitis media in infants younger than two months of age: Epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jan 23;119:123-130. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Division of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the epidemiology, microbiology, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution and serious bacterial infections (SBIs) occurrence in infants <2 months of age with tympanocentesis-documented acute otitis media (AOM), before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs).

Methods: The medical records of all hospitalized infants with AOM who underwent tympanocentesis during 2005-2014 were reviewed.

Results: Of the 303 infants with AOM who were diagnosed by an ENT specialist, 182 underwent tympanocentesis, 92 during 2005-2009 (prevaccine period) and 90 during 2010-2014 (postvaccine period). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.01.031DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Otologic Findings Based on no Complaints in a Pediatric Examination.

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jan 25;23(1):36-40. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Rize, Turkey.

 the otological evaluation is highly significant in those branches of medicine in which the general evaluation of the patient is conducted by general practitioners and pediatricians.  To investigate the otologic findings and their incidences in the sample, which consisted of patients who presented to the pediatric outpatient clinic with non-otologic complaints.  Patients, aged between 2 and 16 years, who had neither otorhinolaryngological complaints nor history of surgery by the otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat, ENT) department were included in the present study. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0038-1667007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1667007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331296PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Antibiotic Recommendations for Acute Otitis Media and Acute Bacterial Sinusitis.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Feb;38(2):217

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, Department of Pediatrics, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002085DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Antibiotic Prescribing for Children in United States Emergency Departments: 2009-2014.

Pediatrics 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

: media-1vid110.1542/5972296744001PEDS-VA_2018-1056 OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare ambulatory antibiotic prescribing for children in US pediatric and nonpediatric emergency departments (EDs).

Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study of patients aged 0 to 17 years discharged from EDs in the United States was conducted by using the 2009-2014 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey ED data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1056DOI Listing
January 2019
25 Reads

Lymphocyte subgroups and recurrent infections in children with Down syndrome - a prospective case control study.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2018 30;43(3):248-254. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Paediatrics Department, Genetic Unit, Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt.

Down syndrome (DS) is the commonest genetic disorder and more liable for recurrent infections. We aimed to determine the differences in lymphocyte subgroups between DS children and the healthy population and to study the pattern and likelihood for recurrent infections and hospital admission due to infection. Our study was carried out in the Genetic Unit of Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Egypt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2018.80042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305610PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Large-scale otoscopic and audiometric population assessment: A pilot study.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Feb 30;117:148-152. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States; Department of Epidemiology Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Large-scale otoscopic and audiometric assessment of populations is difficult due to logistic impracticalities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We report a novel assessment methodology based on training local field workers, advances in audiometric testing equipment and cloud-based technology.

Methods: Prospective observational study in Bohol, Philippines. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01655876183060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.11.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338678PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Ibuprofen in the treatment of children's inflammatory pain: a clinical and pharmacological overview.

Minerva Pediatr 2019 Feb;71(1):82-99

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Unlike fever, which is often over-treated especially in children, pain is underestimated and under-treated in pediatric age. The pharmacological agents approved for treating pain in these patients are few, also considering the recent limitation for codeine in children younger than 12 years. Paracetamol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen are the most used at this purpose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05453-1DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Adaptation of pain scales for parent observation: are pain scales and symptoms useful in detecting pain of young children with the suspicion of acute otitis media?

BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 20;18(1):392. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: The assessment of ear pain is challenging in young, mostly preverbal children. Our aim was to investigate whether pain scales are useful tools for parents to detect pain in their young children with the suspicion of acute otitis media (AOM), and to assess associations between 16 symptoms and the severity of pain.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 426 children (6-35 months) with symptoms suggestive of AOM. Read More

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https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1361-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302518PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Mutations in bacterial genes induce unanticipated changes in the relationship between bacterial pathogens in experimental otitis media.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Nov 14;5(11):180810. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, The Research Institute at the Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Otitis media (OM) is a common polymicrobial infection of the middle ear in children under the age of 15 years. A widely used experimental strategy to analyse roles of specific phenotypes of bacterial pathogens of OM is to study changes in co-infection kinetics of bacterial populations in animal models when a wild-type bacterial strain is replaced by a specific isogenic mutant strain in the co-inoculating mixtures. As relationships between the OM bacterial pathogens within the host are regulated by many interlinked processes, connecting the changes in the co-infection kinetics to a bacterial phenotype can be challenging. Read More

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http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281918PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Probiotics in the treatment of otitis media. The past, the present and the future.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jan 19;116:135-140. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

The Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Herston, Australia. Electronic address:

Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the leading cause for medical consultations and antibiotic prescription in this population. The burden of disease associated with OM is greater in developing nations and indigenous populations where the associated hearing loss contributes to poor education and employment outcomes. Current treatment and prevention is largely focused on vaccination and antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.10.023DOI Listing
January 2019

Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with acute otitis media in Liuzhou, China.

BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 15;18(1):388. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: There have been few studies focused on the prevalence, bacterial etiology, antibiotic resistance, and genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in children with acute otitis media (AOM) in China.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1366-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295064PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from patients with ear discharge in Jimma Town, Southwest, Ethiopia.

BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord 2018 4;18:17. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Institute of Health, Jimma University, P.O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Otitis media is among the leading causes of childhood illnesses although it can also affect the adults resulting in frequent physician visits, drug prescription and a key contributor to antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors, bacterial profile, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from patients with discharging ears which clinically equates to draining otitis media in developing countries with limited medical resources such as otoscope.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 173 patients with draining otitis media. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12901-018-0065-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278048PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Antibodies against the Majority Subunit (PilA) of the Type IV Pilus of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Disperse Moraxella catarrhalis from a Dual-Species Biofilm.

MBio 2018 12 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Otitis media (OM) is often polymicrobial, with nontypeable (NTHI) and (Mcat) frequently cocultured from clinical specimens. Bacterial biofilms in the middle ear contribute to the chronicity and recurrence of OM; therefore, strategies to disrupt biofilms are needed. We have focused our vaccine development efforts on the majority subunit of NTHI type IV pili, PilA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02423-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299487PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Comparison of a Smartphone Otoscope and Conventional Otoscope in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Nov 21:9922818812480. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

1 Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of health encounters and antimicrobial prescriptions in children worldwide. We assessed (1) the rates of antimicrobial prescribing by pediatric emergency department clinicians using a smartphone otoscope device as compared with a conventional otoscope and (2) clinician acceptability of the smartphone device. We conducted a randomized control study in children's hospital emergency departments over 6 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922818812480DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Knowledge of pharmacists and parents towards antibiotic use in pediatrics: a cross-sectional study in Lebanon.

Pharm Pract (Granada) 2018 Jul-Sep;16(3):1194. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Faculty of Pharmacy & Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Hadat (Lebanon).

Objectives: to assess the knowledge of both parents and community pharmacists regarding antibiotics use and resistance in pediatrics in Lebanon.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2017 in community pharmacies. A pre-established questionnaire targeting knowledge of parents and pharmacists regarding antibiotics use/misuse was carried out. Read More

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https://www.pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/articl
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2018.03.1194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207355PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

First Otitis Media and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Serotypes in Infants.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Dec;37(12):e351-e352

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH Université Paris Est, IMRB-GRC GEMINI, Unité Court Séjour, Petits Nourrissons, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002030DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Variation in Outpatient Antibiotic Dispensing for Respiratory Infections in Children by Clinician Specialty and Treatment Setting.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Dec;37(12):1248-1254

Medical and Clinical Pharmacy Policy, Anthem, Inc, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). This study describes the distribution of ARI diagnoses and specifically quantifies antibiotic dispensing for bronchitis and upper respiratory infection (URI) by treatment setting and specialty.

Methods: This retrospective, observational cross-sectional study used data from the HealthCore Integrated Research Environment containing claims from 14 commercial health plans for 2012 to 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002004DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Oral steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children aged 2-8 years: the OSTRICH RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2018 11;22(61):1-114

Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Children with hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion (OME) are commonly managed through surgical intervention, hearing aids or watchful waiting. A safe, inexpensive, effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Small, poorly conducted trials have found a short-term benefit from oral steroids. Read More

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https://www.journalslibrary.nihr.ac.uk/hta/hta22610
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta22610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6253325PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

FUT2 Variants Confer Susceptibility to Familial Otitis Media.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 Nov 25;103(5):679-690. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Non-secretor status due to homozygosity for the common FUT2 variant c.461G>A (p.Trp154) is associated with either risk for autoimmune diseases or protection against viral diarrhea and HIV. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00029297183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6217759PMC
November 2018
28 Reads

The unsolved problem of otitis media in indigenous populations: a systematic review of upper respiratory and middle ear microbiology in indigenous children with otitis media.

Microbiome 2018 11 5;6(1):199. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Otitis media (OM) imposes a great burden of disease in indigenous populations around the world, despite a variety of treatment and prevention programs. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of OM in indigenous populations is required to advance treatment and reduce prevalence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature exploring the upper airway and middle ear microbiota in relation to OM in indigenous children. Read More

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https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0577-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219068PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Stroke in Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis: Population-Based Epidemiology.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Dec 21;89:11-18. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Community Health Services, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Bacterial meningitis is a severe infection of the nervous system with a high complication rate including stroke. The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence, risk factors, patterns, and outcomes in pediatric meningitis complicated by stroke.

Methods: The study design was a population-based, 10-year retrospective (2002 to 2012) cohort study set in Southern Alberta, Canada. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08878994183089
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.09.005DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Serotypes & penicillin susceptibility of isolated from children admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia.

Indian J Med Res 2018 Aug;148(2):225-231

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background & Objectives: Streptococcus Pneumoniae: (pneumococcus) is a highly invasive extracellular pathogen that causes diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis. This study was undertaken to determine the serotype diversity and penicillin susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolated from paediatric patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1987_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206763PMC
August 2018
1 Read

Antibiotic Use in Febrile Children Presenting to the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review.

Front Pediatr 2018 8;6:260. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of General Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

While fever is the main complaint among pediatric emergency services and high antibiotic prescription are observed, only a few studies have been published addressing this subject. Therefore this systematic review aims to summarize antibiotic prescriptions in febrile children at the ED and assess its determinants. We extracted studies published from 2000 to 2017 on antibiotic use in febrile children at the ED from different databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186802PMC
October 2018
5 Reads

Amplitude Modulation Detection in Children with a History of Temporary Conductive Hearing Loss Remains Impaired for Years After Restoration of Normal Hearing.

J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2019 Feb 17;20(1):89-98. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 629, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is considered a form of relative sensory deprivation that often occurs during a critical period of language acquisition in children. Animal studies have demonstrated that hearing loss during early development can impair behavioral sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM), critical for speech understanding, even after restoration of normal hearing thresholds. AM detection in humans with a history of OME-associated conductive hearing loss (CHL) has not been previously investigated. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10162-018-00699-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10162-018-00699-8DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Moraxella catarrhalis Restriction-Modification Systems Are Associated with Phylogenetic Lineage and Disease.

Genome Biol Evol 2018 11 1;10(11):2932-2946. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-adapted pathogen, and a major cause of otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The species is comprised of two main phylogenetic lineages, RB1 and RB2/3. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are among the few lineage-associated genes identified in other bacterial genera and have multiple functions including defense against foreign invading DNA, maintenance of speciation, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evy226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6241649PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

From paper to practice: Strategies for improving antibiotic stewardship in the pediatric ambulatory setting.

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2018 Nov 13;48(11):289-305. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's National Health System, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, United States. Electronic address:

Antibiotic stewardship aims to better patient outcomes, reduce antibiotic resistance, and decrease unnecessary health care costs by improving appropriate antibiotic use. More than half of annual antibiotic expenditures for antibiotics in the United States are prescribed in the ambulatory setting. This review provides a summary of evidence based strategies shown to improve antibiotic prescribing in ambulatory care settings including: providing education to patients and their families, providing education to clinicians regarding best practices for specific conditions, providing communications training to clinicians, implementing disease-specific treatment algorithms, implementing delayed prescribing for acute otitis media, supplying prescribing feedback to providers with peer comparisons, using commitment letters, and prompting providers to justify antibiotic prescribing for diagnoses for which antibiotics are not typically recommended. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2018.09.003DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Otitis media, antibiotics, and risk of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2018 Oct 3;11(10):1432-1440. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Stanley Division of Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Otitis media infections and antibiotic treatment have been linked to the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder. Broad-spectrum antibiotics may alter the composition of the gut flora microbiota, which is hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of the immune system. This study examines the interplay among otitis media, antibiotics, and the subsequent risk of developing autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2015DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

Variation in Use of Tympanostomy Tubes: Impact of Privately Owned Ambulatory Surgery Centers.

J Pediatr 2019 Jan 26;204:183-190.e1. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Department of Otolaryngology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH.

Objective: To determine whether privately owned ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) increase pediatric tympanostomy tube use in their surrounding communities.

Study Design: We studied children <5 years of age who underwent outpatient tympanostomy tube placement in New York or Florida in 2010-2014. Data came from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Ambulatory Surgery Databases, which include all outpatient surgeries in these states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.08.030DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Antibiotic prescription patterns for management of acute otitis media in Lebanon.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Nov 16;114:44-50. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The high incidence of Acute Otitis Media (AOM) along with low antibiotic efficacy in the treatment of AOM is particularly favorable for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The promotion of more conservative antibiotic prescription habits has become an important focus of governments and academic societies. Little is known about the awareness and use of AOM practice guidelines by physicians in the Middle East. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.08.014DOI Listing
November 2018

A mixed-methods study of the management of hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children with Down syndrome.

Clin Otolaryngol 2019 Jan 8;44(1):32-38. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

evidENT, Ear Institute, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To scope current service provision across England for management of otitis media with effusion and hearing loss in children with Down syndrome; to explore professional decision-making about managing otitis media with effusion and hearing loss; and to explore patient and public views on the direction of future research.

Design: Mixed methods including a service evaluation of NHS clinical practice through a structured telephone survey; a qualitative study of professional decision-making with in-depth interviews collected and analysed using grounded theory methods; patient/public involvement consultations.

Participants: Twenty-one audiology services in England took part in the evaluation; 10 professionals participated in the qualitative study; 21 family members, 10 adults with Down syndrome and representatives from two charities contributed to the consultations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13228DOI Listing
January 2019

Transient Nutrient Deprivation Promotes Macropinocytosis-Dependent Intracellular Bacterial Community Development.

mSphere 2018 09 12;3(5). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Nutrient limitation restricts bacterial growth in privileged sites such as the middle ear. Transient heme-iron restriction of nontypeable (NTHI), the major causative agent of chronic and recurrent otitis media (OM), promotes new and diverse phenotypes that can influence planktonic, biofilm, and intracellular lifestyles of NTHI. However, the bacterial responses to nutrient restriction that impact intracellular fate and survival of NTHI are unknown. Read More

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http://msphere.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/mSphere.00286-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00286-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135960PMC
September 2018
24 Reads

A 2-year-old girl with chronic crackles after respiratory syncytial virus infection: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Sep 12;12(1):258. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Pediatrics and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. While the majority of infants display only mild upper respiratory tract infection or occasionally otitis media, around one-third will develop an infection of the lower respiratory tract, usually bronchiolitis. There is now convincing evidence from a number of cohorts that respiratory syncytial virus is a significant, independent risk factor for later wheezing, at least within the first decade of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1797-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134501PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Variability in Antibiotic Prescribing for Upper Respiratory Illnesses by Provider Specialty.

J Pediatr 2018 12 5;203:76-85.e8. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Tufts Medical Center, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA; Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.

Objective: To evaluate variation in antibiotic prescribing between pediatric and nonpediatric providers for common upper respiratory illnesses.

Study Design: Patient encounters for children aged <18 years from a regional health care system were identified. Electronic medical records from 2011 to 2016 were extracted for diagnoses of upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis, acute otitis media, and sinusitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.044DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Parents' depression and loneliness during pregnancy and respiratory infections in the offspring: A prospective birth cohort study.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(9):e0203650. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: An association between maternal prenatal stress and increased rates of respiratory tract infections in the offspring has been described earlier. Data regarding the father's role is lacking. In this study our aim was to evaluate, whether mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and loneliness during pregnancy predict higher rates of respiratory tract infections in the offspring. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203650PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128609PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Prevalence of Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Serotype Distribution, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children with Chronic Diseases.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 31;72(1):7-13. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Microbiology, Pendik.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with chronic diseases, which predisposes them to invasive pneumococcal disease in comparison with that in healthy children. A cross-sectional prevalence study was performed between February 2015 and February 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey. We enrolled 1,024 children with chronic diseases and 394 healthy children aged 0-18 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2017.410DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Current management and referral patterns of pediatricians for acute otitis media.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Oct 20;113:19-21. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has published an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the management of acute otitis media (AOM), most recently revised in 2013. This study aims to assess current practice patterns and how they compare to the published guideline.

Methods: An 11 question survey addressing topics included in the 2013 AAP AOM guidelines was mailed to 196 practicing pediatricians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.06.036DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Multiple surgeries in pediatric otolaryngology patients and associated anesthesia risks.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Oct 11;113:115-118. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Objectives: To determine the risk of healthy children undergoing tympanostomy tubes of an additional surgery prior to age three and associated risk factors.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients at a tertiary metropolitan children's hospital who underwent tympanostomy tube insertion procedure before age of three from January 2010 through March 2015. We determined patient demographics, indication for tympanostomy tube insertion, as well as information about additional procedures requiring general anesthesia before the age of three years. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01655876183033
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.07.017DOI Listing
October 2018
11 Reads

The effect of ventilation tube insertion to the health-related quality of life in a group of children in Southeast Anatolia.

Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Dec 17;43(6):1578-1582. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Objective: To demonstrate the influence of ventilation tube insertion to the quality of life in a group of children in Southeast Anatolia by Otitis Media 6-item (OM6) questionnaire.

Design: Patients who underwent ventilation tube insertion due to otitis media with effusion (OME) at Otorhinolaryngology Department of Gaziantep University between December 2016 and April 2017 were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients were evaluated with the OM-6 survey before operation and 6 weeks after surgery. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/coa.13220
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13220DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Oral steroids for resolution of otitis media with effusion in children (OSTRICH): a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomised trial.

Lancet 2018 08 16;392(10147):557-568. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford, UK.

Background: Children with persistent hearing loss due to otitis media with effusion are commonly managed by surgical intervention. A safe, cheap, and effective medical treatment would enhance treatment options. Underpowered, poor-quality trials have found short-term benefit from oral steroids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31490-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6099122PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Recurrent respiratory tract infections or acute otitis media were not a risk factor for vocabulary development in children at 13 and 24 months of age.

Acta Paediatr 2019 Feb 14;108(2):288-294. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Logopedics, Abo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.

Aim: This study examined associations between recurrent respiratory tract infections (RTI) and acute otitis media (AOM) during the first one and two years of life and vocabulary size at 13 and 24 months of age.

Methods: We studied 646 children born between January 2008 and April 2010 and followed up from birth to two years of age with daily diary and study clinic visits during RTIs and AOM. The families were recruited from maternity health care clinics or delivery wards in south-west Finland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14546DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

The follow-up results of newborn hearing screening of Gaziosmanpasa Taksim Research and Training Hospital.

Turk Pediatri Ars 2018 Mar 1;53(1):10-16. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Gaziosmanpaşa Taksim Research and Training Hospital, Pediatrics Clinic, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: This study aimed to present the results of newborns who were referred to advanced audiology centers after newborn hearing screening, and to determine concordance of our results with the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines about the ages of hearing loss, aid fitting, and cochlear implantation.

Materials And Methods: A total of 7502 newborns were screened in Gaziosmanpaşa Taksim Research and Training Hospital between March 2014 and June 2016 using the transient otoacustic emissions test as the first two steps and automated auditory brainstem response test for the third step. Newborns who had risk factors were screened using the automated auditory brainstem response only. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TurkPediatriArs.2018.5389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070220PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Xylitol for the prevention of acute otitis media episodes in children aged 2-4 years: protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Aug 5;8(8):e020941. Epub 2018 Aug 5.

Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Xylitol (or 'birch sugar') is a naturally occurring sugar with antibacterial properties that has been used as a natural non-sugar sweetener in chewing gums, confectionery, toothpaste and medicines. In this preventative randomised trial, xylitol will be tested for the prevention of acute otitis media (AOM), a common and costly condition in young children. The primary outcome will be the incidence of AOM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078241PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Quality Assessment of the Clinical Practice Guideline for Tympanostomy Tubes in Children.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Nov 31;159(5):914-919. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

3 Department of Otolaryngology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: To determine the association between the introduction of statements 6 and 7 in the 2013 clinical practice guideline (CPG) for tympanostomy tubes in children and the identification of preoperative middle ear fluid (acute otitis media / otitis media with effusion [AOM/OME]) in children undergoing bilateral myringotomy and tube (BMT) placement.

Study Design: Case series with chart review.

Setting: Tertiary care children's medical center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599818789877DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Evaluation of clinical approaches and physician adherence to guidelines for otitis media with effusion.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Sep 26;112:97-103. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Ankara University School of Medicine, Cebeci Hospital, 06590 Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an important clinical entity because of its high prevalence, difficulties in diagnosis, complications and diversities in management. Herein, we aimed to evaluate current physician approaches on OME and determine clinical adherence to current guidelines.

Methods And Materials: A total of 370 physicians [Group 1: pediatricians (n = 256, 69. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.06.040DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Avoiding diagnostic delay for mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB: do not overlook common clues such as wheezing and otitis media.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 25;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Mary Bridge Children's Hospital and Health Center, Tacoma, Washington, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. In comparison to Hurler syndrome (MPS I) and Hunter syndrome (MPS II), characteristic facial and physical features tend to be milder and progression of neurological symptoms may initially be slower. Obvious neurological and behavioural symptoms may not appear until age 2-6 years, but once they begin, progression is relentless, leading to death by the early 20s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224412DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Factors Associated with Prescribing Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics for Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Ambulatory Care Settings.

Clin Med Insights Pediatr 2018 2;12:1179556518784300. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.

Objectives: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed for children with upper respiratory tract infections (URI). Excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics leads to the emergence of resistant bacteria. This study aimed to identify factors associated with prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics among children younger than 18 years presenting with URI in outpatient settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179556518784300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055249PMC
July 2018
18 Reads