669 results match your criteria Pediatrics Meningitis and Encephalitis


Diagnostic accuracy of rapid one-step PCR assays for detection of herpes Simplex virus -1 and -2 in cerebrospinal fluid: A systematic Review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of HSV-1 and -2 (HSV1/2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for patient management.

Objectives: Summarize the diagnostic accuracy of commercial rapid sample-to-answer PCR assays (results in <90 minutes, without a separate nucleic acid extraction step) for HSV1/2 detection in CSF.

Data Sources: Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and CENTRAL) and five conference abstract datasets from January 2012 to March 2022. Read More

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Risk factors for acute encephalitis and early seizure recurrence in complex febrile seizures.

Eur J Pediatr 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Beppu Medical Center, 1473 Oaza-Uchikamado, Beppu, Oita, 874-0011, Japan.

The purpose of this study is to elucidate risk factors for central nervous system infection and early seizure recurrence in children with febrile seizures (FSs) and thus facilitate outpatient management of complex FS. This single-center, retrospective cohort study investigated 688 children (6-60 months old) with FSs in Japan during 2011-2021. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of children with acute encephalitis or bacterial meningitis. Read More

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Turnaround times for molecular testing of pediatric viral cerebrospinal fluid samples in United Kingdom laboratories.

World J Clin Pediatr 2022 May 18;11(3):289-294. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Torbay Hospital, Torquay TQ2 7AA, United Kingdom.

Background: Rapid molecular testing has revolutionized the management of suspected viral meningitis and encephalitis by providing an etiological diagnosis in < 90 min with potential to improve outcomes and shorten inpatient stays. However, use of molecular assays can vary widely.

Aim: To evaluate current practice for molecular testing of pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples across the United Kingdom using a structured questionnaire. Read More

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Zoonotic Disease Testing Practices in Pediatric Patients with Meningitis and Encephalitis in a Subtropical Region.

Pathogens 2022 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, Center for Human Immunobiology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Emerging vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens can cause neuroinvasive disease in children; utilization of appropriate diagnostic testing can be low, hindering diagnosis and clinical management of these cases. We must understand factors that influence healthcare providers' decisions to order diagnostic testing. We reviewed medical charts for pediatric meningitis and encephalitis patients (90 days-18 years) between 2010 and 2017 and analyzed variables associated with testing for known neuroinvasive zoonotic pathogens in the southern United States: West Nile virus (WNV), spp. Read More

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Diagnosis of Ureaplasma parvum meningitis by mNGS in an extremely low birth weight infant with multi-system lesions.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Liaocheng People's Hospital, No. 67, Dongchangxi Road, Dongchangfu District, Liaocheng 252000, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ureaplasma parvum encephalitis is a rare disease with high mortality in the neonates. While the manifestations are atypical and identification of U. parvum is difficult, diagnosis would always be delayed. Read More

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How do we reduce acyclovir overuse? Impact of FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel tests for pediatric patients.

J Infect Chemother 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, Kobe Children's Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Few Japanese hospitals can perform in-house cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen for herpes simplex virus, leading to patients being administered acyclovir (ACV) for several days. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (ME Panel) is a multiplex PCR test that can identify 14 major pathogens within 1 h. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the ME Panel in children admitted with central nervous system infections in Japan. Read More

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Comparison of a Point-of-Care FilmArray Test to Standard-of-Care Microbiology Test in Diagnosis of Healthcare Associated Infections in a Tertiary Care Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Mar 27;11(4). Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21512, Egypt.

Background: Rapid and accurate identification of healthcare associated pathogens is crucial for early diagnosis and treatment of infections. This study aimed to assess the performance of a point-of-care multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosis of pathogens and their antibiotic resistance genes in bloodstream infections, pneumonia and meningitis/encephalitis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on pediatric patients diagnosed with healthcare associated infections at Alexandria University PICU, Egypt. Read More

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Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in children with systemic lupus erythematosus: case series and review.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2022 Apr 15;20(1):29. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Pediatric Rheumatology, Pediatrics, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, USA.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that typically affects multiple organs and can lead to potentially fatal complications. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in SLE is common, especially in children, and can present nonspecifically with various neuropsychiatric manifestations, described as neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). Chronic headache is a common feature of NPSLE, secondary to increased intracranial pressure (also called pseudotumor cerebri (PTC)) due to inflammation or medication. Read More

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FilmArray® Meningoencephalitis panel in the diagnosis of central nervous system infections: stewardship and cost analysis in a paediatric hospital in Chile.

BMC Pediatr 2022 04 5;22(1):182. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Av. Independencia 1027, Independencia, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infection has been an ongoing concern in paediatrics. The FilmArray® Meningoencephalitis (FAME) panel has greater sensitivity in identifying the aetiology of CNS infections. This study's objective was to compare the aetiological identification and hospitalization costs among patients with suspected CNS infection before and after the use of FAME. Read More

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Biofire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel for the aetiological diagnosis of central nervous system infections: A systematic review and diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Feb 14;44:101275. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Paediatrics, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 No. 53-108, Medellín, Antioquia 050001, Colombia.

Background: The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis(FA/ME) panel brings benefits in clinical practice, but its diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) remains unclear. We aimed to determine the DTA of FA/ME for the aetiological diagnostic in patients with suspected central nervous system(CNS) infection.

Methods: We performed a systematic review with DTA meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42020139285). Read More

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February 2022

Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with systemic Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in North America: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Feb 20;16(1):74. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, Memorial Hermann Hospital, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6410 Fannin St, Ste 1014, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion is a clinical-radiological entity found to occur in the setting of an acute systemic inflammatory state with isolated lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum and mild encephalopathy. Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion is commonly found to occur in children in the setting of viral infections. It has rarely been associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the United States, unlike in Eastern and Southern Asia where this is much more prominent. Read More

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February 2022

Patterns, Outcomes and Predictors of Pediatric Medical Admissions at Gadarif Hospital in Eastern Sudan.

Front Pediatr 2022 27;10:764028. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The reduction of childhood mortality is a reliable indicator of a national health system's progress and improvement. Sudan's population is still suffering from communicable diseases, with a considerably higher mortality rate among children. Efforts are therefore needed to reduce mortality and achieve the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. Read More

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January 2022

Clinical and Financial Impact of a Diagnostic Stewardship Program for Children with Suspected Central Nervous System Infection.

J Pediatr 2022 05 9;244:161-168.e1. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Objective: To investigate the optimal implementation and clinical and financial impacts of the FilmArray Meningitis Encephalitis Panel (MEP) multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children with suspected central nervous system infection.

Study Design: A pre-post quasiexperimental cohort study to investigate the impact of implementing MEP using a rapid CSF diagnostic stewardship program was conducted at Children's Hospital Colorado (CHCO). MEP was implemented with electronic medical record indication selection to guide testing to children meeting approved use criteria: infants <2 months, immunocompromised, encephalitis, and ≥5 white blood cells/μL of CSF. Read More

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Annual trends in adverse events following mumps vaccination in Japan: A retrospective study.

Vaccine 2022 02 17;40(7):988-993. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Public Health, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka-city, Osaka 545-8585, Japan; Clinical Epidemiology Research Center, SOUSEIKAI, 3-5-1, Kashii-Teriha Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-0017, Japan.

Background: In Japan, a monovalent mumps vaccine is provided on a voluntary basis. Due to public concerns over post-vaccination aseptic meningitis, the vaccination coverage is not high enough. The present study investigated the incidence of adverse events, including aseptic meningitis, after Torii strain-derived mumps vaccination. Read More

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February 2022

Diagnosis of Peripheral Facial Palsy Associated with Parvovirus B19 Infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Case Rep Pediatr 2022 10;2022:4574640. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Toyota Memorial Hospital, 1-1 Heiwa-Cho, Toyota, Aichi 471-8513, Japan.

Human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection causes neurological manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and neuropathy, but facial nerve palsy is rare. Moreover, no case of facial nerve palsy related to PVB19 infection that was diagnosed by PCR and serology has been reported. A 19-month-old boy without the medical history developed facial nerve palsy and was treated with prednisolone and valacyclovir. Read More

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January 2022

Children suspected of having intracranial infection with normal brain magnetic resonance imaging may be associated with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody.

Brain Dev 2022 Apr 15;44(4):281-286. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Chongqing, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, China.

Purpose: To confirm whether encephalitis due to unknown causes but with normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be associated with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed and summarized the characteristics of three patients initially suspected of having intracranial infections with normal brain MRI, and ultimately tested positive for anti-MOG antibody.

Results: The three patients mainly presented with long-term fever accompanied by headaches and drowsiness. Read More

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Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Long-Chain Family Member 4 Is Involved in Viral Replication Organelle Formation and Facilitates Virus Replication via Ferroptosis.

mBio 2022 Jan 18:e0271721. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung Universitygrid.145695.a, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

Enterovirus infections can cause severe complications, such as poliomyelitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, meningitis, neurological pulmonary edema, and even death. Here, we used genome-wide CRISPR screens to gain new insight into the mechanism by which enteroviruses co-opt host pathways to potentiate replication and propagation. We found that acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) is involved in viral replication organelle formation. Read More

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January 2022

Evaluation of Discordant Results Between FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel and Conventional Testing in Pediatric Patients: A Multisite Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2022 Apr;11(4):134-141

Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas Medical Center, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Background: The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel (MEP) has an 11% false-positive and 2.2% false-negative rate compared with conventional testing. We describe clinical characteristics, treatment decisions, and outcomes in children with discordant results between MEP and conventional testing. Read More

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Case Report: Meningoencephalitis With Thrombotic Occlusive Vasculopathy in a Young EBV-Naïve Boy Is Associated With a Novel Mutation.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:747738. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Immunology Outpatient Clinic, Vienna, Austria.

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is a combined immunodeficiency characterized by severe immune dysregulation caused by mutations in the gene. Loss or dysfunction of SH2D1A is associated with the inability in clearing Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV) infections. Clinical manifestation is diverse and ranges from life-threatening hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and fulminant infectious mononucleosis (FIM) to lymphoma and antibody deficiency. Read More

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February 2022

Detection of human herpesviruses in cerebrospinal fluids collected from patients suspected of neuroinfectious diseases.

J Neurovirol 2022 02 30;28(1):92-98. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98, Kutsukake-cho, Dengakugakubo, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.

The full spectrum of human herpesviruses (HHV)-associated neuroinfectious diseases in immunocompetent adults remains unclear. Hence, we sought to elucidate the epidemiology and clinical features of these diseases. The study subjects were patients over 16 years old suspected of neuroinfectious diseases who underwent spinal tap performed by neurologists in our university hospital between April 2013 and March 2018. Read More

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February 2022

Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Diagnosis of Pediatric Meningitis and Encephalitis: A Review.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Dec;10(Supplement_4):S78-S87

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing is a novel diagnostic test with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of pediatric meningitis and encephalitis through unbiased detection of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi in cerebrospinal fluid. Current literature is mostly observational with variable indications, populations, and timing of testing with resulting variability in diagnostic yield and clinical impact. Diagnostic stewardship strategies are needed to direct testing toward high-impact pediatric populations, to optimize timing of testing, to ensure appropriate interpretation of results, and to guide prompt optimization of antimicrobials. Read More

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December 2021

A pediatric case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri diagnosed by next-generation sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Dec 14;21(1):1251. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 6 Shuangyong Road, Qingxiu District, Nanning, China.

Background: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare, acute and fatal disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Naegleria fowleri (Heggie, in Travel Med Infect Dis 8:201-6, 2010). Presently, the majority of reported cases in the literature have been diagnosed through pathogen detection pathogens in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This report highlights the first case of pediatric PAM diagnosed with amoeba infiltration within CSF and bloodstream of an 8-year-old male child, validated through meta-genomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). Read More

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December 2021

Micafungin injection for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in pediatric patients under 4 months of age.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2022 Apr 20;20(4):493-505. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Division of Infection Diseases, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

Introduction: Neonates and young infants with invasive candidiasis are particularly at increased risk of dissemination including hematogenous meningoencephalitis. The echinocandins including micafungin have emerged as a preferred agent in most cases of candidemia and invasive candidiasis but data in pediatric patients under 4 months of age are limited.

Areas Covered: In this report, we review the micafungin use in infants younger than 4 months of age. Read More

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First Human Cosavirus Detection From Cerebrospinal Fluid in Hospitalized Children With Aseptic Meningitis and Encephalitis in Iran.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Dec;40(12):e459-e461

Department of Pediatrics, Imam Ali Hospital, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Objective: Human cosavirus (HCosV) is a newly recognized virus that seems to be partly related to nonpolio flaccid paralysis and acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients. However, the relationship between HCosV and diseases in humans is unclear. To assess an investigation for the occurrence of HCosV among pediatric patients involved in meningitis and encephalitis, we implemented a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and quantification of HCosV in stool specimens. Read More

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December 2021

Genomic investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 24F strain causing meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong.

Int J Med Microbiol 2021 Dec 30;311(8):151543. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Carol Yu Center for Infection and Department of Microbiology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) successfully decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. However, many countries have reported serotype replacement and a rebound in diseases from non-vaccine serotypes. Here, we report the genomic investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae strain M215 that caused severe meningoencephalitis in an infant in 2019. Read More

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December 2021

Neurocysticercosis in Children.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2022 02;69(1):115-127

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Neurocysticercosis is one of the most common parasitic infections in the central nervous system in children. The usual clinical manifestation is new-onset focal seizure. However, there are other multiple clinical manifestations, such as increased intracranial pressure, meningoencephalitis, spinal cord syndrome, and blindness. Read More

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February 2022

Mumps infection with meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Nov 11;14(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Radiodiagnosis, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

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November 2021

[Pediatric neuroborreliosis : diagnosis and treatment].

Rev Med Liege 2021 Nov;76(11):824-828

Service de Pédiatrie, Clinique CHC MontLégia, Liège, Belgique.

Neuroborreliosis is the second most frequent presentation of Lyme disease in children. Isolated facial palsy is the most classical manifestation of neuroborreliosis, but another clinical picture can be found in children: subacute meningitis, radiculoneuritis, or rarely severe neurological manifestations (transverse myelitis, encephalitis). Diagnosis and treatment guidelines of neuroborreliosis in children will be reviewed here. Read More

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November 2021

Neuropsychiatric lupus in Malaysian children: clinical characteristics, imaging features and 12-month outcomes.

Turk J Pediatr 2021 ;63(5):743-751

Department of Paediatrics, Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Selayang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) serves as a marker of severe disease in children with juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). This study aims to characterise the clinical and imaging features at diagnosis; and outcomes after 12 months in Malaysian children with NPSLE.

Methods: A retrospective study of all NPSLE patients seen at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Selayang Hospital from January 2004 to May 2017. Read More

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January 2022