570 results match your criteria Pediatrics Meningitis and Encephalitis


Impact of FilmArray meningitis encephalitis panel on HSV testing and empiric acyclovir use in children beyond the neonatal period.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 May 17;97(4):115085. Epub 2020 May 17.

University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, CO USA; Children's Hospital Colorado Aurora, CO USA.

Following implementation of the FilmArray meningitis and encephalitis panel, which enables rapid syndromic cerebrospinal fluid testing, HSV testing doubled in children >60 days with suspected central nervous system infection at Children's Hospital Colorado. Acyclovir initiation was unchanged, but duration decreased. Diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship is needed for MEP optimization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115085DOI Listing

Cryptococcus Meningitis Can Co-occur with Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

Intern Med 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan.

We herein report a 50-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis who developed loss of consciousness and tremor of the upper limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of limbic encephalitis with bilateral hippocampal damage, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination confirmed anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and anti-glutamate receptor antibodies. Despite initial corticosteroid therapy, meningeal irritation symptoms appeared, owing to the development of cryptococcal meningitis (CM), diagnosed by the detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen in the follow-up CSF analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.4629-20DOI Listing

Bilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication of Mumps.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7768. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Pediatrics, United Medical and Dental College, Creek General Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Mumps is a contagious viral illness that classically presents with fever, parotid gland swelling, headache, and vomiting in unimmunized children. The complications of mumps most commonly include orchitis, pancreatitis, encephalitis, and meningitis. Optic neuritis, which refers to the inflammation of the optic nerve, in rare cases, can present after mumps meningoencephalitis and causes pain in the eye, and a decrease in visual acuity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243626PMC

Retrospective Descriptive Analysis of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND) in Northwest Louisiana.

Int J Microbiol 2020 8;2020:3513859. Epub 2020 May 8.

Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Aims: The aim of the study was to describe the presentation characteristics and epidemiology of WNND in Louisiana to improve future recognition of cases and decrease inappropriate antibiotic use. . It was a retrospective descriptive-analytic cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3513859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231183PMC

Economic Evaluation: Onsite HSV PCR Capabilities for Pediatric Care.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 Mar-Apr;5(2):e266. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

Objective: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis has an overall mortality rate of 11%-29% with treatment. Although rare, HSV encephalitis is frequently tested for and empirically treated, especially in the neonatal population. HSV infection can be diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, although this frequently requires sending samples to reference laboratories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190250PMC

Human Herpesvirus 6 Detection during the Evaluation of Sepsis in Infants Using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel.

J Pediatr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

We used the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel for evaluation of sepsis in febrile neonates. We detected human herpesvirus 6, a virus we did not routinely test for previously, in the cerebrospinal fluid of 7 neonates. In all 7 cases, detection of the virus did not warrant antiviral treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.023DOI Listing

The state of vaccine safety science: systematic reviews of the evidence.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 May 9;20(5):e80-e89. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Institute of Vaccine Safety, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Health, Behavior & Society, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

This Review updates the scientific evidence assessing possible causal associations of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) compiled in the 2012 report from the Institute of Medicine and the 2014 report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. For 12 of 46 AEFI examined, a causal relationship has been established with at least one vaccine currently routinely recommended to the general USA population: anaphylaxis, arthralgia or arthritis (mild, acute, and transient, not chronic), deltoid bursitis (when vaccine is administered improperly), disseminated varicella infection (in immune deficient individuals for whom the varicella vaccine is contraindicated), encephalitis, febrile seizures, Guillain-Barré syndrome, hepatitis (in immune deficient individuals for whom the varicella vaccine is contraindicated), herpes zoster, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, meningitis, and syncope. Other than mild acute and transient arthralgia or arthritis, which is very common in adult women after rubella vaccine, these adverse reactions are rare or very rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30130-4DOI Listing

Infection-Associated Opsoclonus: A Retrospective Case Record Analysis and Review of Literature.

J Child Neurol 2020 Jun 27;35(7):480-484. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Opsoclonus, an uncommon clinical sign, and is often described in the context of opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMAS). OMAS may be paraneoplastic or postinfectious. However, opsoclonus with or without OMAS may occur in association with a wide gamut of infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073820911327DOI Listing
June 2020
1.666 Impact Factor

Re: 'Diagnostic test accuracy of the BioFire® FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis panel' by Chapin et al.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Mar 20. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medical Microbiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.02.034DOI Listing

Audit of Childhood Death in a Tertiary Care Center in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.

West Afr J Med 2020 Apr-Jun;37(2):113-117

Health Information Management Department, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Delta State,Nigeria.

Background: Childhood mortality is a serious public health concern. Periodic assessment of its trend is important in evaluating the pattern and planning intervention strategies.

Objective: The study aimed at evaluating the childhood mortality (<18 years) in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Read More

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Genomic and serologic characterization of enterovirus A71 brainstem encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2020 May 5;7(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

From the Medical Scientist Training Program (K.E.L.), University of California, San Francisco; Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program (K.E.L., I.A.H.), University of California, San Francisco; Weill Institute for Neurosciences (R.D.S., I.A.H., P.S.R., A.R., M.R.W.), University of California, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (R.D.S., I.A.H., P.S.R., A.R., M.R.W.), University of California, San Francisco; Institut de Recerca Pediàtrica Hospital Sant Joan de Déu (D.C.-A., C.L., A.V.-R., C.M.-A.), Barcelona, Spain; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub (J.E.P., W.W., C.K.C., E.D.C., J.L.D.), San Francisco; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (L.M.K., H.A.S., K.C.Z., J.L.D.), University of California, San Francisco; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (C.L., M.C., C.M.-A.), Health Institute Carlos III; Department of Pediatrics (C.L.), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona; Enterovirus Unit (M.C.), Spanish National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Division of Infectious Diseases (C.L.), Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; and Department of Medicine. Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (C.M.-A.), Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: In 2016, Catalonia experienced a pediatric brainstem encephalitis outbreak caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). Conventional testing identified EV in the periphery but rarely in CSF. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and CSF pan-viral serology (VirScan) were deployed to enhance viral detection and characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136061PMC

Pathogen or Bystander: Clinical Significance of Detecting Human Herpesvirus 6 in Pediatric Cerebrospinal Fluid.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Apr 23;58(5). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is an important cause of meningitis and meningoencephalitis. As testing for HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more readily available using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel (FA-ME; BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT), we aimed to determine the clinical significance of detecting HHV-6 in order to identify true infections and to ensure appropriate antiviral initiation. Chart review on 25 patients positive for HHV-6 by FA-ME was performed to determine clinical presentation, comorbidity, treatment, and outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00313-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180253PMC

Clinical characteristics of enterovirus A71 neurological disease during an outbreak in children in Colorado, USA, in 2018: an observational cohort study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 02 16;20(2):230-239. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Section of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: In May, 2018, Children's Hospital Colorado noted an outbreak of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) neurological disease. We aimed to characterise the clinical features of EV-A71 neurological disease during this outbreak.

Methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study, children (younger than 18 years) who presented to Children's Hospital Colorado (Aurora, CO, USA) between March 1 and November 30, 2018, with neurological disease (defined by non-mutually exclusive criteria, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid myelitis, and seizures) and enterovirus detected from any biological specimen were eligible for study inclusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30632-2DOI Listing
February 2020
5 Reads

Hypoxaemia in hospitalised children and neonates: A prospective cohort study in Nigerian secondary-level hospitals.

EClinicalMedicine 2019 Nov 24;16:51-63. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Hypoxaemia is a common complication of pneumonia and a major risk factor for death, but less is known about hypoxaemia in other common conditions. We evaluated the epidemiology of hypoxaemia and oxygen use in hospitalised neonates and children in Nigeria.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study among neonates and children (<15 years of age) admitted to 12 secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria (November 2015-November 2017) using data extracted from clinical records (documented during routine care). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6890969PMC
November 2019

Adenovirus as a rare cause of acute necrotising encephalitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Dec 3;12(12). Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Shaikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Adenovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Rarely, neurological manifestations may occur, ranging from mild aseptic meningitis to potentially fatal acute necrotising encephalopathy (ANE). Very little is known in regards to the exact pathogenesis of ANE in association with adenovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-232338DOI Listing
December 2019

Meningitis gone viral: description of the echovirus wave 2013 in Germany.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Nov 29;19(1):1010. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Medical Faculty Heinrich-Heine University, Moorenstraße 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Aseptic meningitis epidemics may pose various health care challenges.

Methods: We describe the German enterovirus meningitis epidemics in the university hospital centers of Düsseldorf, Cologne and Berlin between January 1st and December 31st, 2013 in order to scrutinize clinical differences from other aseptic meningitis cases.

Results: A total of 72 enterovirus (EV-positive) meningitis cases were detected in our multicenter cohort, corresponding to 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4635-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883514PMC
November 2019

ASVAC2019: 7th Asian Vaccine Conference.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jan 6:1-9. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, Peoples Republic of China.

The 7th Asian Vaccine Conference (ASVAC 2019) was held in Yangon, Myanmar from 13 to 15, September 2019. It brought together stakeholders in the field of vaccination to address challenges and issues relevant to clinical practice and immunization programs in the region. The conference themed "", included pre-conference workshops, a Vaccinology Masterclass, plenary lectures, symposia, and poster presentations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1695460DOI Listing
January 2020

Analysis of emergency department prediction tools in evaluating febrile young infants at risk for serious infections.

Emerg Med J 2019 Dec 25;36(12):729-735. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Emergency Medicine, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore

Objective: Febrile infants≤3 months old constitute a vulnerable group at risk of serious infections (SI). We aimed to (1) study the test performance of two clinical assessment tools-the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Traffic Light System and Severity Index Score (SIS) in predicting SI among all febrile young infants and (2) evaluate the performance of three low-risk criteria-the Rochester Criteria (RC), Philadelphia Criteria (PC) and Boston Criteria (BC) among well-looking febrile infants.

Methods: A retrospective validation study was conducted. Read More

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http://emj.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/emermed-2018-208210
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2018-208210DOI Listing
December 2019
2 Reads

Human Herpesvirus-6 may be Neurologically Injurious in Some Immunocompetent Children.

Authors:
Su Jeong You

J Child Neurol 2020 Feb 21;35(2):132-136. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) can infect the central nervous system in immunocompromised individuals. Less is known, however, about HHV-6 infection in immunocompetent patients. This study evaluated the neurologic features and prognosis of HHV-6 infection in immunocompetent patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073819879284DOI Listing
February 2020

Neuroinflammation and Not Tauopathy Is a Predominant Pathological Signature of Nodding Syndrome.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2019 11;78(11):1049-1058

Translational Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Nodding syndrome (NS) is an epileptic disorder occurring in children in African onchocerciasis endemic regions. Here, we describe the pathological changes in 9 individuals from northern Uganda who died with NS (n = 5) or other forms of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) (n = 4). Postmortem examinations were performed and clinical information was obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlz090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839030PMC
November 2019
2 Reads

The Brief Case: Inherited Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in the Age of Multiplex HHV-6 Testing.

J Clin Microbiol 2019 10 24;57(10). Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02016-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760953PMC
October 2019
1 Read

Understanding parental perspectives on outcomes following paediatric encephalitis: A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(9):e0220042. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background: Encephalitis, characterised as inflammation of the brain tissue, is an important cause of acquired brain injury in children. Objective clinical outcomes vary significantly between affected patients, however they do not always correlate with quality of life as reported by parents. The aim of this study was to explore how parents experience and interpret outcomes in relation to their child who has been affected by encephalitis. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220042PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746349PMC
March 2020
2 Reads

Association of the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel With Clinical Management.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 10 11;9(10):763-769. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Objectives: To determine the association of the use of the multiplex assay meningitis/encephalitis panel with clinical management of suspected meningitis.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with children 0 to 18 years of age who received a lumbar puncture within 48 hours of admission for an infectious workup. Patient demographic and presenting information, laboratory studies, and medication administration were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2019-0064DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Next-generation sequencing specifies Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in infants: Two case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Aug;98(35):e16985

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Rationale: Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (AEM) in infants is a very rare but fatal disease. Utilization of genetic assay to detect the cerebral parasite plays an important role for the treatment of the infection.

Patient Concerns: Two infants (<2 years) presented with cough, intermittent fever, mental fatigue, and poor diet. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005792-201908300-0005
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000016985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736482PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Prospective research of human parechovirus and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of young children less than one year with sepsis-like illness: Comparison with enterovirus.

J Clin Virol 2019 10 15;119:11-16. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine - 20 Geumoro, Mulgeumeup, 50612, Yangsan, South Korea; Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital - 20 Geumoro, Mulgeumeup, 50612, Yangsan, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Human parechovirus (PeV) and enterovirus are important pathogens that cause viral infection and aseptic meningitis in young children. We aimed to investigate the rate of HPeV and enterovirus detection, and to characterize cytokine profiles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of young infants with sepsis-like illness or meningitis/encephalitis.

Study Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.08.006DOI Listing
October 2019
9 Reads

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in an infant.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2019 Jan-Mar;37(1):120-122

Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is rare but fatal disease encountered in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we present a case of a previously healthy 8-month-old female child, who presented with features of meningoencephalitis of 2 days' duration. Rapidly moving trophozoites of amoeba were observed in cerebrospinal fluid, which were confirmed to be Naegleria fowleri on polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_18_371DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Clinical benefits of FilmArray meningitis-encephalitis PCR assay in partially-treated bacterial meningitis in Israel.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Aug 13;19(1):713. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Management of partially-treated, community-acquired bacterial meningitis (PCBM) is commonly compromised by lack of microbiological diagnosis. We aimed to analyze the impact of FilmArray Meningitis-Encephalitis (FA-ME) PCR on the management of PCBM.

Methods: Comparison of treatment variables of PCBM cases between two periods, before (6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4348-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693273PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Enterovirus A71 neurologic complications and long-term sequelae.

J Biomed Sci 2019 Aug 8;26(1):57. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Departments of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

During recent 20 years, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as a major concern among pediatric infectious diseases, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The clinical manifestations of EV-A71 include uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease, herpanina or febrile illness and central nervous system (CNS) involvement such as aseptic meningitis, myoclonic jerk, polio-like syndrome, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and cardiopulmonary failure due to severe rhombencephalitis. In follow-up studies of patients with EV-A 71 CNS infection, some still have hypoventilation and need tracheostomy with ventilator support, some have dysphagia and need nasogastric tube or gastrostomy feeding, some have limb weakness/astrophy, cerebellar dysfunction, neurodevelopmental delay, lower cognition, or attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0552-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688366PMC
August 2019
7 Reads
2.736 Impact Factor

Infantile form of Niemann-Pick disease type C with demyelination: An uncommon feature.

Neurol India 2019 May-Jun;67(3):783-786

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Demyelination, neurofibrillary tangles, and axonal spheroids are neuropathological features rarely encountered in infantile form of Niemann-Pick disease type C compared to swollen neurons and neuronal loss which are more commonly seen. We describe clinico-pathological findings in an autopsy case of an infant who died of suspected inborn error of metabolism. At autopsy, storage cells of Niemann-Pick type were observed in plenty in spleen and lymph nodes, and sparsely in liver and brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.263230DOI Listing
February 2020
3 Reads

Autoimmune Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Astrocytopathy Following Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in a Pediatric Patient.

Pediatr Neurol 2019 09 22;98:85-86. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.05.010DOI Listing
September 2019
6 Reads

Infectious particle identity determines dissemination and disease outcome for the inhaled human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus.

PLoS Pathog 2019 06 27;15(6):e1007777. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

The majority of invasive human fungal pathogens gain access to their human hosts via the inhalation of spores from the environment into the lung, but relatively little is known about this infectious process. Among human fungal pathogens the most frequent cause of inhaled fatal fungal disease is Cryptococcus, which can disseminate from the lungs to other tissues, including the brain, where it causes meningoencephalitis. To determine the mechanisms by which distinct infectious particles of Cryptococcus cause disseminated disease, we evaluated two developmental cell types (spores and yeast) in mouse models of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597114PMC
June 2019
6 Reads

Usefulness of the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (M/E) panel for the diagnosis of infectious meningitis and encephalitis in Taiwan.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2019 Oct 30;52(5):760-768. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Early recognition of causative pathogens is critical for the appropriate management of central nervous system infection and improved outcomes. The BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (BioFire ME Panel, BioFire Diagnostics) is the first U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2019.04.005DOI Listing
October 2019
11 Reads

Long-term Sequelae of Pediatric Neurocritical Care: The Parent Perspective.

J Pediatr Intensive Care 2018 Dec 9;7(4):173-181. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Critical neurologic disease and injury affect thousands of children annually with survivors suffering high rates of chronic morbidities related directly to the illness and to critical care hospitalization. Postintensive care syndrome (PICS) in patients and families encompasses a variety of morbidities including physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychological impairments following critical care. We conducted a focus group study with parents of children surviving pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC) for traumatic brain injury, stroke, meningitis, or encephalitis to determine outcomes important to patients and families, identify barriers to care, and identify potential interventions to improve outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1637005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506677PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis Presenting as a Psychiatric Emergency.

J Emerg Med 2019 Aug 20;57(2):203-206. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Organic conditions can often mimic neuropsychiatric disorders, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment for the most vulnerable populations presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Case Report: Here we discuss a case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis seemingly consistent with psychosis on initial evaluation, and present strategies to recognize and treat this condition. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Due to the indolent time course of this disease, initial symptoms of altered mental status and personality changes may be attributed to drug use or psychiatric illness before more overt evidence for increased intracranial pressure and neurologic infection develops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.03.016DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads
1.175 Impact Factor

Laboratory validation of a clinical metagenomic sequencing assay for pathogen detection in cerebrospinal fluid.

Genome Res 2019 05 16;29(5):831-842. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for pan-pathogen detection has been successfully tested in proof-of-concept case studies in patients with acute illness of unknown etiology but to date has been largely confined to research settings. Here, we developed and validated a clinical mNGS assay for diagnosis of infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a licensed microbiology laboratory. A customized bioinformatics pipeline, SURPI+, was developed to rapidly analyze mNGS data, generate an automated summary of detected pathogens, and provide a graphical user interface for evaluating and interpreting results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.238170.118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499319PMC
May 2019
9 Reads

Two cases of neuroangiostrongyliasis: A rare disease because rarely considered or rarely diagnosed?

J Paediatr Child Health 2019 Dec 3;55(12):1463-1469. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Aim: The rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is well established in eastern Australia, where it is the almost exclusive cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EME). While neuroangiostrongyliasis can result in severe morbidity or death, its diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion among medical practitioners. Prevention requires a high level of public awareness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14461DOI Listing
December 2019
26 Reads

Characteristics and predictors of 7- and 30-day hospital readmissions to pediatric neurology.

Neurology 2019 04 20;92(16):e1926-e1932. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

From the Division of Child Neurology (A.H., Y.S., S. Karkare, S. Kothare), Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY; and Department of Pediatrics (K.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.

Objective: Hospital readmission is an important quality improvement measure that has not been well-studied in pediatric neurology. We examined predictors of 7-day and 30-day readmissions for pediatric patients hospitalized with a neurologic diagnosis.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of hospital readmission rates in pediatric neurology patients admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from January 2017 to December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007280DOI Listing
April 2019
28 Reads

Rhinovirus-associated acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and cerebellitis.

Brain Dev 2019 Jun 6;41(6):551-554. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Neurology, Gunma Children's Medical Center, 779 Shimohakoda, Hokkitsu-machi, Shibukawa, Gunma 377-8577, Japan.

Background: Rhinovirus is a common respiratory pathogen for children throughout the year; nevertheless, its central nervous system involvement is extremely rare, and only two cases have been reported to date: meningitis and sepsis-like illness.

Patient: A previously healthy 2-year-old Japanese boy developed fever, followed by seizures and lethargy. His cerebrospinal fluid cell count and protein level were slightly increased; brain magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal intensities in the bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei, which were prominent in diffusion-weighted images. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03877604183052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2019.02.014DOI Listing
June 2019
21 Reads

The neonatal Fc receptor is a pan-echovirus receptor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 02 11;116(9):3758-3763. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224;

Echoviruses are amongst the most common causative agents of aseptic meningitis worldwide and are particularly devastating in the neonatal population, where they are associated with severe hepatitis, neurological disease, including meningitis and encephalitis, and even death. Here, we identify the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) as a pan-echovirus receptor. We show that loss of expression of FcRn or its binding partner beta 2 microglobulin (β2M) renders cells resistant to infection by a panel of echoviruses at the stage of virus attachment, and that a blocking antibody to β2M inhibits echovirus infection in cell lines and in primary human intestinal epithelial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817341116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397586PMC
February 2019
20 Reads

Next-generation sequencing combined with routine methods to detect the pathogens of encephalitis/meningitis from a Chinese tertiary pediatric neurology center.

J Infect 2019 05 22;78(5):409-421. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital Affiliated Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.02.011DOI Listing
May 2019
8 Reads

The role of CNS macrophages in streptococcal meningoencephalitis.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 07 14;106(1):209-218. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute for Immunodeficiency, Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

In the healthy brain, microglia and other CNS macrophages are the most abundant immune cell type. Thus, they form the natural immune cell interface with streptococci, which are the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis in infants and young children. In homeostasis, the blood-brain barrier allows for very limited access of immune cells circulating in the periphery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4MR1118-419RDOI Listing
July 2019
11 Reads

Human Herpesvirus 6 Positivity on the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Needs Clinical Interpretation.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 06;69(1):192-194

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Lehigh Valley Children's Hospital, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz058DOI Listing
June 2019
17 Reads

Neuropsychiatric symptoms following sore throat in a young boy.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jan 22;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was referred to us by his primary provider, with a history of sudden onset behavioural abnormalities including irritability, sleep disturbance and anxiety. Physical examination revealed no significant findings; further analyses were not suggestive of meningitis, encephalitis, metabolic abnormalities, toxicity or any other obvious cause. On rechecking the patient's history, an episode of throat pain 1 week prior to the symptom onset was noted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227540DOI Listing
January 2019
22 Reads

Neonatal meningoencephalitis caused by human adenovirus species F infection.

Pediatr Int 2019 Jan 10;61(1):99-101. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Chiba, Japan.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ped.13722
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13722DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Pediatric West Nile Virus-Associated Neuroinvasive Disease: A Review of the Literature.

Pediatr Neurol 2019 03 28;92:16-25. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Section of Child Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Over the past two decades, West Nile virus has become the most common arbovirus in North America, leading to several outbreaks and infecting thousands of people. Mosquitos help transmit the virus in the majority of cases, but transmission occurs via blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and possibly pregnancy and breastfeeding. While most infected patients experience mild to no symptoms, thousands of West Nile virus-associated neuroinvasive cases have been reported in the United States, with over 700 cases occurring in children from 2003 to 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.07.019DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads

Detection of pediatric bacterial meningitis pathogens from cerebrospinal fluid by next-generation sequencing technology.

J Infect 2019 04 12;78(4):323-337. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, No. 56 Nan Lishi Road, Beijing 100045, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.12.001DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Epidemiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis in Infants and Children in the United States, 2011-2014.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 01;38(1):37-41

bioMérieux, Durham, NC.

Background: Large epidemiologic studies evaluating the etiologies, management decisions and outcomes of infants and children with meningitis and encephalitis in the United States are lacking.

Methods: Children 0-17 years of age with meningitis or encephalitis as assessed by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes available in the Premier Healthcare Database during 2011-2014 were analyzed.

Results: Six thousand six hundred sixty-five patients with meningitis or encephalitis were identified; 3030 (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002081DOI Listing
January 2019
31 Reads

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Variegate Porphyria: A Case Report.

Cureus 2018 Sep 24;10(9):e3351. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Orthopaedics, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Variegate porphyria (VP) is one of the groups of rare inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis called Porphyria. It has two distinct manifestations, that is, those of cutaneous and nervous system. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication of porphyria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255715PMC
September 2018
12 Reads

Tick-borne encephalitis: A 43-year summary of epidemiological and clinical data from Latvia (1973 to 2016).

PLoS One 2018 13;13(11):e0204844. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Pfizer Vaccines, Medical and Scientific Affairs, Paris, France and Vienna, Austria.

Background: The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) varies significantly over time. To better understand the annual incidence of all TBE cases in Latvia we investigated the disease burden in the country from 1973-2016 using several available sources and case definitions.

Methods: We identified cases of TBE from an electronic database (maintained by the Centre for Disease Prevention and Control of Latvia [CDPC]) by the use of ICD-10 diagnosis codes for TBE (A84; A84. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204844PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233910PMC
April 2019
37 Reads

Letter to the editor: economic analysis lacks external validity to support universal syndromic testing for suspected meningitis/encephalitis.

Future Microbiol 2018 11 13;13:1553-1554. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

University of Colorado/Children's Hospital Colorado Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases & Epidemiology. Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

In Response to: Duff S, et al. "Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in pediatric patients" Future Microbiology (2018) (Epub ahead of print). Read More

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https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/fmb-2018-0174
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2018-0174DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads