1,990 results match your criteria Pediatrics Measles


Measles outbreak in Western Uganda: a case-control study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 22;21(1):596. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science & Technology, P.O. BOX 1410, Mbarara, Uganda.

Background: Measles outbreaks are prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa despite the preventive measures like vaccination that target under five-year-old children and health systems strengthening efforts like prioritizing the supply chain for supplies. Measles immunization coverage for Kasese district and Bugoye HC III in 2018 was 72 and 69%, respectively. This coverage has been very low and always marked red in the Red categorization (below the national target/poor performing) on the national league table indicators. Read More

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Change in children's perception of cancer in the last 10 years in Japan.

Pediatr Int 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Medical Education, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174, Edobashi, Tsu-shi, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Background: Social awareness on cancer can be changed with cancer education and proper distribution of cancer information. This study addressed the current situation and historical change of children's perception of cancer.

Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among healthy school children aged 10 to 15 years in 2008 and 2018. Read More

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Temporal Trends in Undervaccination: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Am J Prev Med 2021 07 30;61(1):64-72. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.

Introduction: Monitoring the trends in undervaccination, including that because of parental vaccine refusal or delay, can inform public health responses directed at improving vaccine confidence and vaccination coverage.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. The cohort included all children born in 2004-2017 with ≥3 well-child visits between ages 2 and 23 months. Read More

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Live Virus Vaccination of Pediatric Solid-Organ Transplant Candidates Within One Month Prior to Transplantation: A Multi-Center Experience.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Jun 18:e13667. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of vaccine preventable illness due to the high degree of immunosuppression required following transplantation. The current recommendation is to vaccinate with live attenuated vaccines, including Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) and Varicella (VAR) vaccines, at least 4 weeks prior to transplant. However, data to support the time interval between vaccine and transplant is limited. Read More

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Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and influenza vaccination in children with acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome triggered by egg.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Allergy Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by the onset of delayed repetitive and projectile vomiting accompanied by other clinical manifestations such as pallor, hypotonia, lethargy, hypothermia and/or diarrhea (1). Acute FPIES can be classified as classic or atypical based on the absence or presence of sensitization to the trigger food (2). Read More

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Review of the measles epidemic in children from Central Eastern Europe in the third millennium.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 2;22(2):816. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Paediatrics, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

Measles is an extremely contagious viral disease. Even though a safe vaccine exists for this disease, it remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. We aimed to create a retrospective descriptive study in which to analyze the evolution of the measles epidemic at the European level. Read More

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Mandatory Infant Vaccinations in France During the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020.

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:666848. Epub 2021 May 28.

EPI-PHARE (French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety, ANSM; and French National Health Insurance, CNAM), Saint-Denis, France.

To describe changes in the dispensation of 11 mandatory vaccines to infants in France during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, considering the priming doses and boosters separately. With data from the French national health database, all dispensations of priming doses and boosters of 11 mandatory vaccines [penta/hexavalent, measles mumps rubella (MMR), meningococcal conjugate type-C (Men-C-C), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13)] for infants ≤24 months old were aggregated by 4-week periods in 2020. Expected counts in 2020 were estimated according to counts in 2019 weighted by a ratio considering the level of vaccine dispensation before the pandemic onset in 2020. Read More

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How can human-centered design build a story-based video intervention that addresses vaccine hesitancy and bolsters vaccine confidence in the Philippines? A mixedmethod protocol for project SALUBONG.

BMJ Open 2021 06 9;11(6):e046814. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Heidelberg Institute of Global Health, Ruprecht Karls Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany

Introduction: Since the onset of a dengue vaccine controversy in late 2017, vaccine confidence has plummeted in the Philippines, leading to measles and polio outbreaks in early 2019. This protocol outlines a human-centered design (HCD) approach to co-create and test an intervention that addresses vaccine hesitancy (VH) via narrative and empathy with and among families and healthcare workers. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'Salubong' is a Filipino term that means to welcome someone back into one's life, reinforcing notions of family ties and friendships. Read More

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Rubella seroprevalence among mothers and incidence of congenital rubella three years after rubella vaccine introduction in Vietnam.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 3:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Following a rubella outbreak in 2011, Vietnam implemented a mass measles-rubella vaccination campaign for children aged 1-14 years in 2014-2015, further expanding the target age to 16-17 years in 2016; routine vaccination was introduced in 2014. However, there was concern that a substantial proportion of women of child-bearing age were still susceptible to rubella, with the fear of congenital rubella emergence. Thus, we conducted a prospective cohort study in Nha Trang, Vietnam, from 2017-2018 to investigate pregnant women's susceptibility to rubella infection, the incidence of congenital rubella infection, and factors associated with susceptibility. Read More

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Molecular Features of the Measles Virus Viral Fusion Complex That Favor Infection and Spread in the Brain.

mBio 2021 Jun 1:e0079921. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Center for Host-Pathogen Interaction, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Measles virus (MeV) bearing a single amino acid change in the fusion protein (F)-L454W-was isolated from two patients who died of MeV central nervous system (CNS) infection. This mutation in F confers an advantage over wild-type virus in the CNS, contributing to disease in these patients. Using murine organotypic brain cultures and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain organoids, we show that CNS adaptive mutations in F enhance the spread of virus . Read More

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A Case of Nephrotic Syndrome that Resolved with Influenza B Infection.

Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2021 Jan-Apr;11(1):103-109. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

It has been postulated that measles virus infection is associated with remission of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in childhood. There are few reports on the correlation of INS remission with other infections. Previously, there have been two case reports suggesting an association between influenza B virus infection and the remission of INS. Read More

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Rubella vaccine-induced granulomas are a novel phenotype with incomplete penetrance of genetic defects in cytotoxicity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Rubella virus-induced granulomas have been described in patients with various inborn errors of immunity. Most defects impair T-cell immunity, suggesting a critical role of T cells in rubella elimination. However, the molecular mechanism of virus control remains elusive. Read More

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Impact that the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood vaccinations and challenges ahead: A narrative review.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Aim: To document the decline in vaccination coverage in the first months of 2020 as an indirect effect of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We performed a literature review in medical databases. Overall, 143 articles were initially retrieved, out of which 48 were selected and included in the review. Read More

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Measles in a measles-eliminated country: A case report of a measles-infected postpartum mother and infant in Japan.

IDCases 2021 9;24:e01157. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Narita Hospital, 90-1, Iida-cho, Narita, Chiba, 286-8523, Japan.

Japan has maintained measles elimination status since 2015. However, sporadic outbreaks of measles have been continuously reported. Here, we report a case of a measles-infected postpartum mother and infant in Japan. Read More

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Childhood immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic in Texas.

Vaccine 2021 06 27;39(25):3333-3337. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Texas A&M School of Public Health, College Station, TX, USA; School of Nursing and Health Professions, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In 2020, the state of Texas implemented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) social distancing guidelines in order to prevent surges at Texas hospital emergency rooms and in intensive care units. As noted in other states, an unintended consequence of these activities was significant declines in childhood immunizations. After analyzing state-wide immunization register data for Texas, we observed a 47% relative decline in immunization rates between 2019 and 2020 among 5-month-olds and a 58% decline among 16-month-olds. Read More

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Effects of schistosomes on host anti-viral immune response and the acquisition, virulence, and prevention of viral infections: A systematic review.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 20;17(5):e1009555. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Global Health, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States of America.

Although a growing number of studies suggest interactions between Schistosoma parasites and viral infections, the effects of schistosome infections on the host response to viruses have not been evaluated comprehensively. In this systematic review, we investigated how schistosomes impact incidence, virulence, and prevention of viral infections in humans and animals. We also evaluated immune effects of schistosomes in those coinfected with viruses. Read More

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Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) position paper on the immune debt of the COVID-19 pandemic in childhood, how can we fill the immunity gap?

Infect Dis Now 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

GPIP, Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique, Créteil, France; Service de pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Armand Trousseau, Paris, France.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary. While NPIs limited the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, they also reduced the spread of other pathogens during and after lockdown periods, despite the re-opening of schools since June 2020 in France. Read More

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Risk of Vaccine-Preventable Infections in Swiss Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Digestion 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of infection and are frequently not up to date with their immunizations.

Objectives: This study aims to review vaccination status and evaluate whether age, disease type, or treatment regimen could predict the absence of seroprotection against selected vaccine-preventable infection in adults with IBD.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using questionnaire, immunization records review, and assessment of tetanus-specific, varicella-specific, and measles-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations. Read More

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Needle Fear among Children during Mass Measles Rubella (MR) Injectable Vaccination Campaign in North India: an Observational Study.

J Child Adolesc Trauma 2021 Apr 24:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Surveillance Medical Unit Office, World Health Organization, Panchkula, Haryana India.

The cross-sectional observational study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of needle-fear among school-going children during mass Measles-Rubella (MR) immunization campaign (year 2017) in the north Indian city of Chandigarh. Fear of needle was assessed using a single-item self-report global question, anxiety was assessed using the Likert scale (score 1-5) and the standardized "Children Faces Scale" where facial responses were graded from 0 to 4. Out of a total sample of 2568 school children, 1225 (47. Read More

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Immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases among paediatric healthcare workers in Denmark, 2019.

Euro Surveill 2021 Apr;26(17)

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

BackgroundHealthcare workers (HCW) have been identified as index cases in disease outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in hospitals.AimWe investigated whether Danish paediatric HCW were protected against selected serious VPD.MethodsWe included 90% of staff members from two paediatric departments. Read More

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Aetiologies of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among children in Ekiti State, South Western Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 28;38:98. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Paediatrics, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Introduction: a strong need exists for the knowledge of aetiologies of diseases as this will guide the clinicians on the strategies for their treatment and prevention. In this study, we determined the aetiologies of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (pbSNHL) with a view to provide the relevant data needed for preventive and therapeutic intervention among children in Ekiti State, South Western Nigeria.

Methods: medical records of children with pbSNHL seen over a ten-year period were analysed. Read More

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Effects of engaging communities in decision-making and action through traditional and religious leaders on vaccination coverage in Cross River State, Nigeria: A cluster-randomised control trial.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0248236. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Effective Health Care Alliance Programme, Institute of Tropical Disease, Research and Prevention, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Background: Vaccination coverage levels fall short of the Global Vaccine and Action Plan 90% target in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Having identified traditional and religious leaders (TRLs) as potential public health change agents, this study aimed at assessing the effect of training them to support routine immunisation for the purpose of improving uptake of childhood vaccines in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Methods: A cluster-randomised controlled study was conducted between 2016 and 2019. Read More

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Pediatric Vaccination During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Pediatrics 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California.

Objectives: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on vaccination coverage, critical to preventing vaccine-preventable diseases, has not been assessed during the reopening period.

Methods: Vaccine uptake and vaccination coverage for recommended vaccines and for measles-containing vaccines at milestone ages were assessed in a large cohort of children aged 0 to 18 years in Southern California during January to August 2020 and were compared with those in the same period in 2019. Differences in vaccine uptake and vaccination coverage (recommended vaccines and measles-containing vaccines) in prepandemic (January to March), stay-at-home (April to May), and reopening (June to August) periods in 2020 and 2019 were compared. Read More

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Ten-year follow-up on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of two doses of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine or one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine: Results from five East European countries.

Vaccine 2021 05 12;39(19):2643-2651. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: We assessed the 10-year efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of two doses of a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) or one dose of a monovalent varicella vaccine (V) in children from Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia.

Methods: This was a phase IIIB follow-up of an observer-blind, randomized, controlled trial (NCT00226499). In phase A, healthy children aged 12-22 months from 10 European countries were randomized in a 3:3:1 ratio to receive two doses of MMRV (MMRV group), one dose of MMR followed by one dose of V (MMR + V group), or two doses of MMR (MMR; control group), 42 days apart. Read More

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Antibody evasion by the P.1 strain of SARS-CoV-2.

Cell 2021 05 30;184(11):2939-2954.e9. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Jenner Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations, including P. Read More

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Immunity to varicella, measles, and mumps in patients evaluated for lung transplantation.

Am J Transplant 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Vaccine-preventable viral infections are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in post-transplant patients on immunosuppression regimens. Therefore, we studied rates of immunity against vaccine-preventable viruses in lung transplantation (LTx) candidates and their associations with underlying lung disease and clinical characteristics. We retrospectively studied 1025 consecutive adult patients who underwent first-time evaluation for LTx at a single center between January 2016 and October 2018. Read More

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An Immune Recovery-Based Revaccination Protocol for Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: Revaccination Outcomes Following Pediatric HSCT.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 28;27(4):317-326. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), patients are at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and experience worse outcomes of VPDs compared to immunocompetent patients. Therefore, patients are routinely vaccinated post-HSCT to restore VPD immunity. Published guidelines recommend revaccination based on time post-HSCT, although optimal revaccination timing and the value of using other clinical and laboratory variables to guide revaccination remain unclear. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly with other paediatric vaccines in toddlers: a phase III randomised study.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 Apr 5;149:e90. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Global Clinical Sciences, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA, USA.

Invasive meningococcal disease has high morbidity and mortality, with infants and young children among those at greatest risk. This phase III, open-label, randomised study in toddlers aged 12-23 months evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of meningococcal tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACYW-TT), a tetanus toxoid conjugated vaccine against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y, when coadministered with paediatric vaccines (measles, mumps and rubella [MMR]; varicella [V]; 6-in-1 combination vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b [DTaP-IPV-HepB-Hib] and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13])(NCT03205371). Immunogenicity to each meningococcal serogroup was assessed by serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Read More

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Immunovirotherapy for the Treatment of Glioblastoma and Other Malignant Gliomas.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2021 Apr 18;32(2):265-281. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Pediatrics, and Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1060 Faculty Office Tower 510 20th Street South, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents one of the most challenging malignancies due to many factors including invasiveness, heterogeneity, and an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Current treatment modalities have resulted in only modest effect on outcomes. The development of viral vectors for oncolytic immunovirotherapy and targeted drug delivery represents a promising therapeutic prospect for GBM and other brain tumors. Read More

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