Methyl-ketones in the scent glands of Opiliones: a chemical trait of cyphophthalmi retrieved in the dyspnoan .
Chemoecology 2018 6;28(2):61-67. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
1Institute of Biology, University Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria.
The homologous and phylogenetically old scent glands of harvestmen-also called defensive or repugnatorial glands-represent an ideal system for a model reconstruction of the evolutionary history of exocrine secretion chemistry ("phylogenetic chemosystematics"). While the secretions of Laniatores (mainly phenols, benzoquinones), Cyphophthalmi (naphthoquinones, chloro-naphthoquinones, methyl-ketones) and some Eupnoi (naphthoquinones, ethyl-ketones) are fairly well studied, one open question refers to the still largely enigmatic scent gland chemistry of representatives of the suborder Dyspnoi and the relation of dyspnoan chemistry to the remaining suborders. We here report on the secretion of a nemastomatid Dyspnoi, which is composed of straight-chain methyl-ketones (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, 6-tridecen-2-one, 8-tridecen-2-one), methyl-branched methyl-ketones (5-methyl-heptan-2-one, 6-methyl-nonan-2-one), naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and chloro-naphthoquinones (4-chloro-1,2-naphthoquinone, 4-chloro-6-methyl-1,2-naphthoquinone). Read More