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    201 results match your criteria Pediatrics Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

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    Severity and burden of hand, foot and mouth disease in Asia: a modelling study.
    BMJ Glob Health 2018 26;3(1):e000442. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) affects millions of children across Asia annually, leading to an increase in implemented control policies such as surveillance, isolation and social distancing in affected jurisdictions. However, limited knowledge of disease burden and severity causes difficulty in policy optimisation as the associated economic cost cannot be easily estimated. We use a data synthesis approach to provide a comprehensive picture of HFMD disease burden, estimating infection risk, symptomatic rates, the risk of complications and death, and overall disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) losses, along with associated uncertainties. Read More

    Cytokine and Chemokine Profiling in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Singapore and Malaysia.
    Sci Rep 2018 Mar 6;8(1):4087. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Collaborative and Translation Unit for HFMD, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a prevalent contagious childhood disease typically associated with fever, oral lesions and limb exanthema. While HFMD is caused by a plethora of serotypes of viruses under the genus Enterovirus within the Picornaviridae family, Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) are considered the main etiological agents. In recent years however, other viruses have also been isolated in considerable numbers from infected individuals in many regions, joining the legion commonly associated with HFMD. Read More

    Artemisia capillaris inhibited enterovirus 71-induced cell injury by preventing viral internalization.
    Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2018 Mar 6;34(3):150-159. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Renal Care, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Artemisia capillaris (A. capillaris) is a common herbal drug used for thousands years in ancient China. A. Read More

    A virus-like particle vaccine protects mice against coxsackievirus A10 lethal infection.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 20;152:124-130. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Unit of Vaccinology & Antiviral Strategies, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:
    Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has emerged worldwide as one of the main pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in recent years. However, there is currently no commercial vaccine available to prevent CVA10 infection. Here we report the development of a recombinant virus-like particle (VLP) based candidate vaccine for CVA10. Read More

    Parental perspectives on hand, foot, and mouth disease among children in Hong Kong: a longitudinal study.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Feb 1;146(3):324-332. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Division of Behavioural Sciences,School of Public Health,The University of Hong Kong,Hong Kong,China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), usually a self-limiting illness for young children, could cause a significant burden for parents because it can take up to 1-2 weeks for a sick child to recover. We conducted a two-wave longitudinal study over one summer peak season (May-July 2014) of HFMD to examine parents' HFMD-related risk perceptions and protective responses. In total, 618 parents with at least one child aged ⩽12 years, recruited using randomly-dialled household telephone calls completed the baseline survey interview, 452 of whom subsequently completed the follow-up survey. Read More

    Inhibition of EV71 by curcumin in intestinal epithelial cells.
    PLoS One 2018 25;13(1):e0191617. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Read More

    Prohibitin plays a critical role in Enterovirus 71 neuropathogenesis.
    PLoS Pathog 2018 Jan 11;14(1):e1006778. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Read More

    Risk factors for death in children with critical and severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Chongqing, China: An observational study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8934
    Infection Department of the Children's Hospital, The Pediatrics Institution of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, The Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.
    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that may lead to serious complications and even death. Globally, epidemics of HFMD are increasing each year, especially in China. This study aimed to identify risk factors for death in children with critical and severe HFMD in Chongqing, China. Read More

    Mortality in Children with Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Guangxi, China.
    Indian Pediatr 2018 02 14;55(2):137-139. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Departments of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Correspondence to: Dr Dan Wei, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.
    Objective: To analyze the clinical features of children with hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) who died.

    Methods: 331 deaths due to HFMD between 2010 and 2014 were included in this retrospective study; 15 autopsies were performed.

    Results: Most deaths were seen in children aged below 3 y, and with enterovirus 71 infection (91%). Read More

    Immunopathogenesis and Virus-Host Interactions of Enterovirus 71 in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Front Microbiol 2017 28;8:2249. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global infectious disease that affects millions of people. The virus is the main etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease with outbreaks and epidemics being reported globally. Infection can cause severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory problems in children under the age of 5. Read More

    Serum interleukin-6 levels as an indicator of aseptic meningitis among children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease.
    Postgrad Med 2018 Mar 14;130(2):258-263. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    a Department of Pediatrics , College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
    Objectives: The enterovirus EV71 is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Aseptic meningitis is the most common neurologic complication of EV71-induced HFMD. Lumbar puncture is a crucial procedure in the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. Read More

    Developing a Machine Learning System for Identification of Severe Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease from Electronic Medical Record Data.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 27;7(1):16341. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
    Children of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) often present with same clinical features as those of mild HFMD during the early stage, yet later deteriorate rapidly with a fulminant disease course. Our goal was to: (1) develop a machine learning system to automatically identify cases with high risk of severe HFMD at the time of admission; (2) compare the effectiveness of the new system with the existing risk scoring system. Data on 2,532 HFMD children admitted between March 2012 and July 2015, were collected retrospectively from a medical center in China. Read More

    MiR-16-5p mediates a positive feedback loop in EV71-induced apoptosis and suppresses virus replication.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 27;7(1):16422. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Contrary to other HFMD-causing enterovirus, EV71 can lead to severe neurological complications, even death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that constitute the largest family of gene regulators participating in numerous biological or pathological processes. Read More

    Interleukin-35 Modulates the Imbalance Between Regulatory T Cells and T Helper 17 Cells in Enterovirus 71-Induced Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease.
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 2017 Dec 27;37(12):522-530. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    2 Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University , Weihui, China .
    Interleukin (IL)-35 modulates the imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, which played vital roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases. However, the role of Tregs/Th17 cell imbalance and the regulatory functions of IL-35 have remained largely unknown in enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, a total of 47 HFMD patients (30 with mild HFMD and 17 with severe HFMD) and 13 healthy individuals were enrolled. Read More

    Acute pancreatitis in hand, foot and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A16: case report.
    Korean J Pediatr 2017 Oct 20;60(10):333-336. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea.
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which primarily causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), is associated with complications, such as encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, myocarditis, pericarditis, and shock. However, no case of pancreatitis associated with CA16 has been reported in children. We report a case of CA16-associated acute pancreatitis in a 3-year-old girl with HFMD. Read More

    A 3.0-Angstrom Resolution Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure and Antigenic Sites of Coxsackievirus A6-Like Particles.
    J Virol 2018 01 2;92(2). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
    Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as one of the predominant causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The structure of the CVA6 mature viral particle has not been solved thus far. Our previous work shows that recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) of CVA6 represent a promising CVA6 vaccine candidate. Read More

    Intestinal probiotics in relieving clinical symptoms of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease and potential mechanism analysis.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Sep;21(18):4214-4218
    Department of Emergency, Xuzhou Children's Hospital affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Objective: In this prospective cohort study, the efficacy and action mechanism of an intestinal probiotic formulation, Golden Bifid, in severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were determined in 63 consecutively admitted patients successfully treated in the Pediatrics Emergency Department of our hospital.

    Patients And Methods: All patients had a persistent fever; 43 patients had rashes on hands, feet, crissum, and hips; and 45 patients had neurological signs and symptoms. Patients were treated with standard supportive therapy along with ventilator-assisted respiration combined with bedside hemofiltration for removal of circulatory toxins and to achieve acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte stability. Read More

    Protective effect of an alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells.
    Antiviral Res 2018 01 10;149:106-112. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Laboratory of Virology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Etiology of Viral Diseases in Children, Beijing Municipal Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China; Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies. Read More

    Epitope-associated and specificity-focused features of EV71-neutralizing antibody repertoires from plasmablasts of infected children.
    Nat Commun 2017 10 2;8(1):762. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 33305, Taiwan.
    Protective antibody levels are critical for protection from severe enterovirus 71 infection. However, little is known about the specificities and functional properties of the enterovirus 71-specific antibodies induced by natural infection in humans. Here we characterize 191 plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies from three enterovirus 71-infected children, each of whom shows a distinct serological response. Read More

    B-type brain natriuretic peptide as a measure of the severity of hand-foot-mouth disease: a case-control study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 09 29;17(1):651. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Department of Emergency, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 136, Zhongshan 2 Road, Yuzhong district, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Background: Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, and HFMD complicated by cardiopulmonary failure has a high mortality. B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely applied in monitoring cardiovascular disorders, and thus, we investigated whether this index was associated with the severity of HFMD and the outcome in severe HFMD.

    Methods: Serum BNP, lactate, and glucose levels as well as white blood cell (WBC) count, PaO/FiO, and cardiac output (CO) were analyzed in the 83 enrolled HFMD patients according to different conditions (common, severe, and critical; with and without complication; and survivors and non-survivors). Read More

    A Selective Bottleneck Shapes the Evolutionary Mutant Spectra of Enterovirus A71 during Viral Dissemination in Humans.
    J Virol 2017 12 14;91(23). Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
    RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of a national enterovirus 71 vaccination program in China.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005899. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Background And Aims: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused great morbidity, mortality, and use of health service in children younger than five years in China. Vaccines against EV71 have been proved effective and safe by recent phase 3 trials and are now available in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impact and cost-effectiveness of a national EV71 vaccination program in China. Read More

    Development of a luciferase-based biosensor to assess enterovirus 71 3C protease activity in living cells.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 4;7(1):10385. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). To date, no antiviral drug has been approved to treat EV71 infection. Due to the essential role that EV71 3 C protease (3C) plays in the viral life cycle, it is generally considered as a highly appealing target for antiviral drug development. Read More

    Relationship between catecholamine level and gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor G1165C in children with EV71 infection in hand foot and mouth disease.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 May 18;10(5):473-477. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital of Hainan Province (Children's Hospital of Hainan Province), Haikou 570206, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the levels of plasma adrenaline and norepinephrine and gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor G1165C in children with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Methods: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression of gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor G1165C in vitro. The levels of plasma adrenaline and norepinephrine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

    Enterovirus 71-induced has-miR-21 contributes to evasion of host immune system by targeting MyD88 and IRAK1.
    Virus Res 2017 06 12;237:27-36. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Yanan University, China. Electronic address:
    Enterovirus71(EV71), the etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has increasingly become a public health challenge around the world. Type I interferons (IFNs) are an important family of cytokines that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. Read More

    Association of the OAS3 rs1859330 G/A genetic polymorphism with severity of enterovirus-71 infection in Chinese Han children.
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 25;162(8):2305-2313. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 59, Haier Road, Qingdao, 266000, China.
    The 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) is an interferon (IFN)-induced protein that plays an important role in the antiviral action of IFN, with OAS3 being one of the four OAS classes (OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, OASL). The effect of OAS on several infectious viral diseases has been reported; however, a study of the effect of OAS3 on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the OAS3 rs1859330 G/A genetic polymorphism with susceptibility and severity of EV71 infection. Read More

    Epidemiology of 45,616 suspect cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Chongqing, China, 2011-2015.
    Sci Rep 2017 Apr 19;7:45630. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Laboratory Medicine Center, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Epidemiology and etiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) based on large sample size or evaluation of detection for more enterovirus serotypes are not well investigated in Chongqing of China. 45,616 suspect HFMD patients were prospectively enrolled among whom 21,615 were laboratory confirmed HFMD cases over a 5-year period (January 2011 to December 2015). Their epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were extracted and stratified by month, age, sex, disease severity, and enterovirus serotype. Read More

    Therapeutic efficacy of phentolamine in the management of severe hand, foot and mouth disease combined with pulmonary edema.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Apr 7;13(4):1403-1407. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of First Pediatric Internal Medicine, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000, P.R. China.
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of phentolamine on severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) combined with pulmonary edema (PE). From May 2008 to December 2012, 53 children with severe HFMD plus PE were enrolled in the treatment group, receiving phentolamine intravenously at a loading dose of 5 µg/kg/min. The control group comprised 52 children with the same disease who did not receive phentolamine infusion. Read More

    Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge.
    Exp Ther Med 2017 Feb 23;13(2):364-377. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Department of Clinical Virology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. Read More

    Shedding light on onychomadesis.
    Cutis 2017 Jan;99(1):33-36
    School of Public Affairs and Administration and the Departments of Dermatology, Pathology, and Pediatrics, Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School, Newark, USA.
    Onychomadesis is the proximal separation of the nail plate from the nail matrix due to a temporary cessation of nail growth. It can occur in children of all ages including neonates. Diagnosis is made clinically through palpation and inspection of the nail plate. Read More


    A novel Enterovirus 96 circulating in China causes hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Virus Genes 2017 Jun 7;53(3):352-356. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518083, China.
    Enterovirus 96 (EV-96) is a recently described member of the species Enterovirus C and is associated with paralysis and myelitis. In this study, using metagenomic sequencing, we identified a new enterovirus 96 strain (EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014) as the sole pathogen causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). A genomic comparison showed that EV-96-SZ/GD/CHN/2014 is most similar to the EV-96-05517 strain (85% identity), which has also been detected in Guangdong Province. Read More

    Correlation of symptomatic enterovirus infection and later risk of allergic diseases via a population-based cohort study.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5827
    aDepartment of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan bDepartment of Pediatrics and Kawasaki Disease Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan cDepartment of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Infants who are exposed to the rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus are at a higher risk of subsequently developing wheezing or asthma. This study aims to determine whether preschoolers with a history of symptomatic enterovirus infection are at an increased risk of developing allergic diseases or not.We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1999 to 2006 for this nationwide population-based cohort study. Read More

    An Outbreak of Kingella Kingae Infections Complicating a Severe Hand, Foot, And Mouth Disease Outbreak in Nice, France, 2016.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 May;36(5):530-532
    From the *URMITE " Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes", UM63, Inserm 1095, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; †Childcare Centers, Nice, France; ‡Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre National de Référence des Enterovirus et Parechovirus-laboratoire associé, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France; §Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, La Timone Children's Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; ¶Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, North Hospital, Marseille, France; ‖Department of Pediatrics, Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France; **Laboratory of Foundation Lenval Children's Hospital, Nice, France; and ††IRD French Institute of Research and Development, EHESP French School of Public Health, EPV UMR_D 190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales," Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
    We report the investigation methods for the diagnosis of an epidemic and culture-negative Kingella kingae endocarditis complicating a severe outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease in a childcare center. The diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing performed from cardiac tissue. Our findings argue for the systematic investigation of K. Read More

    Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Like Illness in Office Practice.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Mar 12;84(3):216-218. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Vinayaka Missions Medical College, Karaikal, Puducherry, 609609, India.
    Objective: To describe the clinical profile of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) like illness in a cluster of cases.

    Methods: Children presenting with papulovesicular skin lesions with or without oral lesions were clinically examined, treated and followed up.

    Results: Out of 21 cases, 18 (85. Read More

    Efficacy of for the Treatment of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Associated with Encephalitis in Patients Infected with EV71: A Multicenter, Retrospective Analysis.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 20;2016:5697571. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.
    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of using the traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of severe HFMD in 725 patients aged >1 year in a multicenter, retrospective analysis. The patients were divided into the and ribavirin groups, and the temperatures, presence or absence of skin rashes and oral lesions, nervous system (NS) involvement, and viral loads of the patients, as well as the safety of the treatments, were evaluated. The median duration of fever, median time to NS involvement, and the number of patients with oral ulcers and/or vesicles, as well as skin rashes, were decreased in the group compared with the ribavirin group. Read More

    Enterovirus 71 infection and neurological complications.
    Korean J Pediatr 2016 Oct 17;59(10):395-401. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    Department of Pediatrics, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.
    Since the outbreak of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in Malaysia in 1997, large epidemics of EV71 have occurred in the Asia-Pacific region. Many children and infants have died from serious neurological complications during these epidemics, and EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in these areas. EV71 infection causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children, and usually resolves spontaneously. Read More

    Immunodominant IgM and IgG Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced in Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients.
    PLoS One 2016 2;11(11):e0165659. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Read More

    A severe pediatric infection with a novel enterovirus A71 strain, Thuringia, Germany.
    J Clin Virol 2016 11 19;84:90-95. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.
    Infection by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is an important cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Outbreaks including severe cases with neurological and cardiopulmonary complications have been reported particularly from Southeast Asia. In Europe, the epidemiology of EV-A71 is not well understood. Read More

    Short-term effects of meteorological factors on pediatric hand, foot, and mouth disease in Guangdong, China: a multi-city time-series analysis.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Sep 29;16(1):524. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Background: Literature shows inconsistency in meteorological effects on Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in different cities. This multi-city study aims to investigate the meteorological effects on pediatric HFMD occurrences and the potential effect modification by geographic factors.

    Methods: Based on daily time-series data in eight major cities in Guangdong, China during 2009-2013, mixed generalized additive models were employed to estimate city-specific meteorological effects on pediatric HFMD. Read More

    Prevalence and molecular characterization of human rhinovirus in stool samples of individuals with and without acute gastroenteritis.
    J Med Virol 2017 May 11;89(5):801-808. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Human rhinovirus (RV) most often causes mild upper respiratory tract infection. Although RV is routinely isolated from the respiratory tract, few studies have examined RV in other types of clinical samples. The prevalence of RV was examined in 1,294 stool samples collected mostly from children with acute gastroenteritis residing in Bangkok and Khon Kaen province of Thailand between January 2010 and October 2014. Read More

    Molecular epidemiology of the enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina in Dongguan, China, 2015.
    Arch Virol 2016 Dec 21;161(12):3463-3471. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Dongguan, Dongguan, Guangdong, China.
    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the etiological agents involved in most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA). Information on the epidemiology profiles of EVs in China is very limited, as the present surveillance system of China focuses on CAV16 and EV71, and no published data are available in Dongguan. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of EVs among patients with HFMD and HA in Dongguan, China, during 2015. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of interferon-α2b spray in the treatment of hand, foot, and mouth disease: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial.
    Arch Virol 2016 Nov 12;161(11):3073-80. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Department of Pediatric Infection, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109th Xueyuanxi Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious enterovirus disease, occurring mostly in infants and children younger than 7 years with potentially fatal complications. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant human interferon (IFN)-α2b spray for treating mild HFMD in 400 patients in a randomized, open, controlled clinical trial. The patients were randomized to the IFN-α2b spray and placebo groups, and their temperature, skin rash, oral lesions, and appetite were monitored, while pathogen levels and safety were evaluated with a 7-day follow-up. Read More

    Changes in enterovirus serotype constituent ratios altered the clinical features of infected children in Guangdong Province, China, from 2010 to 2013.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 08 9;16:399. Epub 2016 Aug 9.
    Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 253 Gong ye da dao zhong, Guangzhou, 510282, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Enterovirus (EV)-related hand, foot, and mouth disease/herpangina (HFMD/HA) has been prevalent in Guangdong Province, China, since 2010.

    Methods: Clinical data for EV-related HFMD/HA inpatients admitted to the Department of Paediatrics of Zhujiang Hospital from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The corresponding EV serotypes were also determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or BLAST analysis of the sequenced partial lengths of the viral protein1/5'-untranslated region. Read More

    Effect of integrated Chinese and Western medicine therapy on severe hand, foot and mouth disease: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
    Chin J Integr Med 2017 Dec 9;23(12):887-892. Epub 2016 Jul 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Kaifeng Children's Hospital, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475003, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine (CM) plus Western medicine (WM) in the treatment of pediatric patients with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.

    Methods: A total of 451 pediatric patients with severe HFMD were randomly assigned to receive WM therapy alone (224 cases, WM therapy group) or CM [Reduning Injection ( ) or Xiyanping Injection ()] plus WM therapy (227 cases, CM plus WM therapy group) for 7-10 days, according to a web-based randomization system. The primary outcome was fever clearance time, which was presented as temperature decreased half-life time. Read More

    Antiviral activity of Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis against Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71 infection in human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines.
    Virol J 2016 06 24;13:111. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, 28 Medical Drive, #03-05, Singapore, 117456, Singapore.
    Background: Recurrence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) pandemics continues to threaten public health. Despite increasing awareness and efforts, effective vaccine and drug treatment have yet to be available. Probiotics have gained recognition in the field of healthcare worldwide, and have been extensively prescribed to babies and young children to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances and diseases, associated or not with microbial infections. Read More

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