7,844 results match your criteria Pediatrics Gastroenteritis


The impact of allergic rhinitis on gastrointestinal disorders among young adults.

J Eval Clin Pract 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: An association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and digestive diseases (DDs) has been reported; however, studies have only focused on the prevalence of DDs in populations of patients with AR. In individuals with specific DDs, the impact of AR on the frequency of clinical visits for each DD has not been studied. Moreover, the association between topical steroid usage for AR and DDs has not been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jep.13108DOI Listing
February 2019

Equity and impact: Ontario's infant rotavirus immunization program five years following implementation. A population-based cohort study.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Ontario implemented a publicly-funded rotavirus (RV) immunization program in 2011. Our objectives were to evaluate its impact on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) five years after implementation.

Methods: We performed a population-based longitudinal retrospective cohort study to identify hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE in all age groups using ICD-10 codes between August 1, 2005 and March 31, 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.061DOI Listing
February 2019

Modified oral enteric-coated budesonide regimens to treat pediatric eosinophilic gastroenteritis, a single center experience.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.01.053DOI Listing
February 2019

Prevalence, levels and seasonal variations of human enteric viruses in six major rivers in Alberta, Canada.

Water Res 2019 Apr 1;153:349-356. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, 1405-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

The prevalence and seasonal variation of 7 viruses in 6 major rivers in Alberta were assessed using a combination of qPCR, cell culture and integrated cell culture with qPCR (ICC-qPCR). Water samples were collected monthly from rivers at different sites upstream and downstream of major urban centers. Seven viruses including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, JC virus and enterovirus, were detected in at least one of the water samples at each site using qPCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.01.034DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A Syrian Refugee in Iraq Diagnosed as a Case of IL12RB1 Deficiency in Japan Using Dried Blood Spots.

Front Immunol 2019 25;10:58. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare condition of primary immunodeficiency disorder. Interleukin-12 receptor β1 (IL12RB1) deficiency, is the most common genetic etiology of MSMD, which is characterized by the selective predisposition to clinical disease caused by weakly-virulent mycobacteria, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, and environmental non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of deficiency to be reported from Iraq. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355664PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Diagnostic challenges in late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a 16-year experience from tertiary care centre in North India.

Trop Doct 2019 Feb 10:49475519827109. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

3 Professor, Department of Paediatrics, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

With increasing use of ultrasound screening, the prenatal diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in better resourced areas has become the norm. However, early diagnosis is still not universal in resource-poor settings and late presentations of CDH continue. We retrospectively analysed the medical records of children operated for late-presenting CDH from 2001 to 2016 at our tertiary care centre in North India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475519827109DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

SIADH versus adrenal insufficiency: a life-threatening misdiagnosis.

Ital J Pediatr 2019 Feb 6;45(1):23. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 1, 34127, Trieste, Italy.

Background: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) in children is an uncommon but severe condition which can be either inherited or acquired. It consists in clinical manifestation of defective production or ineffective action of endogenous glucocorticoids; deficiency in mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens may coexist. Diagnosis of PAI in children and young people can be challenging; while adrenal crisis (acute decompensation) is a life-threatening condition, with patient presenting with characteristic features of hypoglycemia, hypotension, collapse and coma, chronic adrenal insufficiency may present with vague and non-specific symptoms, making the diagnosis more difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-019-0614-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366080PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

[Educational intervention in Primary Care to reduce and improve the adequacy of pediatric consultations].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2019 Jan 29;93. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Centro de Salud Medina del Campo. Valladolid. España.

Objective: Many parents visit paediatric health services due to unimportant reasons (ignorance of health problems of their children and psychosocial and emotional conditionings). The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a health education program, on the number and adequacy of pediatric consultations, in the first 6 months of the child´s life.

Methods: Quasi-experimental study of an educational intervention aimed at pregnant women in the last trimester of pregnancy and their partners. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of lumacaftor and ivacaftor combination therapy in children aged 2-5 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for F508del-CFTR: an open-label phase 3 study.

Lancet Respir Med 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Division of Respiratory Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of lumacaftor and ivacaftor are established in patients aged 6 years and older with cystic fibrosis, homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of lumacaftor and ivacaftor in children aged 2-5 years.

Methods: In this multicentre, phase 3, open-label, two-part study, we enrolled children aged 2-5 years, weighing at least 8 kg at enrolment, with a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis who were homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30460-0DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Missed Diagnosis of New-Onset Systolic Heart Failure at First Presentation in Children with No Known Heart Disease.

J Pediatr 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Objective: To determine frequency of missed heart failure diagnosis at first presentation among children with no known heart disease admitted with new-onset heart failure.

Study Design: Using a retrospective design, we reviewed electronic medical records of all patients aged <21 years with no known heart disease, hospitalized with new-onset heart failure during 2003-2015 at a tertiary-quaternary care institution. We assessed records for missed diagnosis of heart failure (primary outcome), associated process breakdowns, and clinical outcomes using a structured data collection instrument. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.029DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
3.790 Impact Factor

The use of bedside echocardiography for measuring cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance in pediatric patients with septic shock.

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2018 Oct-Dec;30(4):460-470

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University - Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Follow-up of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index by bedside echocardiography until resuscitation.

Methods: A set of hemodynamic parameters was obtained, including cardiac output, stroke volume, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, velocity time integral, myocardial performance index, capillary refill time, and heart rate at 0 hours after fluid boluses before the start of inotropes, and followed up after 6 hours and 24 hours.

Results: Included were 45 patients with community-acquired septic shock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0103-507X.20180067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334480PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

The International Collaborative on Fatigue Following Infection (COFFI).

Fatigue 2018 19;6(2):106-121. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The purpose of the Collaborative on Fatigue Following Infection (COFFI) is for investigators of post-infection fatigue (PIF) and other syndromes to collaborate on these enigmatic and poorly understood conditions by studying relatively homogeneous populations with known infectious triggers. Utilizing COFFI, pooled data and stored biosamples will support both epidemiological and laboratory research to better understand the etiology and risk factors for development and progression of PIF.

Methods: COFFI consists of prospective cohorts from the UK, Netherlands, Norway, USA, New Zealand and Australia, with some cohorts closed and some open to recruitment. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21641846.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21641846.2018.1426086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333416PMC
January 2018
5 Reads

Factors Associated With Rotavirus Vaccine Coverage.

Pediatrics 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Rotavirus vaccines (RVVs) were included in the US immunization program in 2006 and are coadministered with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, yet their coverage lags behind DTaP. We assessed timing, initiation, and completion of the RVV series among children enrolled in active gastroenteritis surveillance at 7 US medical institutions during 2014-2016.

Methods: We compared coverage and timing of each vaccine series and analyzed characteristics associated with RVV initiation and completion. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1824DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

A rare case report of fungal esophagitis combined with giant gastric ulcer in an immunocompetent patient.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Jan;98(3):e14158

Department of Digestive Disease, The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University.

Rationale: Fungal infection of gastrointestinal (GI) tract is usually seen in immunocompromised patients, but can rarely occur in immunocompetent people in whom no permissive factor is present.

Patient Concerns: We describe a 68-year-old male immunocompetent patient presenting with simultaneous fungal esophagitis and giant gastric ulcer.

Diagnoses: Repeated endoscopic biopsies were taken from the giant gastric ulcer edge and base and histology demonstrated granulation tissue and pseudohyphal fungal forms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014158DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Acute Infectious Diarrhea.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences - Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Acute infectious diarrhea (AID) is one of the most common diseases in pediatric age with relevant burden both in high- and in low-income countries.Thanks to their direct action on enterocyte functions and indirect actions on mucosal and systemic immune system and intestinal microenvironment, probiotics are an ideal intervention to manage AID in childhood. However, their efficacy is strictly related to strains and indications, and practitioners should take this information into account in clinical practice. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2018_320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2018_320DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years hospitalized for diarrhoea, 2012 to 2016.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jan 15;19(1):69. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: In 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech, India) in 4 states of India as part of the Universal Immunization Programme, and expanded to 5 more states in 2017. We report four years of data on rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children < 5 years of age prior to vaccine introduction.

Methods: Children from 7 sites in southern and northern India hospitalized for diarrhoea were recruited between July 2012 and June 2016. Read More

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https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6406-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334384PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Gelatin tannate versus other antidiarrheal medication in children with acute gastroenteritis: a retrospective, observational study.

J Comp Eff Res 2019 Feb 15;8(3):187-194. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Clinical Research & Regulatory Division, CEBIS International, Bucharest, Romania.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of gelatin tannate (GT) for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children.

Materials & Methods: In this retrospective, observational study, children admitted for AGE received GT ± oral rehydration solution (ORS; n = 46) or other antidiarrheal medications ± ORS (n = 46). Number and consistency of stools were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cer-2018-0082DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can protect malnourished children.

Benef Microbes 2019 Jan 14:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

3 Department of Pediatrics, Regional Training and Research Hospital, 25280 Erzurum, Turkey.

Malnutrition affects virtually all organ systems, and malnourished children are more prone to infections. These children have dysbiosis, but probiotics can restore the disrupted gut microbiome. We investigated the protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in malnourished children in terms of incidence of infection, and anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/BM2018.0071DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

How Different is AMAN from AIDP in Childhood GBS? A Prospective Study from North India.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Objectives: To compare the clinical profile and short-term outcome of children with axonal and demyelinating subtypes of childhood Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS).

Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Consecutive children with Guillain Barré syndrome were recruited to compare the clinical profile and short term outcome among the subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2835-5DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
0.919 Impact Factor

Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease in a patient with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterol 2019 Jan 11;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, 830-0011, Japan.

Background: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disorder that manifests oculocutaneous albinism together with bleeding diatheses that reflect a platelet storage pool deficiency. Ten genetic subtypes of this autosomal recessive condition have been described to date. Some patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1, 4, or 6 develop Crohn's-like inflammatory bowel disease at any age including early childhood, but most often in adolescence or young adulthood. Read More

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https://bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-019-0929-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329123PMC
January 2019
10 Reads

Molecular Evolutionary Analyses of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Region in Norovirus Genogroup II.

Front Microbiol 2018 18;9:3070. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma Paz University, Takasaki, Japan.

Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans across the world. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. Although there have been some reports on a limited number of genotypes with respect to the norovirus evolution of the region, no comprehensive molecular evolution examination of the norovirus GII genotype has yet been undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305289PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

IL-22 Preserves Gut Epithelial Integrity and Promotes Disease Remission during Chronic Infection.

J Immunol 2019 Feb 7;202(3):956-965. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

The Biomedical Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada;

The cytokine IL-22 is rapidly induced at barrier surfaces where it regulates host-protective antimicrobial immunity and tissue repair but can also enhance disease severity in some chronic inflammatory settings. Using the chronic gastroenteritis model, Ab-mediated neutralization of IL-22 impaired intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and, consequently, exaggerated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. As disease normally resolved, neutralization of IL-22 caused luminal narrowing of the cecum-a feature reminiscent of fibrotic strictures seen in Crohn disease patients. Read More

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http://www.jimmunol.org/lookup/doi/10.4049/jimmunol.1801308
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801308DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

The epidemiology of non-viral gastroenteritis in New Zealand children from 1997 to 2015: an observational study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jan 5;19(1):18. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Otago, PO Box 4345, Christchurch Mail Centre, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a substantial cause of hospitalization in children. Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Giardia and Cryptosporidium are gastrointestinal pathogens that are notifiable in New Zealand (NZ). The impact of these infections in the pediatric population has not yet been analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6229-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321731PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Appendicitis: Role of MRI.

Authors:
Manoj K Mittal

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Jan;35(1):63-66

Attending Physician, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis can be difficult, with a substantial proportion misdiagnosed based on clinical features and laboratory tests alone. Accordingly, advanced imaging with ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging has become routine for most children undergoing diagnostic evaluation for appendicitis. There is increasing interest in the use of US as the primary imaging modality and reserving CT as a secondary diagnostic modality in equivocal cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001710DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Piedmont, Italy.

Minerva Pediatr 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Citoimmunodiagnostics Laboratory, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Medical School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children, characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Co-detection of HBoV with other gastroenteric viruses was reported a lot in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: This paper presents the real-time RT-PCR Taqman assay for the detection and quantification of HBoV for clinical fecal samples collected from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Piedmont. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05365-3DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Lymphocyte subgroups and recurrent infections in children with Down syndrome - a prospective case control study.

Cent Eur J Immunol 2018 30;43(3):248-254. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Paediatrics Department, Genetic Unit, Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt.

Down syndrome (DS) is the commonest genetic disorder and more liable for recurrent infections. We aimed to determine the differences in lymphocyte subgroups between DS children and the healthy population and to study the pattern and likelihood for recurrent infections and hospital admission due to infection. Our study was carried out in the Genetic Unit of Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Egypt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceji.2018.80042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305610PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Neonatal transient eosinophilic colitis with single bubble sign.

Pediatr Int 2018 Dec;60(12):1092-1093

Department of Pediatrics, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13713DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

A case report of endoscopic therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis in patient with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(51):e13535

Department of Digestive Disease, The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University.

Rationale: Radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and difficult to manage. The current standard treatment has not been well established.

Patient Concerns: We described a 32-year-old male patient with hemorrhagic gastritis induced by external radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320029PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Molecular epidemiology of noroviruses in children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Norovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children in developing countries. Limited data on the prevalence and genetic variability of norovirus are available in Cameroon, where early childhood mortality due to AGE is common. We tested 902 fecal specimens from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with AGE between January 2010 and December 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25380DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Non-secretor histo-blood group antigen phenotype is associated with reduced risk of clinical rotavirus vaccine failure in Malawian infants.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Histo-blood-group-antigen (HBGA) Lewis/secretor phenotypes are associated with susceptibility to genotype-specific rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). We tested the hypothesis that non-secretor/Lewis negative phenotype leads to reduced vaccine virus replication, IgA response and clinical protection following vaccination with G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Malawian infants.

Methods: Infants receiving RV1 at age six and ten weeks were recruited to a cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1067DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Stabilization of cytokine mRNAs in iNKT cells requires the serine-threonine kinase IRE1alpha.

Nat Commun 2018 12 17;9(1):5340. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Unit for Molecular Immunology and Inflammation, VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Zwijnaarde (Ghent), Belgium.

Activated invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells rapidly produce large amounts of cytokines, but how cytokine mRNAs are induced, stabilized and mobilized following iNKT activation is still unclear. Here we show that an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), links key cellular processes required for iNKT cell effector functions in specific iNKT subsets, in which TCR-dependent activation of IRE1α is associated with downstream activation of p38 MAPK and the stabilization of preformed cytokine mRNAs. Importantly, genetic deletion of IRE1α in iNKT cells reduces cytokine production and protects mice from oxazolone colitis. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07758-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07758-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297233PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

The role of the sapovirus infection increased in gastroenteritis after national immunisation was introduced.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Aim: This study examined the prevalence and clinical significance of the sapovirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis before and after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccination in Finland in 2009.

Methods: We collected 1437 stool samples from children under 16 years during three prospective hospital-based surveillance studies of acute gastroenteritis at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. The children were seen in the emergency department (47%) or admitted to the ward (53%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14690DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

A 17-Year-Old Boy With High-Functioning Autism, Gastrointestinal Illness, and Seizures.

Pediatrics 2019 Jan 13;143(1). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and

A healthy 17-year-old boy with a high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder presented to the emergency department after having a 4-minute episode of seizure-like activity in the setting of presumed viral gastroenteritis. Within an hour of emergency department arrival, he developed a forehead-sparing facial droop, right-sided ptosis, and expressive aphasia, prompting stroke team assessment and urgent neuroimaging. Laboratory results later revealed a serum sodium of 119 mmol/L. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3964DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Introduction of an Oral Fluid Challenge Protocol in the Management of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis: A Regional Hospital Experience.

Ir Med J 2018 06 7;111(6):775. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Academic Department of Paediatrics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) remains the ideal first line therapy for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Our aim was to assess the impact of introducing an Oral Fluid Challenge (OFC) protocol on outcomes such as intravenous fluid use and documentation in our institution. A single centre study with data collected retrospectively pre-implementation (April 2015) of the OFC protocol and post implementation (April 2016). Read More

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June 2018
4 Reads

Introduction of rotavirus vaccination in a Swedish region: assessing parental decision-making, obtained vaccination coverage and resulting hospital admissions.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Aim: This study evaluated the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Jönköping County, Sweden, starting in 2014. This project explored the parental factors that influenced the decision to vaccinate and studied the obtained vaccination coverage and its potential influence on hospital admissions due to acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on a study-specific questionnaire (n = 356) and regional statistical data on vaccination coverage and hospital admissions in Jönköping County, Sweden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.14674DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Minimally Invasive Saliva Testing to Monitor Norovirus Infection in Community Settings.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Departments of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore.

Background: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Routine norovirus diagnosis requires stool collection. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a noninvasive method to diagnose norovirus to complement stool diagnostics and to facilitate studies on transmission. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/inf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy638DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads
5.997 Impact Factor

Performance of Stool Testing Recommendations for Acute Gastroenteritis when Used to Identify Children with Nine Potential Bacterial Enteropathogens.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Sections of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: The ability to identify bacterial pathogens that necessitate specific clinical management or public health action in children with acute gastroenteritis is crucial to patient care and public health. However, existing stool testing guidelines offer inconsistent recommendations, and their performance characteristics are unknown. We evaluated six leading gastroenteritis guidelines (e. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1021DOI Listing
December 2018
22 Reads

Comparative effectiveness and safety of interventions for acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis in children: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207701. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence & Impact; McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Background: Many interventions have shown effectiveness in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea and gastroenteritis (ADG) in children. Yet, there is lack of comparative efficacy of interventions that seem to be better than placebo among which, the clinicians must choose. Our aim was to determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of the pharmacological and nutritional interventions for reducing the duration of ADG in children. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207701PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281220PMC
December 2018
5 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

Things Are Not Always What They Seem: Two Cases of Child Maltreatment Presenting With Common Pediatric Chief Complaints.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, and.

We describe 2 cases of child maltreatment who presented as common pediatric conditions: preseptal cellulitis and gastroenteritis. The first case is an 8-year-old girl who presented with progressive right eye pain, swelling, and discharge. She was initially treated for preseptal cellulitis, but eye cultures ultimately grew Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001686DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Improving Our Understanding of Serovar Paratyphi B through the Engineering and Testing of a Live Attenuated Vaccine Strain.

mSphere 2018 11 28;3(6). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Enteric fever is caused by three serovars: Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B Although vaccines against two of these serovars are licensed (Typhi) or in clinical development (Paratyphi A), as yet there are no candidates for Paratyphi B. To gain genomic insight into these serovars, we sequenced 38 enteric fever-associated strains from Chile and compared these with reference genomes. Each of the serovars was separated genomically based on the core genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00474-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262260PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Efficacy of gelatin tannate for acute diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Comp Eff Res 2019 Jan 22;8(2):91-102. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Pediatric Gastroenterology & Liver Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Aim: To investigate by meta-analysis the efficacy of gelatin tannate (GT), a mucosal barrier protector, in children with acute gastroenteritis.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted. Studies were selected according to PICO: Participants: children aged 0-12 years with acute diarrhea; Intervention: GT; Comparison: oral rehydration solution and/or placebo; Outcomes: diarrhea-related outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cer-2018-0115DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

Multicenter Trial of a Combination Probiotic for Children with Gastroenteritis.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(21):2015-2026

From the Sections of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Gastroenterology, Alberta Children's Hospital, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (S.B.F.), and the Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Alberta Children's Hospital (S.W.-U., J.X.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, the Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (K.J.F.), the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal (S.G.), Ontario Child Health Support Unit, SickKids Research Institute, the Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health (A.R.W.), the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (P.M.S.), the Divisions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (Y.F.), and the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Research Institute (S.S.), Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, the Division of Emergency Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON (N.P.), the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS (K.H.), the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Women and Children's Health Research Institute (B.E.L.) and the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health-Alberta Public Laboratories and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (X.-L.P., L.C.), University of Alberta, Edmonton - all in Canada; the Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (D.S.); and Children's Minnesota and Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (M.G.).

Background: Gastroenteritis accounts for approximately 1.7 million visits to the emergency department (ED) by children in the United States every year. Data to determine whether the use of probiotics improves outcomes in these children are lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1802597DOI Listing
November 2018
37 Reads

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(21):2002-2014

From the Divisions of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (D.S., V.P.D.) and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (P.I.T., C.H.-M.), Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis; the Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (T.C.C., J.M.D., C.S.O., M.M.); Central Administration, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis (M.H.G.); the Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's National Health System, Department of Pediatrics, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (K.J.O.); the Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University, Detroit (P.M.); the Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (P.M., A.J.R.); the Department of Emergency Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital/Hasbro Children's Hospital and Brown University, Providence (A.C.L.); the Division of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati (D.S., S.R.B.); the Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York (C.G.R.); the Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago (E.C.P.); the Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento (C.V.); the Department of Emergency Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (R.E.S.); and the Sections of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada (S.B.F.).

Background: Acute gastroenteritis develops in millions of children in the United States every year, and treatment with probiotics is common. However, data to support the use of probiotics in this population are limited.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial involving children 3 months to 4 years of age with acute gastroenteritis who presented to one of 10 U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1802598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358014PMC
November 2018
38 Reads
55.873 Impact Factor

Consortium for Eosinophilic Researchers (CEGIR): Advancing the Field of Eosinophilic GI Disorders Through Collaboration.

Gastroenterology 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine/Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.10.057DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Paediatric deaths in a tertiary government hospital setting, Malawi.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2018 Nov 19:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

g Centre for Medical Education , Queen's University , Belfast , UK.

Background: Malawisuccessfully achieved Millennium Development Goal (MDG) four by decreasing the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds in 2012. Despite this progress child mortality is still high and in 2013, the leading causes of death in under-5s were malaria, acute respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS.

Aims: To determine the causes of inpatient child death including microbiological aetiologies in Malawi. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20469047.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2018.1536873DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Human Bocavirus Infection Markers in Peripheral Blood and Stool Samples of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis.

Viruses 2018 11 15;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Rīga Stradiņš University, 5 Ratsupites St., LV-1067 Riga, Latvia.

Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 1⁻4 belong to the Parvoviridae family, and they infect the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts in children. We investigated the prevalence of HBoV1⁻4 DNAs in the blood and stool samples, and of HBoV1⁻4 IgG and IgM in the plasma samples, of children presenting with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In addition, we identified HBoV co-infections with the five most frequent gastrointestinal pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265904PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Therapeutic Microbiology: The Role of as Food Supplement for the Prevention/Treatment of Paediatric Diseases.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 10;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL), Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Viale Fanin 42, 40127 Bologna, Italy.

The human intestinal microbiota, establishing a symbiotic relationship with the host, plays a significant role for human health. It is also well known that a disease status is frequently characterized by a dysbiotic condition of the gut microbiota. A probiotic treatment can represent an alternative therapy for enteric disorders and human pathologies not apparently linked to the gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10111723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265827PMC
November 2018
3.148 Impact Factor

Biochemical Markers, Genotype, and Inflammation in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Danish Population-Based Study.

Dig Dis 2019 13;37(2):140-146. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen,

Background: Our aim was to characterize the biochemical markers at diagnosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), to assess the utility of these to predict disease course and investigate if genotype influences biochemical markers of inflammation.

Summary: Patients were included from a population-based pediatric IBD cohort from Eastern Denmark. Data on biochemical markers and medical as well as surgical treatment were registered at diagnosis, 30 days, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/494215
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494215DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Contribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria to homeostasis disruption during intestinal inflammation.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 7;215:145-151. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil; LITEB, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Alteration in microbial populations and metabolism are key events associated with disruption of intestinal homeostasis and immune tolerance during intestinal inflammation. A substantial imbalance in bacterial populations in the intestine and their relationships with the host have been observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), believed to be part of an intricate mechanism of triggering and progression of intestinal inflammation. Because elevated numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been found in the intestines of patients with IBD, the study of their interaction with intestinal cells and their potential involvement in IBD has been the focus of investigation to better understand the intestinal pathology during IBD, as well as to find new ways to treat the disease. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205183071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.11.009DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Oral Ondansetron Administration to Nondehydrated Children With Diarrhea and Associated Vomiting in Emergency Departments in Pakistan: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Ann Emerg Med 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Centre of Excellence in Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Study Objective: We determine whether single-dose oral ondansetron administration to children with vomiting as a result of acute gastroenteritis without dehydration reduces administration of intravenous fluid rehydration.

Methods: In this 2-hospital, double-blind, placebo-controlled, emergency department-based, randomized trial conducted in Karachi Pakistan, we recruited children aged 0.5 to 5. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01960644183126
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.09.011DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads