155 results match your criteria Pediatrics Epiglottitis

Streptococcus Pyogenes Epiglottitis in a Child: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Apr 13;14(4):e24123. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Pediatrics, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Dr. Carlos Sáenz Herrera", San Jose, CRI.

Acute epiglottitis in children is a rare entity since the introduction of the vaccine against ; however, it should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis when facing a patient with evidence of upper airway obstruction. This study describes the case of a three-year-old child who arrived at the emergency department with fever, respiratory distress, and stridor. After ventilatory failure, the patient was intubated and antibiotics were initiated. Read More

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Variation in Prehospital Protocols for Pediatric Respiratory Distress Management in the United States.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Feb 28. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: This study aimed to compare statewide emergency medical services protocols for the management of pediatric respiratory distress.

Methods: We performed a descriptive study of emergency medical services protocols for the management of pediatric respiratory distress in the United States, excluding those without model or mandatory protocols. We compared medication recommendations for specific disease processes, including asthma, croup, epiglottitis, anaphylaxis, generalized respiratory distress, intubation, and drug assisted intubation. Read More

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February 2022

Childhood Respiratory Conditions: Stridor.

Jonathan Skirko

FP Essent 2022 Feb;513:25-31

Division of Otolaryngology in the Department of Pediatrics at University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724.

The most important issue in diagnosing stridor in infants and children is determining whether it is acute or chronic. The most common cause of acute stridor is croup, a viral infection with a straightforward diagnosis when patients have typical signs and symptoms (ie, inspiratory or biphasic stridor, barking cough, hoarse voice or cry, chest wall retractions). Management of mild and severe cases includes steroids. Read More

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February 2022

50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Epiglottitis: No Longer a Common Differential in Croup.

J Pediatr 2022 Feb;241:28

Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, The Bronx, New York.

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February 2022

Beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in partially immunized immunocompetent child: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Aug 18;15(1):433. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Paediatric Infectious Disease Department, Al Jalila Children's Specialty Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Introduction: Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that can cause many different kinds of infection, ranging from mild ear infection to life-threatening diseases like epiglottitis and meningitis. Encapsulated type b Haemophilus influenzae was most commonly responsible for Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in children before introduction of Haemophilus influenzae conjugate vaccine. None or partially immunized children are acquiring meningitis owing to resistant strains of Haemophilus influenzae, namely beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain. Read More

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Ear, Nose, Throat: Beyond Pharyngitis: Retropharyngeal Abscess, Peritonsillar Abscess, Epiglottitis, Bacterial Tracheitis, and Postoperative Tonsillectomy.

Mahsa Akhavan

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2021 Aug 9;39(3):661-675. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Goryeb Children's Hospital, Morristown Medical Center/Atlantic Health System, 100 Madison Ave, Morristown, NJ 07960, USA. Electronic address:

Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies presenting with a chief complaint of pharyngitis can be due to infection, trauma, or postprocedure complications. The entities described in this article include retropharyngeal abscess, peritonsillar abscess, epiglottitis, bacterial tracheitis, and post-tonsillectomy bleeding. This article provides the emergency physician with the tools needed to decipher between the mundane and the critical, variations in presentation, and their emergent management. Read More

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Cannabis induced thermal epiglottitis in a pediatric patient.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Nov 13;49:114-116. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Section on Infectious Disease, United States of America. Electronic address:

Acute epiglottitis is an airway emergency presenting with edema and inflammation of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds [1]. Infectious and other non-infectious etiologies may cause significant airway injury presenting with similar clinical symptoms and radiographic findings [1]. While many causes of thermal epiglottitis have been described in the pediatric and young adult population, we describe an unusual case of an adolescent patient with cannabis induced thermal epiglottitis. Read More

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November 2021

Atypical presentation of serogroup W disease is associated with the introduction of the 2013 strain.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 04 29;149:e126. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 70182Örebro, Sweden.

Since 2015, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup W (MenW) has increased in Sweden, due to the introduction of the 2013 strain belonging to clonal complex 11. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of MenW infections, in particular the 2013 strain, including genetic associations. Medical records of confirmed MenW IMD cases in Sweden during the years 1995-2019 (n = 113) were retrospectively reviewed and the clinical data analysed according to strain. Read More

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Infective Uvulitis in a Child.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Feb;38(2):e501-e502

From the Division of Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Abstract: Infective uvulitis is a rare condition in children. In this report, we describe the case of a 4-year old-patient who presented a group A Streptococcus pharyngitis with uvulitis. No signs of epiglottitis were detected at nasal fibroscopy. Read More

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February 2022

Non-vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type a epiglottitis.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 07 29;57(7):1133-1135. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Acute epiglottitis caused by tuberculosis in a young child.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 09 12;55(9):2189-2191. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

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September 2020

type b invasive infections in children hospitalized between 2000 and 2017 in a Pediatric Reference Hospital (PRH).

Heliyon 2020 Mar 19;6(3):e03483. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República. Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, Uruguay.

Background: Uruguay incorporated the conjugate vaccine against b (Hib) in 1994. In 2008, the vaccine was changed from one with natural conjugated capsular polysaccharide to one with a synthetic polysaccharide component. We describe the frequency and characteristics of invasive Hib infections in children hospitalized in a Pediatric Reference Hospital (PRH) between January 1st, 2000 and December 31st, 2017. Read More

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Epiglottitis Associated With Intermittent E-cigarette Use: The Vagaries of Vaping Toxicity.

Pediatrics 2020 03 5;145(3). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Divisions of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and.

An adolescent female patient presenting with subacute onset of dysphagia and hoarseness underwent a direct laryngoscopy, which revealed epiglottitis. After 2 hospitalizations and multiple consultations and biopsies, all infectious testing results for viral, bacterial, fungal, and acid-fast bacilli etiologies were negative. The patient's use of electronic cigarettes was the only exposure elicited with a likely role in her presentation. Read More

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Tonsillar hypertrophy and prolapse in a child - is epiglottitis a predisposing factor for sudden unexpected death?

BMC Pediatr 2020 01 20;20(1):22. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Pathology, Division of Forensic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa.

Background: Tonsillitis, with associated tonsillar hypertrophy, is a common disease of childhood, yet it is rarely associated with sudden death due to airway obstruction. Lethal complications involving the inflamed tonsils include haemorrhage, retropharyngeal abscess and disseminated sepsis.

Case Presentation: We report on a case of sudden and unexpected death in an 8-year-old female who was diagnosed with and treated for tonsillitis. Read More

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January 2020

Beware of thermal epiglottis! A case report describing 'teapot syndrome'.

BMC Anesthesiol 2018 12 22;18(1):203. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Maasstadweg 21, 3079 DZ, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The type of scalding injury known as 'teapot syndrome', where hot liquid is grabbed by the child with the aim of ingestion and falls over a child causing burns on the face, upper thorax and arms, is known to cause peri-oral and facial oedema. Thermal epiglottitis following scalds to face, neck and thorax is rare and can occur even in absence of ingestion of a damaging agent or intraoral burns, Awareness of the possibility of thermal epiglottitis, also in scald burns, is imperative to ensure prompt airway protection.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a child with thermal epiglottitis after a scalding burn from boiling milk resulting in mixed deep burns of the face, neck and chest, but no history of ingestion. Read More

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December 2018

Heamophilus Influenza-B Epiglottitis in a Vaccinated Child: A Note of Caution.

Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Dec;20(12):786-787

Department of Pediatrics, Padeh Poria Medical Center, Tiberias, Israel.

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December 2018

Acute epiglottitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant in a healthy infant.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 31;11:2063-2067. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan,

was the main causative organism for acute epiglottitis in the pre- type b (Hib) vaccine era. However, with current widespread Hib vaccination, the causative organisms may have changed. Here, we report the case of a healthy infant with acute epiglottitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Read More

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October 2018

Influenza A-Associated Epiglottitis and Compensatory Pursed Lip Breathing in an Infant.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Nov;35(11):e213-e216

From the Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Hospital.

The last 3 decades have seen a shift in the epidemiology of epiglottitis. Epiglottitis was once most commonly associated with Haemophilus influenzae type B. However, with the implementation of the H. Read More

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November 2019

Traumatic Epiglottitis following a Blind Insertion of the Hand during Convulsion.

Koji Yokoyama

Case Rep Pediatr 2018 28;2018:8398502. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Wakayama Medical Center, Wakayama, Japan.

Traditionally, it has been recommended that first-responders should place chopsticks or their hand in a child's mouth to prevent the child from biting their tongue during convulsion. The practice persists locally in parts of Japan and can cause adverse events. We report a traumatic epiglottitis following the thrusting of a guardians' hand into a 13-month-old girl's mouth to prevent her from biting her tongue. Read More

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Capsule and fimbriae modulate the invasion of Haemophilus influenzae in a human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier model.

Int J Med Microbiol 2018 Oct 17;308(7):829-839. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim, Germany.

The Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) can commensally colonize the upper respiratory tract, but also cause life threatening disease including epiglottitis, sepsis and meningitis. The H. Read More

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October 2018

Meningococcal serogroup W135 epiglottitis in an adolescent patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 5;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Woman-Mother-Child, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Acute epiglottitis is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. Since the implementation of vaccination, the number of cases of epiglottitis has decreased and the proportion of other infectious causes has increased. We report a case of acute epiglottitis in a teenager caused by , an unusual pathogen. Read More

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Changing Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae in Children.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 03 9;32(1):119-128. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Mercy, Kansas City, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. Electronic address:

Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children throughout the world. Before the introduction of vaccination, H influenzae type b (Hib) disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and a frequent cause of pneumonia, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. Clinicians should remain diligent in counseling parents on the dangers of Hib and provide vaccination starting at 2 months of age. Read More

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Case Report of a 5-Year-Old With Epiglottitis: An Atypical Presentation of an Uncommon Disease.

Amanda J Kasem

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Jan;34(1):e11-e13

From the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center-North Shore Long Island Jewish, New Hyde Park, NY.

Epiglottitis is a rarely encountered infection in pediatrics since the advent of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine first introduced in the United States in 1985. However, the disease remains a much feared infection in pediatrics. The literature reiterates the importance of early recognition, avoidance of agitating the patient, and the need for securing the airway in the operating room as key and essential features to a good outcome. Read More

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January 2018

Adult onset Kawasaki disease presenting with acute epiglottitis findings.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Dec 5;86 Suppl 1:67-71. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Wakayama Medical University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Wakayama, Japan. Electronic address:

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December 2020

A case report of epiglottitis.

J Paediatr Child Health 2017 Feb;53(2):202-203

Department of Paediatrics, Blacktown and Mt Druitt Hospitals, Blacktown, New South Wales, Australia.

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February 2017

Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f Epiglottitis: A Case Report and Review.

Hosp Pediatr 2017 01;7(1):54-56

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, The University of Michigan Medical School, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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January 2017

Case 3: Sore Throat and Fever in a 4-year-old Boy.

Pediatr Rev 2016 Sep;37(9):397-8

Departments of Pediatrics and Human Development, College of Human Medicine;

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September 2016

Clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with croup and epiglottitis who visited 146 Emergency Departments in Korea.

Korean J Pediatr 2015 Oct 21;58(10):380-5. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Department of Pediatrics, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Croup is a common pediatric respiratory illness with symptoms of varying severity. Moreover, epiglottitis is a rare disease that can rapidly progress to life-threatening airway obstruction. Although the clinical course and treatments differ between croup and epiglottitis, they are difficult to differentiate on presentation. Read More

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October 2015

Upper Airway Obstruction in Children.

Indian J Pediatr 2015 Aug 25;82(8):737-44. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology and Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Children with upper airway obstruction are both unique and variable in their presentation and management, often posing a challenge to the pediatrician. Several anatomical and physiologic peculiarities make a child vulnerable to develop an obstruction of upper airways. The characteristic finding in upper airway obstruction is stridor-inspiratory, biphasic or expiratory. Read More

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