1,763 results match your criteria Pediatrics Dehydration


Association of ambient extreme heat with pediatric morbidity: a scoping review.

Int J Biometeorol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Drexel Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Global climate change is leading to higher ambient temperatures and more frequent heatwaves. To date, impacts of ambient extreme heat on childhood morbidity have been understudied, although-given children's physiologic susceptibility, with smaller body surface-to-mass ratios, and many years of increasing temperatures ahead-there is an urgent need for better information to inform public health policies and clinical approaches. In this review, we aim to (1) identify pediatric morbidity outcomes previously associated with extreme heat, (2) to identify predisposing co-morbidities which may make children more susceptible to heat-related outcomes, and (3) to map the current body of available literature. Read More

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Adherence to pre-operative fasting guidelines and associated factors among pediatric surgical patients in selected public referral hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2022 Jun 21;78:103813. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, Dire Dawa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Background: Fasting before anesthesia is mandatory in children to reduce the complications of regurgitation, vomiting, and aspiration during anesthesia and surgery. Prolonged fasting times have several negative implications in children, because high fluid turnover quickly leads to dehydration, hypotension, metabolic disturbances, and hypoglycemia, resulting in poor anesthetic outcomes.

Aims: This study aimed to assess adherence to preoperative fasting guidelines and associated factors among pediatric patients undergoing elective surgery in Addis Ababa public hospitals in Ethiopia in 2020. Read More

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Tetralogy of Fallot Presenting as Severe Hypernatremic Dehydration: A Review of the Importance of Perinatal Care.

S D Med 2022 May;75(5):230-233

Department of Pediatrics, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

We present a case of a female American Indian neonate born via a provider unattended home delivery. Her mother received limited prenatal care and the infant was not examined by a healthcare provider until day of life 10 when she presented to the emergency department for evaluation of a skin rash. She was found to have severe hypernatremic dehydration. Read More

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The efficacy of infrared filter window film to prevent hyperthermia in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with conventional phototherapy: a randomized control trial.

Pediatr Neonatol 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand.

Background: Phototherapy is the first-line treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Possible side effects caused by phototherapy include hyperthermia and dehydration. Currently, there are many types of infrared blocking film for potential use in reducing infrared radiation exposure and preventing hyperthermia. Read More

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[A Case of Congenital Tufting Enteropathy with Gene Complex Heterozygous Mutation (c.491+1G>A; c.352_353ins CACC)].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 May;53(3):493-496

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

The patient, a one-month-old male infant, was admitted for "recurrent diarrhea for 20 days and vomiting for 4 days". On the 8th day after birth, the patient began to develop recurrent refractory diarrhea, accompanied by abdominal distension, vomiting, dehydration, acidosis, and malnutrition. There were many cases of malignant tumors of the digestive system in the patient's family. Read More

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Epidemiologic Characteristics of Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treated in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in a 10-Year-Period: Single Centre Experience in Croatia.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 May 5;58(5). Epub 2022 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia.

: The incidence of severe and moderate forms of DKA as the initial presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is increasing, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This poses a higher risk of developing cerebral edema as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), as well as morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to determine the trend and clinical features of children treated in the last 10 years in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to the development of DKA. Read More

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Course of uncomplicated acute gastroenteritis in children presenting to out-of-hours primary care.

BMC Prim Care 2022 May 24;23(1):125. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, FA21, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 196, 9700 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The aim of this article is to describe the courses of vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and clinical deterioration, in children with uncomplicated gastroenteritis at presentation. This study was performed as a 7-day prospective follow-up study in an out-of-hours primary care service. The course of vomiting, diarrhea, and fever was analyzed by generalized linear mixed modeling. Read More

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Weight loss monitoring reduces the occurrence of neonatal hypernatremic dehydration in breastfeeding neonates.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2022 Mar 25;9(1):22-26. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatrics. Harlem Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Excessive weight loss enhances the incidence of neonatal hypernatremic dehydration (NHD). We compared the effect of a new breastfeeding policy against an old breastfeeding policy on neonatal weight change and the incidence of NHD.

Methods: This was a QA project between two sets of breastfeeding (BF) protocols for exclusively BF newborns. Read More

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Outcomes and predictors of early emergency department discharge among children with acute gastroenteritis and moderate dehydration.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2022 Mar 11;9(1):27-31. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases that affects children and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of rapid intravenous fluid regimen on the clinical outcome of patients with acute gastroenteritis. This study aimed to assess the current practice of intravenous hydration on the clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis and determine the predictive factors for early discharge and emergency department (ED) revisit. Read More

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Diarrhoea, malnutrition, and dehydration associated with school water, sanitation, and hygiene in Metro Manila, Philippines: A cross-sectional study.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 12;838(Pt 2):155882. Epub 2022 May 12.

Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Diarrhoea, malnutrition, and dehydration threaten the lives of millions of children globally due to inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH). Our study aimed to identify environmental and behavioural risk factors of these health outcomes among schoolchildren in Metro Manila, Philippines.

Materials And Methods: We analysed data from a multistage cluster sample of schoolchildren in grades 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 (ages ~10-15 years old) to investigate WaSH facilities and hygiene practices. Read More

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September 2022

Physiological mechanisms of the impact of heat during pregnancy and the clinical implications: review of the evidence from an expert group meeting.

Int J Biometeorol 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Centre On Climate Change and Planetary Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Many populations experience high seasonal temperatures. Pregnant women are considered vulnerable to extreme heat because ambient heat exposure has been linked to pregnancy complications including preterm birth and low birthweight. The physiological mechanisms that underpin these associations are poorly understood. Read More

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Management of severe hypernatremic dehydration and acute kidney injury in children in a critical care nephrology and dialysis unit.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2021 Sep-Oct;32(5):1431-1440

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Bangladesh Institute of Child Health and Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Sher e Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Our study aimed to manage the children presented with severe hypernatremic dehydration and acute kidney injury (AKI) an updated fluid management protocol was used to find out the rate of decline of serum sodium per day and their outcome. This is a prospective interventional study was conducted from November 2015 up to October 2016 in the Critical Care Nephrology and Dialysis Unit of Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Bangladesh. A total of 45 children with hypernatremia and AKI were evaluated. Read More

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Fluid Therapy for Pediatric Patients.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2022 May;52(3):707-718

VETgirl, 2950 Busch Lake Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33614, USA.

Pediatric dogs and cats within their first 12 weeks of life have important electrolyte requirements and physiologic considerations that may impact fluid therapy. Fluid requirements are higher in pediatrics, while fluid losses are greater due to underdeveloped physiologic responses. Hydration and volume status are difficult to assess in young animals, and their small size makes intravenous (IV) access difficult to obtain. Read More

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Myocardial Infarction in Children after COVID-19 and Risk Factors for Thrombosis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Apr 1;12(4). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

"Marie Curie" Emergency Children's Hospital, 041451 Bucharest, Romania.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in children is rather anecdotic. However, following COVID-19, some conditions may develop which may favor thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and death. Such a condition is Kawasaki-like disease (K-lD). Read More

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The Effect of a Structured Gastroenteritis Discharge Management Plan on Compliance, Prognosis, and Parents' Satisfaction.

Cureus 2022 Mar 16;14(3):e23240. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatric Emergency, Maternity and Children Hospital, Makkah, SAU.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of dehydration in children. Parents' education is an essential part of its management. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of discharge instructions in the pediatric emergency department for parents of children with acute gastroenteritis, together with disease prognosis and parents' satisfaction. Read More

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Severe lactic acidosis and persistent diastolic hypotension following standard dose of intermittent nebulized salbutamol in a child: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Apr 22;16(1):160. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Neonatology and Pediatrics, ASST Sette Laghi, Ospedale F. del Ponte, Varese, Italy.

Background: Salbutamol is a selective β2-receptor agonist widely used to treat asthma in both emergency and outpatient settings. However, it has been associated with a broad spectrum of side effects. Lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension are rarely reported together following intermittent salbutamol nebulization in children, even less so at standard therapeutic doses. Read More

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Severe malnutrition as a cause of transient carbohydrate metabolism disorders which evolved into hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state.

Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Children's Diabetology and Pediatrics, Medical University of Silesia, Poland.

The hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) is a very severe condition characterised by hyperosmolality, hyperglycaemia and dehydration without significant ketosis. The article presents the case of a 14.5-year-old cachectic patient with diagnosed HHS. Read More

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Impact of rotavirus vaccine implementation on Israeli children: a comparison between pre- and post-vaccination era.

World J Pediatr 2022 Jun 7;18(6):417-425. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Bnai Zion Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 47 Golomb St., 31048, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Worldwide rotavirus vaccination has resulted in a substantial decrease in rotavirus-induced severe gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among children. Still, the characterization of patients warranting hospitalization needs to be further elucidated. The purpose of the study is to compare the clinical and laboratory features of children hospitalized with acute rotavirus infection before and after the introduction of routine vaccination. Read More

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Case Report: Novel Homozygous Variant Causing Isolated Hyperchloridrosis in a Chinese Child With Hyponatremia.

Front Pediatr 2022 14;10:820707. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Isolated hyperchloridrosis (HYCHL; OMIM 143860) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the gene, which is characterized by abnormally high levels of salt in sweat that can lead to dehydration associated with low levels of sodium in the blood. To date, only four variants of the gene have been identified to be associated with HYCHL. Here, we presented a rare Chinese case of HYCHL in an infant with decreased food intake, mild diarrhea, severe dehydration, and hypovolemic shock who was hospitalized in our department three times. Read More

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Canagliflozin-associated severe hyponatremia: a rare and potentially adverse effect?

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2022 Mar 1;2022. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Northwell Health, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, New York, USA.

Summary: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) induce osmotic diuresis by inhibiting the proximal renal tubular reabsorption of the filtered glucose load, which in turn can occasionally lead to severe dehydration and hypotension amidst other adverse effects. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on canagliflozin, a SGLT2i. The patient was brought to the emergency room following a motor vehicle accident. Read More

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Improving ondansetron use and oral rehydration instructions for pediatric acute gastroenteritis.

BMJ Open Qual 2022 03;11(1)

Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

In paediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), ondansetron use decreases the need for intravenous fluids, reduces hospitalisations and shortens illness duration. Oral rehydration is also known to have excellent outcomes for mild to moderate dehydration secondary to AGE. Although these interventions are recommended in guidelines from international professional societies, baseline data at our clinic showed that <2% of these patients were offered ondansetron, and that few patients received appropriately detailed rehydration instructions. Read More

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Psychiatric comorbidities and dehydration are more common in children admitted to the emergency department for eating disorders in the COVID-19 era.

Eat Weight Disord 2022 Mar 16. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Emergency, Acceptance and General Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and home confinement had a significant impact on children, especially on those with eating disorders (ED). The primary objective of this retrospective study was to describe and analyze the demographic and clinical profiles of children presenting with ED during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of clinical charts of patients with ED younger than 18 years who accessed the emergency department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, between March 2019 and March 2021. Read More

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A rare cause of hypernatremia in an adolescent girl: Questions.

Pediatr Nephrol 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Izmir University of Health Sciences Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

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1.3.6 Fluid and Electrolytes.

World Rev Nutr Diet 2022;124:75-80. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Kentucky Children's Hospital, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

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Malrotation With Midgut Volvulus in an Adolescent Male.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Mar;38(3):e1082-e1084

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Abstract: Malrotation and midgut volvulus are conditions commonly described in infants, typically diagnosed within the first month of life. We present an unusual occurrence of high-grade obstruction because of malrotation and volvulus in an adolescent male. His symptoms at presentation, abdominal pain and vomiting, were similar to previous episodes in which he had been diagnosed with constipation or viral gastroenteritis and discharged home. Read More

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Clostridioides Difficile Enteritis: Case Report and Literature Review.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Feb 6;11(2). Epub 2022 Feb 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania.

Background: is a well-known pathogen causing diarrhea of various degrees of severity through associated infectious colitis. However, there have been reports of infectious enteritis mainly in patients with ileostomy, causing dehydration through high-output volume; Case presentation: We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient, malnourished, who presented with high-output ileostomy following a recent hospitalization where he had suffered an ileo-colic resection with ileal and transverse colon double ostomy, for stricturing Crohn's disease. toxin A was identified in the ileal output confirming the diagnosis of acute enteritis. Read More

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February 2022

Changes in humoral immunity, myocardial damage, trace elements, and inflammatory factor levels in children with rotavirus enteritis.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(1):452-459. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity & Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes and significance of humoral immunity, myocardial damage, trace elements and inflammatory factors levels in children with rotavirus enteritis.

Methods: One hundred children with rotavirus enteritis admitted to our hospital from January 2019 to December 2020 were retrospectively selected as the case group, and they were divided into a no dehydration group (33 cases), mild dehydration group (41 cases), and moderate dehydration group (26 cases). Another 100 children with rotavirus-negative enteritis during the same period were selected as the control group. Read More

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January 2022

Childhood Respiratory Conditions: Nonasthma Chronic Lung Disease.

Authors:
Cori Daines

FP Essent 2022 Feb;513:32-38

Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine in the Department of Pediatrics at University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that results from impaired lung development or lung injury from ventilatory support. It primarily is seen in infants born prematurely. Approximately 95% of infants with BPD had a low birth weight (ie, less than 1,500 g). Read More

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February 2022