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    1 OF 25

    Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2017 ;27(1):1-18
    Unidade de Alergia e Imunologia do Instituto da Criança, HC Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-, cell-mediated food allergy of unknown prevalence and pathophysiology. Onset is typically during the first year of life; seafood-induced FPIES may start in adulthood. Acute FPIES manifests within 1-4 hours after ingestion with repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock in 15% of cases. Read More

    Hypernatremia in the Neonate: Neonatal Hypernatremia and Hypernatremic Dehydration in Neonates Receiving Exclusive Breastfeeding.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Jan;21(1):30-33
    Department of Paediatrics, Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Hingna, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
    Aims And Objectives: Evaluation of neonatal hypernatremia and hypernatremic dehydration in neonates receiving exclusive breastfeeding.

    Introduction: Neonatal hypernatremia is a serious condition in the newborn period. We present infants with hypernatremic dehydration due to breast milk (BM) hypernatremia. Read More

    Risk factors for hospitalization of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390-9063.
    Background And Objectives: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are prone to potentially life-threatening adrenal crises. We tried to identify risk factors for post-diagnosis hospitalization for children with the salt wasting form of CAH.

    Methods: We reviewed medical records of all children who presented to Children's Medical Center Dallas from 1999 to 2013 with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ICD-9 code 255. Read More

    Renal Morphology, Clinical Findings, and Progression Rate in Mesoamerican Nephropathy.
    Am J Kidney Dis 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Background: Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is a chronic kidney disease affecting rural inhabitants in Central America. We have previously described the renal morphology in 8 patients from El Salvador. To confirm the renal pathology, we have studied kidney biopsies from patients with MeN in Nicaragua. Read More

    Hemoglobin C trait accentuates erythrocyte dehydration in hereditary xerocytosis.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 Jan 25. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    A 17-year-old male presented with acute hemolysis with stomatocytosis, elevated mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and osmotic gradient ektacytometry consistent with marked erythrocyte dehydration. Erythrocytes from both parents also demonstrated evidence of dehydration with elevated MCHC and abnormal ektacytometry, but neither to the degree of the patient. Genetic studies revealed the patient had hereditary xerocytosis (HX) due to a novel PIEZO1 mutation inherited from his mother and hemoglobin C (HbC) trait inherited from his father. Read More

    Airway mucus, inflammation and remodeling: emerging links in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases.
    Cell Tissue Res 2017 Mar 20;367(3):537-550. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Department of Translational Pulmonology, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 156, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD. Read More

    YouTube: are parent-uploaded videos of their unwell children a useful source of medical information for other parents?
    Arch Dis Child 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Aims: YouTube is a vast source of freely accessible user-uploaded medical information. To our knowledge no study has analysed the quality of parent-uploaded videos which depict illness in their children. We aimed to investigate the quality and quantity of videos representing two common conditions, croup and dehydration. Read More

    Evaluation of a Smartphone Decision-Support Tool for Diarrheal Disease Management in a Resource-Limited Setting.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 19;11(1):e0005290. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    The emergence of mobile technology offers new opportunities to improve clinical guideline adherence in resource-limited settings. We conducted a clinical pilot study in rural Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of a smartphone adaptation of the World Health Organization (WHO) diarrheal disease management guidelines, including a modality for age-based weight estimation. Software development was guided by end-user input and evaluated in a resource-limited district and sub-district hospital during the fall 2015 cholera season; both hospitals lacked scales which necessitated weight estimation. Read More

    Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis triggered by postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection in a late preterm infant.
    Infection 2017 Jan 16. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Children's Hospital, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.
    Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory condition with impairment of cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells. Causes in infants are mostly hereditary immune defects as well as various infectious triggering factors, amongst these cytomegalovirus (CMV). Vertical CMV transmission may occur in utero, during birth, and by breast feeding. Read More

    Characteristics and Outcomes of Pediatric Patients With Ebola Virus Disease Admitted to Treatment Units in Liberia and Sierra Leone: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Feb 25;64(3):243-249. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Warren Alpert Medical School, and
    Background: The clinical and virologic characteristics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in children have not been thoroughly documented.

    Methods: Consecutive children aged <18 years with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed EVD were enrolled retrospectively in 5 Ebola treatment units in Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014/2015. Data collection and medical management were based on standardized International Medical Corps protocols. Read More

    Improved Management of Harlequin Ichthyosis With Advances in Neonatal Intensive Care.
    Pediatrics 2017 Jan 20;139(1). Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Dermatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York;
    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe phenotype of the autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses. HI is caused by mutations in the lipid transporter adenosine triphosphate binding cassette A 12 (ABCA12). Neonates are born with a distinct clinical appearance, encased in a dense, platelike keratotic scale separated by deep erythematous fissures. Read More

    Hypernatremic Dehydration in Breastfed Term Infants: Retrospective Evaluation of 159 Cases.
    Breastfeed Med 2017 Jan/Feb;12:5-11. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    1 Department of Pediatrics, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine , Sivas, Turkey .
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to reveal the frequency, presenting complaints, risk factors, complications, and ways for prevention of hypernatremic dehydration (HD) among term breastfed infants.

    Methods: The files of 159 breastfed term infants hospitalized because of HD between the years 2009 and 2014 were examined retrospectively in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Sivas State Hospital, Turkey. The patients were classified according to serum sodium (Na) levels, group 1 (Na: 146-149 mEq/L, n = 68) and group 2 (Na ≥150 mEq/L, n = 91). Read More

    Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.
    Br J Haematol 2017 Feb 16;176(4):515-526. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Hematology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. Read More

    Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 12 13;12:CD006519. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of the Philippines Manila College of Medicine-Philippine General Hospital, Taft Avenue, Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines, 1000.
    Background: Acute diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. Glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) helps replace fluid and prevent further dehydration from acute diarrhoea. Since 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the osmolarity of less than 270 mOsm/L (ORS ≤ 270) versus greater than 310 mOsm/L formulation (ORS ≥ 310). Read More

    Implementation of clinical decision support in young children with acute gastroenteritis: a randomized controlled trial at the emergency department.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Feb 8;176(2):173-181. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC - Sophia children's hospital, Wytemaweg 80, Rotterdam, CN, 3015, The Netherlands.
    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequent reasons for young children to visit emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate (1) feasibility of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system for rehydration treatment in children with AGE and (2) the impact on diagnostics, treatment, and costs compared with usual care by attending physician. A randomized controlled trial was performed in 222 children, aged 1 month to 5 years at the ED of the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's hospital in The Netherlands ( 2010-2012). Read More

    Pediatric surgical readmissions: Are they truly preventable?
    J Pediatr Surg 2017 Jan 28;52(1):161-165. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    University of California, Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA.
    Background/purpose: Reimbursement penalties for excess hospital readmissions have begun for the pediatric population. Therefore, research determining incidence and predictors is critical.

    Methods: A retrospective review of University HealthSystem Consortium database (N=258 hospitals; 2,723,621 patients) for pediatric patients (age 0-17years) hospitalized from 9/2011 to 3/2015 was performed. Read More

    Associations Between Hydration Status, Intravenous Fluid Administration, and Outcomes of Patients Infected With Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Jan;171(1):68-76
    Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Section of Gastroenterology, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada7Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Importance: The associations between hydration status, intravenous fluid administration, and outcomes of patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remain unclear.

    Objective: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and adverse outcomes in STEC-infected individuals.

    Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via the OvidSP platform, PubMed via the National Library of Medicine, CINAHL Plus with full text, Scopus, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials. Read More

    Human milk oligosaccharide effects on intestinal function and inflammation after preterm birth in pigs.
    J Nutr Biochem 2017 Feb 4;40:141-154. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    Comparative Pediatrics and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlægevej 68, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may mediate prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects in newborns. This is particularly important for preterm infants who are highly susceptible to intestinal dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMO supplementation of infant formula (IF) improves intestinal function, bacterial colonization and NEC resistance immediately after preterm birth, as tested in a preterm pig model. Read More

    Oral Ondansetron versus Domperidone for Acute Gastroenteritis in Pediatric Emergency Departments: Multicenter Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.
    PLoS One 2016 23;11(11):e0165441. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy.
    The use of antiemetics for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children is still a matter of debate. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate whether a single oral dose of ondansetron vs domperidone or placebo improves outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. After failure of initial oral rehydration administration, children aged 1-6 years admitted for gastroenteritis to the pediatric emergency departments of 15 hospitals in Italy were randomized to receive one oral dose of ondansetron (0. Read More

    Validation of a Simple Stool Diary used by Caregivers to Document Diarrhea Among Young Children in a Low-Income Country.
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016 Nov 14. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    *Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark†Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda‡Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark§Pharma Evidence, Farum, Denmark||Nopia Research Group, Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Objectives: Development and validation of a simple stool diary for caretakers collecting data on stool frequency and consistency among young children in a low-income country.

    Methods: Focus group studies evaluated how diarrhea was understood by caregivers (content validity). The sensitivity, reliability, and correlations between dehydration and diary scores (construct validity) were tested in a clinical trial. Read More

    Hyponatremia in children with tuberculous meningitis: A hospital-based cohort study.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):182-187
    Department of Pediatrics, ESI-PGIMSR, MGM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Hyponatremia has long been recognized as a potentially serious metabolic consequence of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) occurring in 35-65% of children with the disease. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion has for long been believed to be responsible for the majority of cases of hyponatremia in TBM. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is being increasingly reported as a cause of hyponatremia in some of these children. Read More

    Endemic bladder calculi in children.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Nov 15. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, Pakistan.
    Urinary calculi are being recognized more frequently in children and the urinary bladder is the most common site for stone formation in the lower urinary tract. Bladder calculi are grouped into three basic categories: primary idiopathic/endemic, secondary, and migrant. The incidence of vesical calculi has declined significantly in the last 70 years in developed nations owing to improvements in nutrition and socioeconomic conditions, but it is still high in developing nations. Read More

    Prevalence, aetiology, treatment and outcomes of shock in children admitted to Kenyan hospitals.
    BMC Med 2016 Nov 16;14(1):184. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Kenya Medical Research Institute/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P.O. Box 43640-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: Shock may complicate several acute childhood illnesses in hospitals within low-income countries and has a high case fatality. Hypovolemic shock secondary to diarrhoea/dehydration and septic shock are thought to be common, but there are few reliable data on prevalence or treatment that differ for the two major forms of shock. Examining prevalence and treatment practices has become important since reports suggest high risks from liberal use of fluid boluses in African children. Read More

    Options for improving effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Nov 11. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    e Department of Paediatrics & The Ritchie Centre , Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University; Infection and Immunity, Monash Children's Hospital, Monash Health; SAEFVIC, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute.
    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in young children due to diarrhea and dehydration. Over 85% of deaths occur in developing countries. In industrialised countries, two live oral rotavirus vaccines licensed in 2006 quickly demonstrated high effectiveness, dramatically reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis admissions in many settings by more than 90%. Read More

    Hypercalcemia in Patients with Williams-Beuren Syndrome.
    J Pediatr 2016 Nov 26;178:254-260.e4. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:
    Objective: To evaluate the timing, trajectory, and implications of hypercalcemia in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) through a multicenter retrospective study.

    Study Design: Data on plasma calcium levels from 232 subjects with WBS aged 0-67.1 years were compared with that in controls and also with available normative data. Read More

    Methylmalonyl-coA epimerase deficiency: A new case, with an acute metabolic presentation and an intronic splicing mutation in the MCEE gene.
    Mol Genet Metab Rep 2016 Dec 24;9:19-24. Epub 2016 Sep 24.
    Medical Genetics Service, Department of Pediatrics, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) and University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.
    Methylmalonyl-coA epimerase (MCE) follows propionyl-coA carboxylase and precedes methylmalonyl-coA mutase in the pathway converting propionyl-coA to succinyl-coA. MCE deficiency has previously been described in six patients, one presenting with metabolic acidosis, the others with nonspecific neurological symptoms or asymptomatic. The clinical significance and biochemical characteristics of this rare condition have been incompletely defined. Read More

    Neonatal Bartter syndrome with cholelithiasis and hydrocephalus: Rare association.
    Pediatr Int 2016 Sep;58(9):912-5
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey.
    Neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. This disease is characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and metabolic alkalosis that is often associated with failure to thrive and recurrent episodes of dehydration. The combination of BS and cholelithiasis in an infant is very rare. Read More

    Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Gastroparesis and Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting.
    Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2016 Dec;14(4):386-400
    Center of Implantable Devices, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
    Opinion Statement: Gastroparesis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Some patients have debilitating vomiting, weight loss, and dehydration, while others have effortless regurgitation of undigested foods or postprandial distress suggestive of functional dyspepsia. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been proposed as an effective treatment option for patients with gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy. Read More

    Report of data on children with non-typhi Salmonella gastroenteritis in a three-year period.
    Infez Med 2016 Sep;24(3):194-200
    Department of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory data of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. infections. Clinical (demographic data, symptoms and findings) and laboratory data (stool microscopy, rapid antigen tests, culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and blood test results) of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Read More

    X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita in a Boy due to a Novel Deletion of the Entire NR0B1 (DAX1) and MAGEB1-4 Genes.
    Int J Endocrinol 2016 30;2016:5178953. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 2nd Chair of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Rheumatology, 27/33 Szpitalna Street, 60-572 Poznan, Poland; Karol Jonscher's Clinical Hospital, 27/33 Szpitalna Street, 60-572 Poznan, Poland.
    X-linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (AHC) is caused by deletions or point mutations in the NR0B1 (DAX1) gene. We present a boy with AHC who came at the age of 25 days in a severe state due to prolonged vomiting and progressive dehydration. Laboratory studies showed prominent hyponatremia and hyperkaliemia but not hypoglycemia. Read More

    Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with unusual presentations in Sagamu, Nigeria: a case report and review of the literature.
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 2;24:114. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
    Department of Paediatrics, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria.
    A 24-day old female Nigerian neonate presented with protracted vomiting, fever and dehydration but without palpable abdominal tumour or visible gastric peristalsis. There was no derangement of serum electrolytes. The initial working diagnosis was Late-Onset Sepsis but abdominal ultrasonography showed features consistent with the diagnosis of IHPS. Read More

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in a child with Wernicke encephalopathy treated with fludrocortisone therapy: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Sep;95(36):e4393
    aDepartment of Pediatrics bResearch Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.
    Rationale For This Case Report: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. Read More

    Health disparities in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
    Am J Surg 2016 Aug 4. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Background: This study investigates whether health disparities exist in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS), to identify factors affecting definitive treatment, and if more morbidity occurs.

    Methods: A 6-year retrospective analysis was performed on infants with HPS. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the impact of socioeconomic factors on disease severity and hospitalization. Read More

    Rotavirus Diarrhea in Children Presenting to an Urban Hospital in Western Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Indian Pediatr 2016 Jul;53(7):627-9
    Department of Pediatrics and #Microbiology, LLRM Medical College, Meerut, UP; and *Department of Pediatrics, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, New Delhi; India. Correspondence to: Dr Neeraj Kumar Teotia, Department of Pediatrics, LLRM Medical College, Meerut, UP, India.
    Objective: To determine the proportion and clinical profile of rotavirus associated diarrhea in children aged 6 months to 5 years.

    Methods: Clinical details and stool samples were collected from 254 children aged between 6 months to 5 years presenting with acute diarrhea, irrespective of hydration status, to the outpatient department or emergency room of a hospital in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Results: Rotavirus accounted for 26. Read More

    A randomized trial of Plasma-Lyte A and 0.9 % sodium chloride in acute pediatric gastroenteritis.
    BMC Pediatr 2016 Aug 2;16:117. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Background: Compare the efficacy and safety of Plasma-Lyte A (PLA) versus 0.9 % sodium chloride (NaCl) intravenous (IV) fluid replacement in children with moderate to severe dehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis (AGE).

    Methods: Prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted at eight pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the US and Canada (NCT#01234883). Read More

    Ebola virus disease and critical illness.
    Crit Care 2016 Jul 29;20(1):217. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    As of 20 May 2016 there have been 28,646 cases and 11,323 deaths resulting from the West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak reported to the World Health Organization. There continue to be sporadic flare-ups of EVD cases in West Africa.EVD presentation is nonspecific and characterized initially by onset of fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, and fever; this is followed several days later by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Read More

    Extrapontine myelinolysis associated with severe hypernatremia in infancy.
    Pediatr Int 2016 Sep 27;58(9):936-9. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) is an uncommon disorder in children, with few pediatric cases reported to date. We report the first case of an infant with EPM without central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) presenting with severe hypernatremia. On admission, the infant had impaired consciousness, mild dehydration, and severe hypernatremia (190 mmol/L). Read More

    Usefulness of ultrasound examination in the evaluation of a neonate's body fluid status.
    J Ultrason 2016 Jun 29;16(65):125-34. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Ultrasound and Biopsy Diagnostics Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland.
    Unlabelled: Appropriate hydration is a very important prognostic factor for the patient's health. Ultrasonographic assessment of hydration status is rarely used in pediatric medicine and it is not used at all in neonates due to the fact that no reference values have been established for this age group. The aim of the paper was to establish reference values for neonates. Read More

    Diarrhoea in children under five years of age in South Africa (1997-2014).
    Trop Med Int Health 2016 Sep 6;21(9):1060-70. Epub 2016 Jul 6.
    Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Objective: To present evidence from available reliable published data on the prevalence, incidence and severity of diarrhoea in children aged under five years in South Africa.

    Methods: We searched seven electronic databases. Two reviewers assessed the studies independently and extracted outcome data. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care testing for dehydration in the pediatric ED.
    Am J Emerg Med 2016 Aug 31;34(8):1573-5. Epub 2016 May 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510.
    Objectives: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and subsequent dehydration account for a large proportion of pediatric emergency department (PED) visits. Point-of-care (POC) testing has been used in conjunction with clinical assessment to determine the degree of dehydration. Despite the wide acceptance of POC testing, little formal cost-effective analysis of POC testing in the PED exists. Read More

    Residential Moving and Preventable Hospitalizations.
    Pediatrics 2016 Jul 3;138(1). Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Cochrane Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom;
    Objectives: To investigate the association between moving home in the first year of life and subsequent emergency admissions for potentially preventable hospitalizations.

    Methods: We undertook a cohort analysis of linked anonymized data on 237 842 children in the Welsh Electronic Cohort for Children. We included children born in Wales between April 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008. Read More

    Procedural ultrasound in pediatric patients: techniques and tips for accuracy and safety.
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2016 Jun 1;13(6):1-38; quiz 24-5. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Director of Emergency Ultrasound, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.
    Point-of-care ultrasound is becoming more prevalent in pediatric emergency departments as a critical adjunct to both diagnosis and procedure guidance. It is cost-effective, safe for unstable patients, and easily repeatable as a patient's clinical status changes. Point-of-care ultrasound does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation and may care ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine is relatively new, the body of literature evaluating its utility is small, but growing. Read More

    Thermoregulation in boys and men exercising at the same heat production per unit body mass.
    Eur J Appl Physiol 2016 Jul 26;116(7):1411-9. Epub 2016 May 26.
    Child Health & Exercise Medicine Program, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, HSC 3N27G, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.
    Purpose: Child-adult thermoregulatory comparisons may be biased by differences in metabolic heat production ([Formula: see text]). We compared thermoregulatory responses of boys and men exercising at two intensities prescribed to elicit either a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit body mass (BM) or a fixed absolute [Formula: see text].

    Methods: Ten boys (10-12 years) and 10 men (19-25 years) performed 4 × 20-min cycling at a fixed [Formula: see text] per BM (W kg(-1)) at 35 °C and 35 % relative humidity (MENREL). Read More

    Prevalence of Electrolyte Disorders Among Cases of Diarrhea with Severe Dehydration and Correlation of Electrolyte Levels with Age of the Patients.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 May;26(5):394-8
    Department of Pediatrics, Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan.
    Objective: To find out the prevalence of electrolyte disorders among children with severe dehydration, and to study correlation between age and electrolyte, urea and creatinine levels.

    Study Design: Prospective, analytical study.

    Place And Duration Of Study: Outdoor and indoor of Fazle-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2012. Read More

    The Effect of Passive Heat Stress and Exercise-Induced Dehydration on the Compensatory Reserve During Simulated Hemorrhage.
    Shock 2016 Sep;46(3 Suppl 1):74-82
    *Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas †Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York ‡Institute for Clinical and Translational Science and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, California §Flashback Technologies Inc., Boulder, Colorado ||US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
    Compensatory reserve represents the proportion of physiological responses engaged to compensate for reductions in central blood volume before the onset of decompensation. We hypothesized that compensatory reserve would be reduced by hyperthermia and exercise-induced dehydration, conditions often encountered on the battlefield. Twenty healthy males volunteered for two separate protocols during which they underwent lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to hemodynamic decompensation (systolic blood pressure <80 mm Hg). Read More

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