2,205 results match your criteria Pediatrics Croup or Laryngotracheobronchitis


Multicentre study revealed significant gaps between evidence-based recommendations for using corticosteroids for croup and clinical practice.

Acta Paediatr 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Pediatric Emergency Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Italy.

Aim: Adherence to croup management recommendations has been poorly investigated. This study aimed to describe the treatment patterns in two paediatric emergency departments and analyse the adherence to recommendations.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with croup in two Italian pediatric emergency departments in 2017. Read More

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Execution and Design of an Anti HPIV-1 Vaccine with Multiple Epitopes Triggering Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses: An Immunoinformatic Approach.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 29;10(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Malaysia.

Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) Type-1, which is an anti-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus belonging to the paramyxoviridae family, induces upper and lower respiratory tract infections. The infections caused by the HPIV Type-1 virus are usually confined to northwestern regions of America. HPIV-1 causes infections through the virulence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which plays a key role in the attachment of the viral particle with the host's receptor cells. Read More

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Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 infection in unvaccinated hospitalized children: Comparison to influenza and parainfluenza infections.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Jun 22:1-29. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

There has been a rapid surge of hospitalization due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variants globally. The severity of Omicron BA.2 in unexposed, unvaccinated, hospitalized children is unknown. Read More

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Two Case Reports of Life-Threatening Croup Caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant in Pediatric Patients.

J Korean Med Sci 2022 Jun 20;37(24):e192. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Jeonbuk National University Children's Hospital, Jeonju, Korea.

Croup is a common upper airway infection characterized by a barking cough, stridor, and hoarseness. It is usually caused by viral infection. A small number of croup caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in children before the omicron variant surge. Read More

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A Term Infant Presenting with COVID-19 Disease at Birth and a Croup-like Cough.

Am J Perinatol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Neonatology, Banner - University Medical Center Phoenix, Phoenix, United States.

Introduction: Since the original coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global outbreak, there have been increasing reports of children developing a croup-like cough associated with concurrent COVID-19 infection. Currently, there is not much information available regarding newborn infants and COVID-19 infection and the incidence of vertical transmission is thought to be rare. This novel case report depicts a term newborn infected at the time of birth with COVID-19 and includes details about the course of their complicated hospitalization. Read More

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Croup as a Manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Infection in Young Children.

J Korean Med Sci 2022 May 23;37(20):e140. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Croup is an acute upper respiratory disease primarily caused by the parainfluenza virus. Owing to inflammation and edema of the upper airways, children present with barky cough and stridor, and some may experience respiratory distress. We investigated children aged < 5 years with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to two hospitals in Seoul, South Korea, and observed a spike in croup cases during the omicron surge. Read More

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C-MAC video laryngoscopy in a difficult airway in a child with nephrotic syndrome with croup and severe neck oedema.

Indian J Anaesth 2022 Mar 25;66(Suppl 2):S129-S130. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Anaesthesia, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

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Diurnal variation in rectal and cutaneous temperatures of horses housed under different management conditions.

Int J Biometeorol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Polo Universitario Dell'Annunziata, University of Messina, 98168, Messina, Italy.

Thermoregulation is an important mechanism to ensure thermal homeostasis. In horses, different housing conditions could influence this mechanism by exposing animals to different microclimates. The circadian rhythm of body temperature is well known. Read More

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Croup during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Omicron Variant Surge.

J Pediatr 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of patients with croup seen during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Approximately 50% underwent testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. During the Delta wave, 2. Read More

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Foreign body aspiration in two young infants: The devil in the carpet.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 Jul 17;57(7):1795-1798. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa.

Foreign body aspiration is rare in children below 6 months of age. Very young children presenting with stridor, atypical croup presentation, and not responding accordingly, subglottic foreign body aspiration should be considered. These may not always be visible with bedside flexible endoscopy and may need investigation under anesthesia. Read More

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A 9-Month-Old Boy With "3 Months of Croup" a Devil Inside.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2022 Jan-Dec;10:23247096211066392

UCLA Kern Medical, Bakersfield, CA, USA.

Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is an endemic fungal disease that is prevalent in the Southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. The majority of cases are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases primarily present with pneumonic disease, varying in severity from mild to severe. Read More

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Croup Associated With SARS-CoV-2: Pediatric Laryngotracheitis During the Omicron Surge.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Division of Infectious Disease, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

In this retrospective analysis, we describe weekly croup and corresponding viral prevalence patterns in a pediatric quaternary care system in metropolitan Atlanta. We characterize a series of 24 patients with croup associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and show that this clinical presentation increased substantially in frequency during the period of high Omicron vs Delta transmission. Read More

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Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Human Coronaviruses-Associated Infections in Children: A Multi-Center Study.

Front Pediatr 2022 12;10:877759. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Yangsan, South Korea.

Background: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Although studies have analyzed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HCoV-associated infections, no multi-center studies have been conducted in Korean children. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HCoV-associated infection in children. Read More

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CROUP AS A PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED SYMPTOM OF COVID-19 IN INFANTS.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Although the most common symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children are fever and cough, cases of croup associated with COVID-19 are reported in the literature and have increased sharply with the Omicron variant. We present severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as a viral agent in an infant presenting with croup. Read More

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Retrospective Evaluation of Return Rates in Pediatric Patients Treated With Inhaled Racemic Epinephrine for Croup.

WMJ 2022 Apr;121(1):26-29

Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, Marshfield Medical Center, Marshfield, Wisconsin.

Objectives: To determine if the length of observation (< 2 hours vs ≥ 2 hours) following treatment of croup with inhaled racemic epinephrine in the emergency department (ED) is associated with return rates (within 48 hours after treatment) in pediatric patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients' medical records from February 2010 through June 2018 for pediatric patients (male and female, ≤ 12 years of age) diagnosed with croup in the ED, treated with racemic epinephrine, and discharged from the ED.

Results: We evaluated patients observed for less than 1 hour, 1 to 2 hours, and greater than 2 hours to determine difference in return rates within 48 hours. Read More

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A multi-disciplinary approach to chronic cough in children.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2022 Apr 23;7(2):409-416. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Otolaryngology Head Neck Surgery Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital Houston Texas USA.

Objectives: (1) To highlight the important causes of chronic and recurrent cough in children. (2) To discuss multidisciplinary approach to management of chronic/recurrent pediatric cough.

Methods: Review of scholarly articles, guidelines, expert panels via PubMed and Google Scholar. Read More

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Acute laryngotracheitis caused by COVID-19: A case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 May 12;94:107074. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

King Fahad Medical Military Complex, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Laryngotracheitis (croup) is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 in adults.

Presentation Of Case: A 52-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED) with shortness of breath and inspiratory stridor. Read More

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COVID-19 Infection in Children: Diagnosis and Management.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2022 11;24(4):51-62. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI USA.

Purpose Of Review: Due to the rapidly changing landscape of COVID-19, the purpose of this review is to provide a concise and updated summary of pediatric COVID-19 diagnosis and management.

Recent Findings: The relative proportion of pediatric cases have significantly increased following the emergence of the Omicron variant (from < 2% in the early pandemic to 25% from 1/27 to 2/3/22). While children present with milder symptoms than adults, severe disease can still occur, particularly in children with comorbidities. Read More

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Croup and COVID-19.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Central, EPE, Lisbon, Portugal.

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Recurrent Croup.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2022 04;69(2):319-328

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Joseph M. Sanzari Children's Hospital, Hackensack Meridian Children's Health, 30 Prospect Avenue, WFAN PC377, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA. Electronic address:

Croup refers to airway inflammation and edema leading to obstruction of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Croup is the most common cause of acute airway obstruction in young children. It is characterized by the onset of low-grade fever, barky cough, stridor, hoarseness, and respiratory distress. Read More

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Perspectives From French and Filipino Parents on the Adaptation of Child Health Knowledge Translation Tools: Qualitative Exploration.

JMIR Form Res 2022 Mar 25;6(3):e33156. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: A number of evidence-based knowledge translation (KT) tools for parents of children with acute health conditions have been developed. These tools were created and tested with parental input and disseminated to groups proficient in English. Therefore, it is unclear whether they are useful for populations that are more diverse. Read More

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Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infections with seasonal human coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized children immediately before the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

J Infect Chemother 2022 Jul 15;28(7):859-865. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Introduction: Seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 are seasonal coronaviruses that cause colds in humans. However, the clinical characteristics of pediatric inpatients infected with HCoVs are unclear. This study aimed to compare and clarify the epidemiological and clinical features of HCoVs and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which commonly causes severe respiratory infections in children. Read More

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Croup as a manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019.

Pediatr Int 2022 Jan;64(1):e14952

Department of Allergy, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Gunma Children's Medical Center, Shibukawa, Japan.

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January 2022

Variation in Prehospital Protocols for Pediatric Respiratory Distress Management in the United States.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2022 Jul 2;38(7):e1355-e1361. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: This study aimed to compare statewide emergency medical services protocols for the management of pediatric respiratory distress.

Methods: We performed a descriptive study of emergency medical services protocols for the management of pediatric respiratory distress in the United States, excluding those without model or mandatory protocols. We compared medication recommendations for specific disease processes, including asthma, croup, epiglottitis, anaphylaxis, generalized respiratory distress, intubation, and drug assisted intubation. Read More

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Pseudomembranous necrotizing laryngotracheobronchitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a case report and literature review.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Feb 23;22(1):183. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Pulmonology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, 3333 Binsheng Rd, Hangzhou, 310052, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Pseudomembranous necrotizing laryngotracheobronchitis refers to an acute diffuse necrotizing inflammation in the mucosa of the larynx, trachea, and bronchus. It often occurs in infants and children having viral infections secondary to bacterial infections. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. Read More

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February 2022

Children With Croup and SARS-CoV-2 Infection During the Large Outbreak of Omicron.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 05;41(5):e249

Department of General Pediatrics, Okinawa Prefectural Nanbu Medical Center & Children's Medical Center Okinawa, Japan.

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The Steeple Sign of Croup in an Adult.

Intern Med 2022 Feb 19. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Japan.

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February 2022

Childhood Respiratory Conditions: Stridor.

Authors:
Jonathan Skirko

FP Essent 2022 Feb;513:25-31

Division of Otolaryngology in the Department of Pediatrics at University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724.

The most important issue in diagnosing stridor in infants and children is determining whether it is acute or chronic. The most common cause of acute stridor is croup, a viral infection with a straightforward diagnosis when patients have typical signs and symptoms (ie, inspiratory or biphasic stridor, barking cough, hoarse voice or cry, chest wall retractions). Management of mild and severe cases includes steroids. Read More

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February 2022