4,646 results match your criteria Pediatrics Child Abuse

Health outcomes in international migrant children: protocol for a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2021 May 3;11(5):e041173. Epub 2021 May 3.

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Migration status is a key determinant of health, but health outcomes among migrant children and young people (CYP), that is, those aged under 18 years, are poorly understood. A 'healthy migrant' effect has been demonstrated among adults, but evidence for the same effect in CYP is lacking. No large studies or reviews exist reporting comprehensive or holistic health outcomes among migrant CYP. Read More

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Prevention and contrast of child abuse and neglect in the practice of European paediatricians: a multi-national pilot study.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 May 3;47(1):105. Epub 2021 May 3.

Campus Bio-Medico University Medical School, Rome, Italy.

Background: Child abuse and neglect, or maltreatment, is a serious public health problem, which may cause long-term effects on children's health and wellbeing and expose them to further adulthood vulnerabilities. Studies on child maltreatment performed in Europe are scarce, and the number of participants enrolled relatively small. The aim of this multi-national European pilot study, was to evaluate the level of understanding and perception of the concepts of child abuse and neglect by European paediatricians working in different medical settings, and the attitude toward these forms of maltreatment in their practice. Read More

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Child maltreatment, cognitive functions and the mediating role of mental health problems among maltreated children and adolescents in Uganda.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2021 Apr 30;15(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: Child maltreatment poses high risks to the mental health and cognitive functioning of children not only in childhood but also in later life. However, it remains unclear whether child maltreatment is directly associated with impaired cognitive functioning or whether this link is mediated by mental health problems. Our study aimed at examining this research question among children and adolescents in Uganda. Read More

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A retrospective study of clinical encounters for pelvic inflammatory disease: missed opportunities to screen for syphilis and HIV?

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Objective: Missed screening opportunities may contribute to the rising rates of sexually transmitted and blood borne infections (STBBIs) in Manitoba. This study sought to determine the proportion of women who are screened for syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) when admitted with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all inpatient admissions for PID over 3 discrete years (fiscal years 2007, 2012, 2017) at a single tertiary care centre. Read More

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A changing history: When is it a red flag for child abuse?

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 28;117:105077. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Center for the Protection of Children, Penn State College of Medicine, Penn State Health Children's Hospital, Hershey, PA, United States.

Background And Objective: While a changing history is frequently cited as a red flag for child abuse, no data support which changes are significant, nor the degree to which concern should be increased. We sought to measure the impact of changing caregiver histories on expert assessments of abuse likelihood.

Methods: We used a vignette survey to measure the impact of a changing history on child abuse expert assessments of abuse likelihood and willingness to undertake testing and protective interventions. Read More

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Building skills and resilience in child abuse pediatricians: A novel program to address Secondary Traumatic Stress.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 28;117:105082. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Toronto, Department of Pediatrics, Toronto, Canada; The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: Secondary traumatic Stress (STS) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon experienced by clinicians working with patients who have experienced trauma firsthand. STS is experienced in a range of clinical settings; medical trainees and those working in Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) are at particular risk of experiencing STS. To date, there are no interventions described to address STS experienced by medical trainees in the context of CAP training. Read More

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Electronic Screen Exposure and Headache in Children.

Hüseyin Çaksen

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2021 Jan-Feb;24(1):8-10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Divisions of Pediatric Neurology and Genetics and Behavioral-Developmental Pediatrics, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty, Meram, Konya, Turkey.

Headache represents the most common neurologic disorder in the general population including children and is increasingly being recognized as a major source of morbidity in youth related to missed school days and activities. Electronic screens are becoming increasingly important in the lives of preteens and teens. In this review, we discussed effects of electronic screens on primary headache in childhood to emphasize the importance of electronic screen exposure in children with headache. Read More

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February 2021

Debunking Fringe Beliefs in Child Abuse Imaging: Expert Panel Narrative Review.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, Department of Radiology, Michigan Medicine, 1540 E. Hospital Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-4252.

Child abuse is a global public health concern. Injuries from physical abuse may be clinically occult and not appreciable on physical examination. Imaging is therefore critical in identifying and documenting such injuries. Read More

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Inpatient Food Insecurity in Caregivers of Hospitalized Pediatric Patients: A Mixed Methods Study.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, 1102 Bates Ave, FC 1150, Houston, TX 77030, USA, 832-824-4330. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Amongst U.S. households with children, 14% are food insecure. Read More

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Responding to child sexual abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 21:105073. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street. W., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L8, Canada.

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Intimate partner violence and child outcomes at age 10: a pregnancy cohort.

Arch Dis Child 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Intergenerational Health Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Assess the mental health, physical health, cognitive and language development of 10-year old children in families where mothers have reported intimate partner violence (IPV) compared with children with no reported IPV exposure.

Design: Prospective pregnancy cohort. Maternal report of IPV (Composite Abuse Scale) at 1, 4 and 10 years. Read More

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Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and associated risk factors in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Apr 21;21(1):190. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, Amhara, Ethiopia.

Background: Neural tube defects are common congenital anomalies that result from early malformation in the development of the spinal cord and brain. It is related to substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic costs. The aim of this review is to determine the pooled birth prevalence of neural tube defects and associated risk factors in Africa. Read More

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Child Maltreatment and Substance Use in Emerging Adulthood: Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors at the Transition to Adolescence as Indirect Pathways.

Child Maltreat 2021 Apr 22:10775595211010965. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

One well-established outcome of child maltreatment is an increased likelihood of substance use in emerging adulthood. However, research identifying the indirect pathways that explain this relation is lacking, thereby limiting substance use prevention efforts for the child maltreatment population. The present study helped address this gap by accessing data from The Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN; = 1,136), a prospective cohort study of child maltreatment from birth through age eighteen. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related isolation measures on violence against children in Egypt.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2021 Apr 20;96(1):11. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related isolation measures have substantial adverse economic, social, and psychological consequences and expose children to increased risk of violence. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on violence against children in Egypt.

Methods: An online survey, in Arabic, was disseminated during the period from 9 to 13 April 2020, to parents of children who were up to 18 years old residing in Egypt, selected using a snowball sampling technique, during the period from 25 March to 8 April during the implementation of the nationwide compulsory isolation measures against COVID-19 (25 March to 8 April 2020). Read More

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Associations between Obesity and Adverse Childhood Experiences in the United States.

Child Obes 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Obesity leads to serious health consequences in children and is potentially associated with increased adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Nationally representative studies examining associations between obesity and ACEs are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to determine the relationship between ACEs and childhood obesity. Read More

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Maltreatment of Children With Disabilities.

Pediatrics 2021 May 19;147(5). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Over the past decade, there have been widespread efforts to raise awareness about maltreatment of children. Pediatric providers have received education about factors that make a child more vulnerable to being abused and neglected. The purpose of this clinical report is to ensure that children with disabilities are recognized as a population at increased risk for maltreatment. Read More

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Associations between a history of sexual abuse and dental anxiety, caries experience and oral hygiene status among adolescents in sub-urban South West Nigeria.

BMC Oral Health 2021 04 19;21(1):196. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.

Introduction: Sexual and oral health are important areas of focus for adolescent wellbeing. We assessed for the prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents, oral health factors associated with this history, and investigated whether sexual abuse was a risk indicator for dental anxiety, caries experience and poor oral hygiene.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between December 2018 and January 2019 among adolescents 10-19 years old in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Read More

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Interesting case of vasculitis or suspected child abuse: A fast evolving story.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Child Protection Unit, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Timely recognition of retinal hemorrhage in pediatric abusive head trauma evaluation.

J AAPOS 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Public Health Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Background: Distinct patterns of retinal hemorrhages (RHs) are suggestive of abusive head trauma in the context of unexplained intracranial injury. Current recommendations encourage an eye examination within 48 hours of admission due to the rapid resolution of RH. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with a delay in funduscopic examination outside the recommended 48 hours. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences in a low-income black cohort: The importance of context.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 18;148:106557. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have been definitively linked with cross-domain life course well-being. While scales measuring the ten "Conventional" ACEs (ACEs-C; intrafamilial experiences of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction) are parsimonious, use of such scales alone may fail to capture crucial information about adversity, particularly in youth growing up in underresourced areas. Patterns and disparities in Conventional and Expanded ACEs (ACEs-E; experiences more common in impoverished and densely populated areas) were examined in the large, primarily Black Chicago Longitudinal Study cohort. Read More

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Validation of a Clinical Decision Rule to Predict Abuse in Young Children Based on Bruising Characteristics.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215832. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: Bruising caused by physical abuse is the most common antecedent injury to be overlooked or misdiagnosed as nonabusive before an abuse-related fatality or near-fatality in a young child. Bruising occurs from both nonabuse and abuse, but differences identified by a clinical decision rule may allow improved and earlier recognition of the abused child.

Objective: To refine and validate a previously derived bruising clinical decision rule (BCDR), the TEN-4 (bruising to torso, ear, or neck or any bruising on an infant <4. Read More

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Maternal Adverse Childhood Experience and Depression in Relation with Brain Network Development and Behaviors in Children: A Longitudinal Study.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583, Singapore.

Maternal childhood maltreatment and depression increase risks for the psychopathology of the offspring. This study employed a longitudinal dataset of mother-child dyads to investigate the developmental trajectories of brain functional networks and behaviors of children in relation with maternal childhood adverse experience and depression. Maternal childhood trauma was retrospectively assessed via childhood trauma questionnaire, whereas maternal depressive symptoms were prospectively evaluated during pregnancy and after delivery (n = 518). Read More

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Risk Factors for Maltreatment in Siblings of Abused Children.

Pediatrics 2021 May 5;147(5). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: To examine the association between child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) in one sibling and that in another as well as associated risk factors.

Methods: The participants were 520 sibling pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia ( = 1040). Exposure to suspected child maltreatment was measured by linkage with state child protection agency data. Read More

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A Cluster Randomized Trial to Reduce Missed Abusive Head Trauma in Pediatric Intensive Care Settings.

J Pediatr 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Penn State University, State College, PA.

Objective: To estimate the impact of the PediBIRN (Pediatric Brain Injury Research Network) 4-variable clinical decision rule (CDR) on abuse evaluations and missed abusive head trauma in pediatric intensive care settings.

Study Design: This was a cluster randomized trial. Participants included 8 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in US academic medical centers; PICU and child abuse physicians; and consecutive patients with acute head injures <3 years (n = 183 and n = 237, intervention vs control). Read More

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Palm Bruising in Infants: A Recognizable Pattern of Abuse.

J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Bruising in an infant is an important sentinel injury that should raise concern for child physical abuse, and should prompt a medical evaluation for occult injury. Hyperflexion during forceful squeezing of an infant's hand results in a distinct pattern of bruising along the palmar and interdigital creases, as well as the palmar eminences. Self-inflicted injury by the infant or injury resulting from benign handling should not be accepted as plausible explanations for this injury. Read More

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Reducing suspicion of sexual abuse in paediatric chlamydial conjunctivitis using genotyping.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 29;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Ophthalmology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK.

is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes urogenital tract infections, and ocular infections including trachoma, neonatal conjunctivitis and adult chlamydial inclusion conjunctivitis. A positive diagnosis in children often raises suspicions of sexual abuse. While outer membrane protein A () genotypes A-C are non-invasive and are associated with trachoma; genotypes D-K are often associated with sexually transmitted urogenital infections or sexually acquired chlamydial conjunctivitis. Read More

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Prevalence, age of initiation, and patterns of co-occurrence of digital dating abuse behaviors nationwide.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2021 Mar 5;122. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute M/S CW8-5, PO BOX 5371, Seattle, WA 98145-5005, United States.

Introduction: Little is known about the patterns of adolescent and young adult digital dating abuse (DDA) nationwide. This study characterizes (1) the lifetime prevalence, (2) the age of initiation, and (3) the patterns of co-occurrence of both using and experiencing DDA behaviors in dating relationships.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among a sample of 696 U. Read More

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Child maltreatment fatalities among children and adolescents 5-17 years old.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Mar 25;117:105032. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 370 W 9th Ave, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA; The Center for Family Safety and Healing, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 655 E Livingston Ave, Columbus, OH, 43205, USA.

Background: Child maltreatment-related fatalities occur among children of all ages. However, few published studies have examined child abuse and neglect deaths among older children and adolescents.

Objective: To epidemiologically describe child maltreatment-related fatalities among children in the United States 5-17 years old. Read More

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