567,308 results match your criteria Pediatrics Chicken Pox or Varicella


Empty Sella Syndrome Associated with Growth Hormone Deficiency: the First Case Report of Weiss-Kruszka Syndrome.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e133. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Inha University Hospital, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Weiss-Kruszka syndrome (WSKA), caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in gene, is a recently described and extremely rare genetic disorder. The main phenotypes include characteristic craniofacial features, ptosis, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and neurodevelopmental impairment. We report the first Korean boy with molecularly confirmed WSKA presenting with an atypical manifestation. Read More

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Risk Factors of Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients in Korea: Focus on Early Symptoms.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e132. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Urology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the globe, and it is important to determine the risk factors of death in the general population. Our study aimed to determine the risk factors of death and severe illness requiring supplemental oxygen therapy based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Korea.

Methods: In this study, we used data provided by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) and analyzed a total of 5,068 patients with COVID-19, excluding 19 pregnant women and 544 individuals with missing data. Read More

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Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Improve Chronic Disease Care: Methods and Application to Pharmacotherapy Decision Support for Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Methods Inf Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

Objectives:  Artificial intelligence (AI), including predictive analytics, has great potential to improve the care of common chronic conditions with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are still many challenges to achieving this vision. The goal of this project was to develop and apply methods for enhancing chronic disease care using AI. Read More

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Skin Diseases in Elite Athletes.

Int J Sports Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Sport Medicine Humboldt University and Charité University School of Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

An athlete's skin has to cope with various stressors that influence skin integrity. This study investigated the effect of intense sporting activity at a competitive level on skin health, independent of the type of sport. The prevalence of dermatoses in elite athletes who exercise 8 or more hours per week was compared to recreational athletes. Read More

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The Association between Prolonged Antibiotic Use in Culture Negative Infants and Length of Hospital Stay and Total Hospital Costs.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Neonatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Objective:  This study aimed to determine if prolonged antibiotic use at birth in neonates with a negative blood culture increases the total cost of hospital stay.

Study Design:  This was a retrospective study performed at a 60-bed level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Neonates born <30 weeks of gestation or <1,500 g between 2016 and 2018 who received antibiotics were included. Read More

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Pulmonary Support of Infants with Tracheotomies in a Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective:  We evaluate patient characteristics, hospital course, and outcome by type discharge pulmonary support; mechanical ventilation (MV) or with tracheotomy masks (TM).

Study Design:  We reviewed records of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that underwent tracheotomy within their first year of life between 2006 and 2017. We evaluated patient characteristics, referral pattern, destination of discharge, and outcome by type of pulmonary support at discharge (MV vs. Read More

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The Effect of Dual (Combined) Treatment in Late Preterm Infants with Patent Ductus Arteriosus.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, KSU University SUA Hospital, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

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Platelet Transfusion and Outcomes of Preterm Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Neonatology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neonatology, Cleveland Clinic Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been adopted as a ubiquitous practice in management of thrombocytopenia in preterm infants to reduce the risk of bleeding.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of platelet transfusion among preterm infants with thrombocytopenia and to assess the association of platelet transfusion with mortality and morbidity in this population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study that utilized National Inpatient Sample for the years 2000-2017 was conducted. Read More

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Postnatal Corticosteroids to Prevent or Treat Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Authors:
Lex W Doyle

Neonatology 2021 May 11:1-8. Epub 2021 May 11.

Newborn Research, The Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major morbidity for infants born preterm. Postnatal corticosteroids might reduce the risk of developing BPD, or reduce its severity when it occurs, because of their powerful anti-inflammatory effects. However, corticosteroids have adverse effects, including on the developing brain. Read More

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Glioblastoma in adolescents and young adults: An age-based comparative study from Jordan over a 17-year period.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 May 8;73:101948. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan. Electronic address:

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor. Epidemiologic studies on GBM are rarely reported in the special age group of adolescents and young adults (AYA) in comparison to other age groups. We aim to present data on GBM in Jordan, with a focus on the AYA age, including the incidence, gender, location and outcome, as well as long term survival (LTS). Read More

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Paternal coping and psychopathology during the perinatal period: A mixed studies systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 Apr 2;86:102028. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Deakin University, Centre for Social and Early Emotional Development, School of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Geelong, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Centre for Adolescent Health, Melbourne, Australia; University of Melbourne, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

How fathers cope with stress may be critical to their mental health during the perinatal period. Using a sequential explanatory design for systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to identify associations and causal relations between higher- and lower-order avoidant and approach coping strategies and paternal psychopathology. We searched five electronic databases and grey literature, and used random-effects models to calculate pooled effects from 11 quantitative studies. Read More

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XPO1 inhibition with selinexor synergizes with proteasome inhibition in neuroblastoma by targeting nuclear export of IkB.

Transl Oncol 2021 May 8;14(8):101114. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue Ullmann 813 Bronx, NY 10461, United States; Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States.

Across many cancer types in adults, upregulation of the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport protein Exportin-1 (XPO1) correlates with poor outcome and responsiveness to selinexor, an FDA-approved XPO1 inhibitor. Similar data are emerging in childhood cancers, for which selinexor is being evaluated in early phase clinical studies. Using proteomic profiling of primary tumor material from patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, as well as gene expression profiling from independent cohorts, we have demonstrated that XPO1 overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Read More

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Chemical exposures via personal care products and the disproportionate asthma burden among the US Black population.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Departments of Population Health and Pediatrics, Dell Medical School at University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Electronic address:

There is an evolving body of literature that links chemicals commonly found in personal care products (PCPs) to an increased risk of both developing asthma and worsening existing asthma. Phthalates, parabens, environmental phenols, such as triclosan and bisphenol A (BPA), and other endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been implicated in asthma and related allergic conditions in epidemiological studies. Because Black individuals have increased exposure to these chemicals through hair care products and feminine hygiene products, disproportionate exposure to these chemicals through PCPs could contribute, in part, to the disproportionate asthma prevalence and morbidity among the US Black population. Read More

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Diagnosis of primary mast cell disorders in anaphylaxis: value of KIT D816V in peripheral blood.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

University of Antwerp, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology and the Infla-Med Centre of Excellence, Antwerp (Belgium) and Immunology, Allergology, Rheumatology, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp Belgium; AZ Jan Palfijn Gent, Department of Immunology and Allergology, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Anaphylaxis is frequent in patients suffering from primary mast cell disorders (PMCD). In patients without mastocytosis in the skin (MIS) and a baseline serum tryptase (bST) < 30 ng/mL, the diagnosis of PMCD is challenging. In these patients, detection of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood (PB) has been suggested as screening tool for a PMCD. Read More

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From the pages of AllergyWatch.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Clinic, Section of Allergy and Immunology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon.

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Self-driving armored CAR-T cells overcome suppressive milieu and eradicate CD19+ Raji lymphoma in preclinical models.

Mol Ther 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Translational Research and Development, Lentigen, a Miltenyi Biotec Company, 1201 Clopper Road, 20878 Gaithersburg, MD, USA, United States. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells typically use a strong constitutive promoter to ensure maximal long-term CAR expression. However, recent evidence suggests that restricting the timing and magnitude of CAR expression is functionally beneficial, whereas constitutive CAR activation may lead to exhaustion and loss of function. We created a self-driving CD19-targeting CAR, which regulates its own function based on the presence of CD19 antigen engaged by the CAR itself, by placing self-driving CAR19 constructs under transcriptional control of synthetic AP1-NFκB or STAT5 promoters. Read More

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Rationale and design of DRINK-T1D: A randomized clinical trial of effects of low-calorie sweetener restriction in children with type 1 diabetes.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 May 8:106431. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Psychology & Behavioral Health, Children's National Hospital, 111 Michigan Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA; School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, 2300 I St. NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA.

Background: Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) provide sweetness without sugar or calories and are used to replace added sugars by many children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the role of LCSs in diabetes management and cardiometabolic health is unclear.

Objective: The Diabetes Research in Kids Study (DRINK-T1D) study aims to investigate effects of LCS restriction on glycemic variability, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles, and systemic inflammation among children 6-12 years old with T1D. Read More

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HACEK Infective Endocarditis at a Tertiary Children's Hospital.

J Pediatr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

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The importance of using local populations to assess fetal and preterm infant growth.

Authors:
William W Hay

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

University of Colorado, Pediatrics, Boulder, United States. Electronic address:

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Age-dependent alveolar epithelial plasticity orchestrates lung homeostasis and regeneration.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Penn-CHOP Lung Biology Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Penn Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Regeneration of the architecturally complex alveolar niche of the lung requires precise temporal and spatial control of epithelial cell behavior. Injury can lead to a permanent reduction in gas exchange surface area and respiratory function. Using mouse models, we show that alveolar type 1 (AT1) cell plasticity is a major and unappreciated mechanism that drives regeneration, beginning in the early postnatal period during alveolar maturation. Read More

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Intrinsically disordered Meningioma-1 stabilizes the BAF complex to cause AML.

Mol Cell 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Pediatric Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Abramson Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Meningioma-1 (MN1) overexpression in AML is associated with poor prognosis, and forced expression of MN1 induces leukemia in mice. We sought to determine how MN1 causes AML. We found that overexpression of MN1 can be induced by translocations that result in hijacking of a downstream enhancer. Read More

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Incidence and risk factors for severe preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome and eclampsia at preterm and term gestation: a population-based study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, and the Children's and Women's Hospital and Health Centre of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: A majority of previous studies of severe preeclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome were hospital-based or included a relatively small number of women. Large population-based studies examining gestational age-specific incidence patterns and risk factors for these severe pregnancy complications are lacking.

Objectives: To assess gestational age-specific incidence rates and risk factors for severe preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia. Read More

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Changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cells, and IL-6 and IL-10 levels predict response of pediatric medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors with residual or disseminated disease to craniospinal irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiotherapy modulates immune cells and cytokines resulting in both clinically beneficial and detrimental effects. The changes in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines during radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors and the association of these changes with therapeutic outcomes have not been well described.

Methods And Materials: The study population consisted of children (n=83, ages 3∼18) with primary brain tumors (medulloblastoma, glioma, germ cell tumors, and CNS embryonal tumor-NOS), with or without residual or disseminated (R/D) diseases who were starting standard post-operative focal or craniospinal-irradiation (CSI). Read More

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Intratumoral bacteria generate a new class of therapeutically relevant tumor antigens in melanoma.

Cancer Cell 2021 May;39(5):601-603

Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center for Microbiome Innovation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The functional repertoire of intratumoral microorganisms and their local effects on the host remain poorly characterized. By revealing potentially immunogenic bacterial peptides on melanoma cells, a Nature paper provides evidence that intratumoral bacteria can directly modulate antitumor immune responses, and it details a new class of therapeutically relevant, non-human tumor antigens. Read More

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Prevention of Neonatal Hypoglycemia With Oral Glucose Gel for High-Risk Newborns.

WMJ 2021 Apr;120(1):51-53

University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Neonatal hypoglycemia (glucose <47) is the most common metabolic problem in newborns (incidence 5% - 15%) and can cause adverse outcomes, even in the absence of noticeable symptoms. Oral glucose gel (OGG) is safe and effective for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia. In order to reduce interventions such as intravenous (IV) dextrose administration and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) transfer, in October 2017, we implemented a protocol in our Level 1 rural community hospital to identify newborns with asymptomatic hypoglycemia based on risk factors and treat them with OGG. Read More

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Establishment and Retrospective Analysis of a Pilot Peer Mentorship Program.

WMJ 2021 Apr;120(1):17-22

Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Studies suggest widespread advantages to peer mentoring programs; however, there is minimal data pertaining to medical students mentoring undergraduate students.

Objectives: To determine the feasibility and perceived effectiveness of a medical student-undergraduate student peer mentorship program.

Methods: A needs assessment guided the development of Pre-Med Pair Up, a program connecting medical student mentors from the Medical College of Wisconsin and other US medical schools to undergraduates at Marquette University and the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh to provide peer mentorship, premedical resources, and global health information. Read More

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PRENATAL MOLECULAR TESTING AND DIAGNOSIS OF BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.

Prenat Diagn 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Genetics, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe molecular findings and phenotypic features among individuals referred for prenatal Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) testing.

Methods: Molecular diagnostic testing was performed using a sensitive qRT-PCR-based assay capable of detecting mosaic methylation to the level of 3% at IC1 and IC2. Sanger sequencing of CDKN1C was performed in cases with normal methylation. Read More

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Substance use, substance use disorders, and treatment in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-Results from a national survey.

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Substance use can exacerbate cancer-related morbidity and mortality in adolescent/young adult (AYA) cancer survivors and place them at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess substance use, misuse, and substance use disorders [SUDs], as well as receipt of treatment for SUDs, among AYA cancer survivors.

Methods: The authors used data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2015-2018) to identify a nationally representative sample of AYAs aged 12 to 34 years. Read More

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Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization Density is Associated with Severe Pneumonia in Young Children in the Lao PDR.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: No studies have explored the association between pneumococcal nasopharyngeal density and severe pneumonia using the WHO 2013 definition. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), we determine the association between nasopharyngeal pneumococcal density and severe pneumonia in children.

Method: A prospective observational study was undertaken at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane from 2014 to mid-2018. Read More

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Human immunotypes impose selection on viral genotypes through viral epitope specificity.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Genomic Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Understanding the genetic interplay between human hosts and infectious pathogens is crucial for how we interpret virulence factors. Here, we tested for associations between HIV and host genetics, and interactive genetic effects on viral load (VL) in HIV+ ART-naive clinical trial participants.

Methods: HIV genomes were sequenced and the encoded amino acid (AA) variants were associated with VL, human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed HLA alleles, using generalized linear models with Bonferroni correction. Read More

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