1,991 results match your criteria Pediatrics Bronchiolitis


The prevalence and risk factors of atopic dermatitis in 6-8 year-old first graders in Taipei.

Pediatr Neonatol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Taipei City Hospital Ren-Ai Branch, Department of Allergy and Immunology, West Garden Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the advance in the understanding of etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD), its prevalence has increased annually in Taiwan.

Purposes: The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence, and personal and environmental risk factors of AD.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted via health centers of elementary schools in Taipei city. Read More

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Using a high-flow nasal cannula provides superior results to OxyMask delivery in moderate to severe bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled study.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Jun 18. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, University of Health Sciences, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

The effectiveness of using a face mask with a small diffuser for oxygen delivery (OxyMask) was compared to use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with moderate or severe bronchiolitis.The study population in this open, phase 4, randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 patients aged 1-24 months diagnosed with moderate or severe bronchiolitis and admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for oxygen therapy. The patients were randomized into two groups according to the method of oxygen delivery: a diffuser mask group and an HFNC group. Read More

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Change in viral bronchiolitis management in hospitals in the UK after the publication of NICE guideline.

J Clin Virol 2018 Jun 12;105:84-87. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Level 2, Children's Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of hospitalisation in young infants. It has previously been shown that many United Kingdom (UK) hospital Trusts were not compliant with many aspects of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) bronchiolitis guideline prior to its publication.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate changes in the management of bronchiolitis by hospital Trusts between 2015 (before NICE guideline publication) and 2017, after publication. Read More

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New mouse model of pulmonary hypertension induced by respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Louisiana State University, United States.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been observed in up to 75% of infants with moderate to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of PH secondary to RSV bronchiolitis that mimics the disease etiology as it occurs in infants. Neonatal mice were infected with RSV at 5 days of age, and then re-infected 4 weeks later. Read More

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Trends in hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in Portugal: 2000-2015.

Pulmonology 2018 Jun 10. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology and Peadiatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Paediatrics Department, Hospital Pediátrico Integrado, Centro Hospitalar S. João, Alameda Hernâni Monteiro, 4202-451 Porto, Portugal; EpiUnit, Institute of Public Health, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies show contradictory data on the incidence of hospitalizations for acute bronchiolitis (AB) and an escalating increase in public health burden.

Aims And Objectives: We aimed to analyze the population-based admission rate for AB in children under 2 years of age, in Portuguese public hospitals, from 2000 to 2015, to assess trends and regional variations in admission rate; outcomes; associated direct health-care costs; and changes in management after the implementation of national guidelines.

Methods: Retrospective observational study, conducted using a Portuguese administrative database, which contains all registered public hospitalizations in mainland Portugal, and demographic data from the National Statistics Institute. Read More

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Impact of hypertonic saline on hospitalization rate in infants with acute bronchiolitis: A meta-analysis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Manitoba Institute of Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Aim: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) on the rate of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in the Emergency Department (ED) setting.

Method: We searched PubMed, Virtual Health Library-BVS and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception until January 31, 2018. We selected randomized trials that compared nebulized HS with normal saline (NS) or standard care in children up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis in the ED setting. Read More

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Parental severity assessment predicts supportive care in infant bronchiolitis.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Aim: In infants with acute bronchiolitis, the precision of parental disease severity assessment is unclear. We aimed to determine if parental assessment at the time of hospitalisation predicted the use of supportive care, and subsequently determine the likelihood that the infant with acute bronchiolitis would receive supportive care.

Methods: From the Bronchiolitis ALL south-east Norway study, we included all 267, 0-12 month old, infants with acute bronchiolitis whose parents at the time of hospitalisation completed a 3-item visual analogue scale (VAS) concerning Activity, Feeding and Illness. Read More

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June 2018
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Timing and Causes of Common Pediatric Readmissions.

J Pediatr 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Division of General Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: To evaluate and compare readmission causes and timing within the first 30 days after hospitalization for 3 acute and 3 chronic common pediatric conditions.

Study Design: Data from the 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database were used to examine the daily percentage of readmissions occurring on days 1-30 and the leading causes of readmission after hospitalization for 3 acute (appendicitis, bronchiolitis/croup, and gastroenteritis) and 3 chronic (asthma, epilepsy, and sickle cell) conditions for patients aged 1-17 years (n = 2 753 488). Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Read More

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June 2018
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Accuracy of Administrative Codes for Distinguishing Positive Pressure Ventilation from High-Flow Nasal Cannula.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Section of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Objectives: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used in critically ill pediatric patients, despite limited data on safety and efficacy. Administrative data may be a good resource for observational studies. Therefore, we sought to assess the performance of the procedure code for NIPPV. Read More

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Prevalence of Family History of Autoimmune Disorders in Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Maedica (Buchar) 2018 Mar;13(1):21-24

Department of Pediatrics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

One of the causes of infants' hospitalizations is bronchiolitis, while different viral agents could be causative agents. As there is little information regarding the common agents of bronchiolitis in Iranian infants, we designed this study to determine which agents were responsible for hospitalization due to bronchiolitis among infants in an Iranian tertiary center. Two hundred and three infants with bronchiolitis who were hospitalized in Bahrami hospital were enrolled. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Point of care diaphragm ultrasound in infants with bronchiolitis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Jun 1. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatric Emergency, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

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Using CPAP for Bronchiolitis: Authors' Reply.

Indian Pediatr 2018 05;55(5):438-439

Department of Pediatrics, St Stephens Hospital, Tis Hazari, Delhi, India.

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Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Bronchiolitis.

Indian Pediatr 2018 05;55(5):438

Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and KSCH, New Delhi, India.

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Nasal CPAP in Bronchiolitis.

Indian Pediatr 2018 05;55(5):437-438

Department of Pediatrics, AllMS, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

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Bubble CPAP in Acute Bronchiolitis.

Indian Pediatr 2018 05;55(5):437

Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

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Incorporating a Nebulizer System Into High-Flow Nasal Cannula Improves Comfort in Infants With Bronchiolitis.

Respir Care 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Centro Hospitalario Burgos, Burgos, Spain.

Background: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used to provide respiratory support in infants with bronchiolitis. The delivery of aerosol therapy through a jet nebulizer is widely indicated despite its controversial efficacy and poor tolerability.

Methods: This randomized cross-over study aimed to evaluate the comfort and satisfaction of the delivery of aerosol therapy using a nebulization system integrated into HFNC compared with the standard practice of using a jet nebulizer with a face mask. Read More

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Using high-flow nasal cannulas for infants with bronchiolitis admitted to paediatric wards is safe and feasible.

Acta Paediatr 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.

Centre for Child Health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Aim: Using a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) for infant bronchiolitis is increasingly common, but insufficiently studied. In this retrospective study, we examined the outcomes of HFNC and compared infants who did and did not respond to this oxygen delivery method.

Methods: This 2012-2015 study of six Finnish hospitals focused on 88 infants under 12 months who received HFNC: 53 on paediatric wards and 35 in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Read More

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Polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL10 gene are associated with virus etiology of infant bronchiolitis.

World J Pediatr 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.

Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Hanneksenrinne 7, 60220, Seinäjoki, Finland.

Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common infection leading to hospitalization in infancy. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and in our previous study, IL10 gene rs1800896 (- 1082A/G) polymorphism was associated with viral etiology of infant bronchiolitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at rs1800890 (- 3575A/T), rs1800871 (- 819C/T) or rs1800872 (- 592C/A) either alone or combined with the SNP at rs1800896 (- 1082G/A), and the etiology and severity of infant bronchiolitis. Read More

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May 2018
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Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Deaths in Pediatric Patients in Canada: 2003 to 2013.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in children. Mortality rates in previously healthy children hospitalized with RSV are < 0.5%, but up to 37% in patients with underlying medical conditions. Read More

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May 2018
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Prospective study confirms that bronchiolitis in early infancy increases the risk of reduced lung function at 10-13 years of age.

Acta Paediatr 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.

Center for Child Health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Aim: This study evaluated children hospitalised for bronchiolitis at less than six months of age to see if they had reduced lung function in early adolescence.

Methods: We have prospectively followed 166 children hospitalised for infant bronchiolitis in 2001-2004 at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. At 10-13 years of age, flow-volume spirometry was measured in 89 cases and 108 controls without infant bronchiolitis from the local population register. Read More

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Implementing Parental Tobacco Dependence Treatment Within Bronchiolitis QI Collaboratives.

Pediatrics 2018 Jun 16;141(6). Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.

Background And Objectives: We sought to implement systematic tobacco dependence interventions for parents and/or caregivers as secondary aims within 2 multisite quality improvement (QI) collaboratives for bronchiolitis. We hypothesized that iterative improvements in tobacco dependence intervention strategies would result in improvement in outcomes between collaboratives.

Methods: This study involved 2 separate yearlong, multisite QI collaboratives that were focused on care provided to inpatients with a primary diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Read More

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Pregnancy Trimester-Specific Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health Outcomes in the First 2 Years of Life: Effect Modification by Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 May 15;15(5). Epub 2018 May 15.

Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117549, Singapore.

Prenatal exposure to air pollution is associated with childhood respiratory health; however, no previous studies have examined maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as a potential effect modifier. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI modified the association of trimester-specific air pollution divided into quartiles of exposure (Q1⁻4) on respiratory health in the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study ( = 953) in 2-year-old children. For episodes of wheezing, children of overweight/obese mothers and who were exposed to particulate matter less than 2. Read More

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Multicenter Study of Albuterol Use Among Infants Hospitalized with Bronchiolitis.

West J Emerg Med 2018 May 5;19(3):475-483. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Although bronchiolitis is a common reason for infant hospitalization, significant heterogeneity persists in its management. The American Academy of Pediatrics currently recommends that inhaled albuterol not be used in routine care of children with bronchiolitis. Our objective was to identify factors associated with pre-admission (e. Read More

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Nasopharyngeal CCL5 in infants with severe bronchiolitis and risk of recurrent wheezing: A multi-center prospective cohort study.

Clin Exp Allergy 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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National treatment guidelines decreased the use of racemic adrenaline for bronchiolitis in four Finnish university hospitals.

Acta Paediatr 2018 May 12. Epub 2018 May 12.

Centre for Child Health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Aim: Inhaled racemic adrenaline was used for bronchiolitis in many hospitals in Finland prior to new national current care guidelines for bronchiolitis in 2014, which limited its recommendations to on-demand rescue therapy. We studied the drug's use before and after the new guidelines to gauge changes in prescribing habits.

Methods: This 2012-2016 study analysed how many 0. Read More

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Interventions to Reduce Over-Utilized Tests and Treatments in Bronchiolitis.

Pediatrics 2018 Jun 11;141(6). Epub 2018 May 11.

Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Objectives: The American Academy of Pediatrics published bronchiolitis clinical practice guidelines in 2014 recommending against the routine use of bronchodilators, chest radiographs, or respiratory viral testing in children with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Our aim in this project was to align care with the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guidelines by decreasing the overuse of these interventions.

Methods: This study included patients who were admitted to a non-ICU setting with a primary or secondary diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Read More

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A fatal case associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection in a young child.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 May 11;18(1):217. Epub 2018 May 11.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection include premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome. However, some previously healthy, full-term children who are infected with RSV also require hospitalization and even experience severe sequelae or death. Read More

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May 2018
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Promoting High-Value Care During Hospitalist and Intensivist Comanagement in the Care of the Deteriorating Child With Bronchiolitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 Jun 10;8(6):368-371. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

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Human metapneumovirus - what we know now.

F1000Res 2018 1;7:135. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection, particularly in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. HMPV, which is closely related to avian metapneumovirus subtype C, has circulated for at least 65 years, and nearly every child will be infected with HMPV by the age of 5. However, immunity is incomplete, and re-infections occur throughout adult life. Read More

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February 2018

PGD2/DP2 receptor activation promotes severe viral bronchiolitis by suppressing IFN- production.

Sci Transl Med 2018 May;10(440)

Queensland Institute of Medical Research Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston 4006, Australia.

Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signals through PGD2 receptor 2 (DP2, also known as CRTH2) on type 2 effector cells to promote asthma pathogenesis; however, little is known about its role during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, a major risk factor for asthma development. We show that RSV infection up-regulated hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase expression and increased PGD2 release by cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (AECs). Moreover, PGD2 production was elevated in nasopharyngeal samples from young infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis compared to healthy controls. Read More

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Human respiratory syncytial virus and hospitalization in young children in Italy.

Ital J Pediatr 2018 May 4;44(1):50. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Public Health Medicine, University of Ferrara, via Fossato di Mortara 64/b, Ferrara, Italy.

Background: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is ubiquitous and causes respiratory diseases in both children and adults. Worldwide, hRSV pneumonia is the second cause of postnatal infant death after malaria. Given the high impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs, especially in the pediatric population, hRSV is recognized as a global health problem and the WHO, in view of the availability of new vaccines, has urged an active surveillance program of virus-related infections. Read More

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May 2018
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Viral bronchiolitis management in hospitals in the UK.

J Clin Virol 2018 Jul 18;104:29-33. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Level 2, Children's Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalisation in infants less than a year old. The United Kingdom (UK) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a guideline for the management of viral bronchiolitis in June 2015.

Objectives: This study aimed to prospectively survey the management of viral bronchiolitis in hospital Trusts in the UK to provide a baseline of practice prior to the publication of the 2015 NICE bronchiolitis guideline against which future practice can be assessed. Read More

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Chronic Cough Related to Acute Viral Bronchiolitis in Children.

Chest 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, MA.

Background: Acute bronchiolitis is common in young children, and some children develop chronic cough after their bronchiolitis. We thus undertook systematic reviews based on key questions (KQs) using the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) format. The KQs were: Among children with chronic cough (> 4 weeks) after acute viral bronchiolitis, how effective are the following interventions in improving the resolution of cough?: (1) Antibiotics. Read More

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April 2018
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Identifying agents triggering bronchiolitis in the State of Qatar.

Int J Gen Med 2018 10;11:143-149. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Hamad General Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Bronchiolitis is considered as the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. This disorder is marked by acute inflammation, edema, damage of epithelial cells lining small airways, and augmentation of mucus production.

Objective: The goal of the study was to identify agents triggering bronchiolitis in the State of Qatar. Read More

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Bronchiolitis obliterans murine model induced by nitric acid aerosol inhalation: An economical and reproducible model.

Exp Lung Res 2018 Apr 23;44(3):143-152. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

a Department of Pediatrics , The First Hospital of Jilin University , Changchun , jilin , China.

Purpose: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a highly debilitative and fatal syndrome associated with a series of severe lower airway disorders. The pathogenesis of BO is complicated and not entirely understood. An appropriate animal model of BO may aid research into its pathogenesis. Read More

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Intermittent versus continuous oxygen saturation monitoring for infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis: study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Apr 20;8(4):e022707. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Division of Paediatric Medicine, Paediatric Outcomes Research Team (PORT), Department of Paediatrics and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalisation in infants in developed countries. The main focus of hospital care is on supportive care, such as monitoring for hypoxia and supplemental oxygen administration, as active therapies lack effectiveness. Pulse oximetry is used to monitor hypoxia in hospitalised infants and is used either intermittently or continuously. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Pulmonary Artery Sling Masquerading Bronchiolitis.

Indian J Pediatr 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751015, India.

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April 2018
2 Reads

Effect of antibiotic use for acute bronchiolitis on new-onset asthma in children.

Sci Rep 2018 Apr 17;8(1):6090. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

Early-life use of antibiotics is associated with asthma. We examined the effect of antibiotic use for early-life bronchiolitis on the development of new-onset asthma in children from Taiwan between 2005 and 2010. Data were from the National Health Insurance Research Database 2010, and diseases were coded using the International Classification of Disease (ICD). Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Parental preference and perspectives on continuous pulse oximetry in infants and children with bronchiolitis.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2018 3;12:483-487. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Pediatric Emergency Center, Hamad General Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate parental preference of continuous pulse oximetry in infants and children with bronchiolitis.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. Parents of infants and children <24 months old and hospitalized with bronchiolitis were offered an interview survey. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Modified Tal Score: Validated score for prediction of bronchiolitis severity.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Jun 14;53(6):796-801. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Objective: To further validate the use of the Modified Tal Score (MTS), a clinical tool for assessing bronchiolitis severity, by physicians with varying experience and training levels, and to determine the ability of the MTS to predict bronchiolitis severity.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included infants of <12 months of age who were diagnosed with bronchiolitis and assessed via MTS. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) among four groups of raters: group 1, board-certified pediatric pulmonologists; group 2, board-certified pediatricians; group 3, senior pediatric residents; and group 4, junior pediatric residents. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Short-term Elevation of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infection.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Brigham Young University, Economics, Provo, Utah, United States.

Rationale: Nearly 60% of U.S. children live in counties with PM2. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Retrospective audit of guidelines for investigation and treatment of bronchiolitis: a French perspective.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2017 12;1(1):e000089. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Clinique Médicale de Pédiatrie, Hôpital Mère Enfant, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nantes, Nantes, France.

Introduction: As the most recent French bronchiolitis guidelines were published in 2000, there is a current overinvestigation and an overtreatment of infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis in France. In 2012, the Group of Pediatric University Hospitals in Western France ('HUGO') proposed new evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in keeping with the latest international guidelines. We hypothesise that the implementation of these guidelines contributed to the quality improvement of the management of bronchiolitis in our hospital. Read More

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October 2017

Surfactant Dysfunction in ARDS and Bronchiolitis is Repaired with Cyclodextrins.

Mil Med 2018 Mar;183(suppl_1):207-215

Snyder Institute of Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4Z6.

Objectives: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is caused by many factors including inhalation of toxicants, acute barotrauma, acid aspiration, and burns. Surfactant function is impaired in ARDS and acute airway injury resulting in high surface tension with alveolar and small airway collapse, edema, hypoxemia, and death. In this study, we explore the mechanisms whereby surfactant becomes dysfunctional in ARDS and bronchiolitis and its repair with a cyclodextrin drug that sequesters cholesterol. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Bronchiolitis: From Practice Guideline to Clinical Practice.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2018 May 10;36(2):275-286. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellow, The Altieri PEM Fellowship, Inova Fairfax Medical Campus, 3300 Gallows Road, Falls Church, VA 22042, USA.

The American Academy of Pediatrics' clinical practice guideline in bronchiolitis was last updated in 2014 with recommendations to improve care for pediatric patients with bronchiolitis. As most treatments of bronchiolitis are supportive, the guideline minimizes the breadth of treatments previously used and cautions the use of tests and therapies that have a limited evidence base. Emergency physicians must be familiar with the guidelines in order to apply best practices appropriately. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

A quality improvement intervention to reduce emergency department radiography for bronchiolitis.

Respir Med 2018 Apr 19;137:1-5. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Pediatric Pulmonary Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Introduction: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infants. Clinical practice guidelines recommend that a chest X-ray (CXR) should not be routinely obtained in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis, as studies have shown that they do not affect clinical outcomes, but rather lead to overuse of pharmacological agents and a longer length of hospital stay.

Objective: To determine whether active institution of bronchiolitis practice guidelines as part of a quality improvement project decreased the use of CXRs in the Pediatric Emergency Department (ED). Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin could be a biomarker of severity in bronchiolitis.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Comunidad de Madrid, Spain.

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March 2018
11 Reads

Predictors of prolonged length of hospital stay for infants with bronchiolitis.

J Investig Med 2018 Mar 26. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary, Sleep Medicine and Integrative Systems Biology, Center for Genetic Research, Children's National Medical Center, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Among inpatients suffering from bronchiolitis, approximately a quarter may undergo a prolonged length of stay (LOS) for the treatment of their respiratory condition. However, there have been few research studies that have evaluated variables that may be associated with a prolonged LOS in these patients, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, where the clinical and economic burden of the disease is the greatest. In an analytical single-center cross-sectional study, we included a population of patients with acute bronchiolitis hospitalized between March and June 2016. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

2017 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Review.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 May;172(5):482-486

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Importance: Medical overuse has historically focused on adult health care, but interest in how children are affected by medical overuse is increasing. This review examines important research articles published in 2016 that address pediatric overuse.

Observations: A structured search of PubMed and a manual review of the tables of contents of 10 journals identified 169 articles related to pediatric overuse published in 2016, from which 8 were selected based on the quality of methods and potential harm to patients in terms of prevalence and magnitude. Read More

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Point of care diaphragm ultrasound in infants with bronchiolitis: A prospective study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Jun 26;53(6):778-786. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatric Emergency, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization of children worldwide. Many scoring systems have been developed to quantify respiratory distress and predict outcome, but none of them have been validated. We hypothesized that the ultrasound evaluation of the diaphragm could quantify respiratory distress and therefore we correlated the ultrasound diaphragm parameters with outcome. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads