2,917 results match your criteria Pediatrics Bronchiolitis


Efficacy and safety analysis of high-flow nasal cannula in children with bronchiolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transl Pediatr 2022 Apr;11(4):547-555

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Background: Oxygen therapy is one of the most common treatments for bronchiolitis, But traditional standard oxygen therapy is poorly tolerated by patients. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) also has many contraindications. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), as a new method of adjunctive respiratory support, has received extensive attention in oxygen therapy in pediatric. Read More

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Change Over Time in Seasonality and Severity of Children Hospitalized With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Japan.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Children's Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Aichi Medical Center Nagoya Daiichi Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis, and in temperate climates, late fall and winter epidemics of bronchiolitis are usually linked to RSV. In recent years in Japan, the RSV infection epidemic has occurred earlier, even during the hot season. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal variation of RSV-associated hospitalizations over the past decade and the relationship between season and disease severity. Read More

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Hospital's observed specific standard practice: A novel measure of variation in care for common inpatient pediatric conditions.

J Hosp Med 2022 Mar 27. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Section of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Effectiveness Team, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Previously few means existed to broadly examine variability across conditions/practices within or between hospitals for common pediatric conditions.

Objective: Our objective was to develop a novel empiric measure of variation in care and test its association with patient-centered outcomes.

Designs: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized from January 2016 to December 2018 using the Pediatric Hospital Information Systems database. Read More

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Lung function, allergic sensitization and asthma in school-aged children after viral-coinfection bronchiolitis.

Sci Rep 2022 May 9;12(1):7552. Epub 2022 May 9.

Pediatrics Department, Severo Ochoa University Hospital. Leganés, Madrid, Spain.

Our main objective was to compare the lung function, the rate of allergic sensitization and the prevalence of asthma at 7-9 years in children hospitalized for bronchiolitis with viral coinfection versus single viral infection. Observational study in children with previous bronchiolitis and current age 7-9 years. Clinical data were collected. Read More

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Safety and Effectiveness of Inhaling Different Dosage Recombinant Human Interferon 1B for Bronchiolitis in Children: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 27;2022:2229735. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmacy, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: To systematically evaluate the safety and effectiveness of different dosages of recombinant human interferon 1b (IFN1b) inhaled for bronchiolitis in children.

Methods: 7 databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Database, and VIP, were searched. The search time was from their inception dates to March 28, 2022. Read More

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Unusual 2020 RSV bronchiolitis season in Western Australia: Not explained by weather.

Emerg Med Australas 2022 May 8. Epub 2022 May 8.

Emergency Department, Perth Children's Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia.

Objective: To describe and explore the relationship between weather and the unusual 2020 bronchiolitis season in Western Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Correlation of meteorological data and presentations of infants with bronchiolitis through the Emergency Department of Perth Children's Hospital.

Results: The 2020 bronchiolitis epidemic showed a reversal of the usual seasonal pattern. Read More

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Recurrent bronchiolitis and stridor in an infant.

J Osteopath Med 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Dr, 17033-2360 Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA.

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Effects of nebulized epinephrine in association with hypertonic saline for infants with acute bronchiolitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Health Sci Rep 2022 May 18;5(3):e598. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatrics Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre Porto Alegre Brazil.

Background: Nebulized epinephrine and hypertonic saline have been extensively studied in infants with acute bronchiolitis, with conflicting results.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy on length of stay (LOS), clinical severity scores (CSS), oxygen saturation (SaO), and safety profile of nebulized epinephrine plus hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Materials & Methods: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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Evaluation of Bronchiolitis-Related Emergency Department Visits From 2004 to 2018: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

JAMA Pediatr 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Division of Pediatric Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Something Is Changing in Viral Infant Bronchiolitis Approach.

Front Pediatr 2022 14;10:865977. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Pediatric Unit, Department of Mother and Child Health, Salesi Children's Hospital, Ancona, Italy.

Acute Viral Bronchiolitis is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in the first 12-24 months of life. International guidelines on the management of bronchiolitis broadly agree in recommending a minimal therapeutic approach, not recommending the use of bronchodilators. Guidelines, generally, consider bronchiolitis as a "unique disease" and this runs the risk of not administering therapy in some patients who could benefit from the use of bronchodilators, for instance, in those who will develop asthma later in their life and face first episode in the age of bronchiolitis. Read More

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Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Human Coronaviruses-Associated Infections in Children: A Multi-Center Study.

Front Pediatr 2022 12;10:877759. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Children's Hospital, Yangsan, South Korea.

Background: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Although studies have analyzed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HCoV-associated infections, no multi-center studies have been conducted in Korean children. We aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HCoV-associated infection in children. Read More

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Nasopharyngeal airway dual-transcriptome of infants with severe bronchiolitis and risk of childhood asthma: A multicenter prospective study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Severe bronchiolitis (i.e., bronchiolitis requiring hospitalization) during infancy is a major risk factor for childhood asthma. Read More

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Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against the respiratory syncytial virus in healthy adults in Guangzhou, southern China.

J Med Virol 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and young children and mediates substantial morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised globally. The development of a safe and effective RSV vaccine and an optimized neutralizing antibody (NAb) with strong virus-neutralizing activity is appealing. To gain some detailed knowledge of the humoral immune response to RSV subgroup A (RSV-A) and RSV-B, we investigated the seroprevalence of pre-existing NAbs by using the microneutralization assay in healthy adult from Guangzhou, southern China. Read More

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Age-specific associations of early daycare, older siblings, severe airway infection, and preterm birth with subsequent atopic diseases.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2022 Apr;33(4):e13771

Department of Pediatrics, Jikei University Katsushika Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The effects of infection and developmental adaptations in infancy on the prevalence of subsequent atopy-related diseases at different ages during childhood are not fully determined. This study aims to examine the similarities and differences in the age-specific association of asthma, allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis with early-life infection-related factors (i.e. Read More

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Rare case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome with bronchiolitis obliterans as a chronic complication.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 25;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

A young girl in her teens presented with fever, rashes and various mucocutaneous symptoms. Flat erythematous macules were seen mainly on the limbs, without blisters or skin detachments. The lips were swollen with crusts and haemorrhage. Read More

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School Closures in the United States and Severe Respiratory Illnesses in Children: A Normalized Nationwide Sample.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Connecticut Children's, Hartford, CT.

Objectives: To determine the association between nationwide school closures and prevalence of common admission diagnoses in the pediatric critical care unit.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: National database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems LLC database. Read More

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Pediatric Respiratory Illness Hospitalizations Prior to COVID-19 and During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Southeast Wisconsin.

WMJ 2022 Apr;121(1):54-57

Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hospital Medicine, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: Public health measures combatting the COVID-19 pandemic also led to a decrease in other pediatric respiratory illnesses. We describe the local pattern of pediatric respiratory hospitalizations in southeast Wisconsin prior to COVID-19 and during the first year of the pandemic.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional examination of hospitalizations for asthma, bronchiolitis, and bacterial pneumonia at a single tertiary children's hospital prior to COVID-19 through the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Stakeholder Perspectives on Hospitalization Decisions and Shared Decision-Making in Bronchiolitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2022 May;12(5):473-482

fDivision of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Objectives: Our objective was to elicit clinicians' and parents' perspectives about decision-making related to hospitalization for children with bronchiolitis and the use of shared decision-making (SDM) to guide these decisions.

Methods: We conducted individual, semistructured interviews with purposively sampled clinicians (pediatric emergency medicine physicians and nurses) at 2 children's hospitals and parents of children age <2 years with bronchiolitis evaluated in the emergency department at 1 hospital. Interviews elicited clinicians' and parents' perspectives on decision-making and SDM for bronchiolitis. Read More

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Postdischarge health resource use in pediatric survivors of prolonged mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory illness.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

We aimed to identify characteristics associated with postdischarge health resource use in children without medical complexity who survived an episode of prolonged mechanical ventilation for respiratory illness. We hypothesized that longer durations of mechanical ventilation, noncomplex chronic conditions, and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) would be associated with readmission or an Emergency Department (ED) visit. In this retrospective cohort, we evaluated children without a complex chronic condition who survived a respiratory illness requiring ≥3 days of mechanical ventilation and who had insurance eligibility within the Colorado All Payers Claims Database. Read More

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Point-of-Care Thoracic Ultrasound in Children with Bronchiolitis.

Indian J Pediatr 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, 342005, India.

Objective: To characterize thoracic (lung and diaphragm) ultrasound findings in children < 2 y with bronchiolitis, evaluate correlation between lung ultrasound severity score (USS) and bronchiolitis severity score (BSS), and study the interobserver agreement of USS between study pediatrician and radiologist.

Methods: In this prospective observational study, thoracic ultrasound was performed on children with bronchiolitis by the study pediatrician and USS score was assigned. A radiologist blinded to all clinical information, performed an independent thoracic ultrasound. Read More

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Evaluation of reported medical services provided to pediatric viral bronchiolitis diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Respir Med Res 2022 Apr 9;81:100909. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850, USA; Department of Public Health Sciences, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033-0850, USA.

Background: Mitigation strategies were implemented during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that slowed the spread of this virus and other respiratory viruses. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on the medical services that children less than 1 year of age with acute bronchiolitis required (emergency department services, hospitalization, critical care services, and mechanical ventilation).

Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study utilizing TriNetX ® electronic health record (EHR) data. Read More

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Recurrent respiratory syncytial virus infection in a CD14 deficient patient.

J Infect Dis 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Center for Translational Immunology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Recurrent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection requiring hospitalization is rare and the underlying mechanism is unknown. We aimed to determine the role of CD14-mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of recurrent RSV infection.

Methods: We performed genotyping and longitudinal immunophenotyping of the first patient with a genetic CD14 deficiency who developed recurrent RSV infection. Read More

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Novel Melano-Cortin-2-Receptor Gene Mutation Presenting With Infantile Cholestasis: A Case Report.

Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2022 8;15:11795476221091387. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Alhada Military Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: For many years, congenital panhypopituitarism has been recognized to cause infantile cholestasis. However, the isolated cortisol deficiency as a cause of cholestasis and liver failure was rarely reported.

Case Description: A 32-days old male infant presented to the hepatology clinic with infantile cholestasis. Read More

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Remote, real-time expert elicitation to determine the prior probability distribution for Bayesian sample size determination in international randomised controlled trials: Bronchiolitis in Infants Placebo Versus Epinephrine and Dexamethasone (BIPED) study.

Trials 2022 Apr 11;23(1):279. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, 686 Bay Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A4, Canada.

Background: Bayesian methods are increasing in popularity in clinical research. The design of Bayesian clinical trials requires a prior distribution, which can be elicited from experts. In diseases with international differences in management, the elicitation exercise should recruit internationally, making a face-to-face elicitation session expensive and more logistically challenging. Read More

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Lung Ultrasound Artifact Findings in Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for Acute Respiratory Failure.

J Ultrasound 2022 Apr 10. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Purpose: To describe point-of-care lung ultrasound (POC-LUS) artifact findings in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for acute respiratory failure (ARF).

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study completed in a 21-bed PICU. Children > 37 weeks gestational age and ≤ 18 years were enrolled from December 2018 to February 2020. Read More

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Organizing Pneumonia: A Clinical Challenge in a Child With Previous Rhabdomyosarcoma.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2022 Jan-Dec;10:23247096221084840

Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal.

Organizing pneumonia is a pulmonary disease of undefined etiology, with few reported cases in children. It may be secondary to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, infectious agents, or hematopoietic cell transplantation. We present a case of an 18-year-old boy who presented to a follow-up consult with respiratory symptoms at the age of 11 years, 8 years after finishing treatment for a prostatic relapse of a pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. Read More

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Recurrent Wheeze Exacerbations Following Acute Bronchiolitis-A Machine Learning Approach.

Front Allergy 2021 2;2:728389. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA), School of Medicine, P. and A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Acute bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory infections in infancy. Although most infants with bronchiolitis do not get hospitalized, infants with hospitalized bronchiolitis are more likely to develop wheeze exacerbations during the first years of life. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to develop machine learning models to predict incidence and persistence of wheeze exacerbations following the first hospitalized episode of acute bronchiolitis. Read More

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November 2021

Risk Factors Associated With Health Care Utilization in Preschool Recurrent Wheezers in a Tropical Environment.

Front Allergy 2021 28;2:761492. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cartagena and Pediatric Pulmonology Service, Hospital Infantil Napoleón Franco Pareja-La Casa del Niño, Cartagena, Colombia.

The severity of wheezing episodes is related with the need for health services, but the factors associated with health care utilization in preschool recurrent wheezers in underdeveloped regions are unclear. To evaluate the factors associated with health care utilization in preschool recurrent wheezers in Cartagena, Colombia. One hundred twenty-seven recurrent wheezers (age 2-6 years old) who were admitted to the emergency room (ER) due to wheezing in a Pediatric reference hospital in Cartagena were included. Read More

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October 2021

Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline (3%) Versus Normal Saline and Salbutamol in Treating Acute Bronchiolitis in A Tertiary Hospital: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Mymensingh Med J 2022 Apr;31(2):295-303

Dr Provati Pandit, Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Acute bronchiolitis is a viral respiratory illness of infants and young children that occurs in the first two years of life. It is a major cause of hospital admissions in Bangladesh. Management of bronchiolitis is a great challenge for the pediatrician both in the outpatient and inpatient department. Read More

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