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    1934 results match your criteria Pediatrics Bronchiolitis

    1 OF 39

    A Randomized Trial of High-Flow Oxygen Therapy in Infants with Bronchiolitis.
    N Engl J Med 2018 03;378(12):1121-1131
    From the Pediatric Critical Care Research Group, Centre for Children's Health Research, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, and Mater Research Institute (D.F., L.J.S., A.S.), the Schools of Medicine (D.F., L.J.S., J.F.F., A.S.) and Public Health (M.J.), University of Queensland, and the Critical Care Research Group, Adult Intensive Care Service, Prince Charles Hospital (D.F., J.F.F.), Brisbane, the Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative (PREDICT), Parkville, VIC (D.F., F.E.B., E.O., S.C., J.N., J.F., S.R.D., A.S.), Royal Children's Hospital, the Emergency Department, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, and the Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (F.E.B., E.O.), the Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, and the Paediatric Emergency Department, Monash Medical Centre, Monash Health, Clayton, VIC (S.C.), and the College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, and the Emergency Department, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, QLD (J.F.) - all in Australia; the Department of Pediatrics, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (L.J.S.); KidzFirst Middlemore Hospital and the University of Auckland (J.N.) and the Children's Emergency Department, Starship Children's Hospital, and Liggins Institute, University of Auckland (S.R.D.), Auckland, New Zealand; and Health Economics Group, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom (J.A.W.).
    Background: High-flow oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula has been increasingly used in infants with bronchiolitis, despite limited high-quality evidence of its efficacy. The efficacy of high-flow oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula in settings other than intensive care units (ICUs) is unclear.

    Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned infants younger than 12 months of age who had bronchiolitis and a need for supplemental oxygen therapy to receive either high-flow oxygen therapy (high-flow group) or standard oxygen therapy (standard-therapy group). Read More

    Interferon lambda receptor 1 (IFNL1R) transcript is highly expressed in rhinovirus bronchiolitis and correlates with disease severity.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Mar 10;102:101-109. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    Laboratory of Virology, Department of Molecular Medicine, Affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia - Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: As the expression of type III IFN receptor is restricted to the mucosal surfaces, its evaluation could be crucial to characterize the role of IFNλs during bronchiolitis.

    Objectives: This study was designed to investigate airway type III IFN receptor (IFNLR1/IL10RB) expression during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or human rhinovirus (HRV) bronchiolitis.

    Study Design: Seventy-one 1-6 month old infants hospitalized with their first episode of acute RSV or HRV bronchiolitis were selected for this study. Read More

    Comparative Study between Noninvasive Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Hot Humidified High-flow Nasal Cannulae as a Mode of Respiratory Support in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2018 Feb;22(2):85-90
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Background: Early initiation of appropriate noninvasive respiratory support is utmost important intervention to avoid mechanical ventilation in severe bronchiolitis.

    Aim: This study aims to compare noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and hot humidified high-flow nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) as modes of respiratory support in infants with severe bronchiolitis.

    Methods: Prospective, randomized, open-label pilot study done in a tertiary-care hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Read More

    MicroRNA-17-92 is required for T-cell and B-cell pathogenicity in chronic graft-versus-host disease in mice.
    Blood 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Microbiology & Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States;
    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is characterized as autoimmune-like fibrosis and antibody production mediated by pathogenic T-cells and B-cells. MicroRNA (miR)-17-92 influences the survival, differentiation and function of lymphocytes in cancer, infections and autoimmunity. To determine whether miR-17-92 regulates T- and B-cell responses in cGVHD, we generated mice conditionally deficient for miR-17-92 in T-cells, B-cells, or both. Read More

    Technology-assisted title and abstract screening for systematic reviews: a retrospective evaluation of the Abstrackr machine learning tool.
    Syst Rev 2018 Mar 12;7(1):45. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, 11405-87 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1C9, Canada.
    Background: Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. Read More

    Early predictors of unresponsiveness to high-flow nasal cannula therapy in a pediatric emergency department.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.
    Aim: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a new treatment option for pediatric respiratory distress and we aimed to assess early predictive factors of unresponsiveness to HFNC therapy in a pediatric emergency department (ED).

    Method: Patients who presented with respiratory distress and were treated by HFNC, were included. The age, gender, weight, medical history, diagnosis, vital signs, oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO/FiO) ratio, modified Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (mRDAI) scores, medical interventions, duration of HFNC therapy, time to escalation, adverse effects, and laboratory test results were obtained from medical and nursing records. Read More

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, metabolome, and bronchiolitis severity among infants:A multicenter cohort study.
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory infection in infants, and the leading cause of infant hospitalizations in the U.S. (approximately 130,000 hospitalizations annually). Read More

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection influences the clinical course of acute bronchiolitis.
    Trop Doct 2018 Jan 1:49475518761766. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    3 Professor Doctor, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.
    The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young infants admitted with acute bronchiolitis was analysed to determine whether the former affects the clinical course of the latter. A total of 92 infants aged <6 months admitted with acute bronchiolitis were tested for C. trachomatis by a cell culture technique, obtaining nasal smears from each infant's nostrils. Read More

    Risk factors for severe bronchiolitis caused by respiratory virus infections among Mexican children in an emergency department.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(9):e0057
    Pediatrics Hematology and Oncology Department, Infectious Diseases Clinic, Civil Hospital of Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca.
    Severe bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalization among children younger than 2 years. This study analyzed the prevalence of community-acquired respiratory virus infection and the risk factors for hospitalization of Mexican children with severe bronchiolitis treated in an Emergency department.This retrospective study included 134 children 2 years or younger with severe viral bronchiolitis, and 134 healthy age-matched controls. Read More

    Treatment of severe bronchiolitis: A survey of Canadian pediatric intensivists.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Feb 27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Objective: To describe management practices and the factors guiding admission and treatment decisions for viral bronchiolitis across Canadian pediatric intensive care units (PICUs).

    Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Setting: Canadian PICUs. Read More

    The cost-effectiveness of hypertonic saline inhalations for infant bronchiolitis: a decision analysis.
    World J Pediatr 2018 Feb 23;14(1):26-34. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Tampere Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Background: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of hypertonic saline (HS) inhalations for infant bronchiolitis, compared to normal saline inhalations or standard treatment without inhalations as controls.

    Methods: The decision tree in the decision analysis was used to calculate the expected costs. Actual cost data were obtained from our retrospective case-control study on bronchiolitis treatment. Read More

    A case series on common cold to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children following human metapneumovirus infection in Sri Lanka.
    BMC Res Notes 2018 Feb 14;11(1):127. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
    Objectives: The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Read More

    RSV prophylaxis guideline changes and outcomes in children with congenital heart disease.
    Congenit Heart Dis 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare inpatient outcomes and costs for children with respiratory syncytial virus and congenital heart disease before and after the change in management guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis.

    Design: Hospital discharge data from the Vizient (formerly University HealthSystem Consortium) were queried from October 2012 to June 2014 (Era 1) and July 2014 to April 2016 (Era 2) for patients aged <24 months with an any International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for congenital heart disease (745-747.49, Q20. Read More

    Effectiveness of palivizumab immunoprophylaxis in preterm infants against respiratory syncytial virus disease in Qatar.
    Int J Gen Med 2018 31;11:41-46. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document the hospitalization rate due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compliance with palivizumab use in preterm infants receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during 2009-2012 RSV seasons.

    Design: This is a descriptive single-center cohort study. Infants who were ≤35-week gestational age were eligible for enrollment if they received the first palivizumab dose between November 1 and March 31 (2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012). Read More

    Human metapneumovirus in hospitalized children less than 5 years of age in Pakistan.
    J Med Virol 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the second leading cause of death in children less than 5 years of age worldwide. Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with around 5-7% of the total pneumonia admissions in children. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of hMPV associated hospitalizations among children, in Karachi, Pakistan. Read More

    Efficacy of high-dose steroids for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome post pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    Pediatr Transplant 2018 Mar 7;22(2). Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    BOS is the pulmonary manifestation of cGvHD post-allogeneic HSCT. Survival and treatment of this often fatal complication have not improved over the last 20 years and there is no clear standard of care. For the past 10 years, BOS was treated in our center with monthly cycles of HDPS. Read More

    Risk scoring tool to predict respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation in premature infants.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Neonatology Service, Hospital Clinic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Suñer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: The objective was to develop a risk scoring tool which predicts respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation (RSVH) in moderate-late preterm infants (32-35 weeks' gestational age) in the Northern Hemisphere.

    Methods: Risk factors for RSVH were pooled from six observational studies of infants born 32 weeks and 0 days to 35 weeks and 6 days without comorbidity from 2000 to 2014. Of 13 475 infants, 484 had RSVH in the first year of life. Read More

    Effect of the 2015 earthquake on pediatric inpatient pattern at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal.
    BMC Pediatr 2018 02 5;18(1):28. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    American International Medical University, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia.
    Background: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking.

    Methods: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of 3 formulations of an investigational respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in non-pregnant women: results from two phase II trials.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Research and Development, GSK, Rockville, MD, United States.
    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes bronchiolitis and pneumonia in neonates and infants. RSV vaccination during pregnancy could boost pre-existing neutralizing antibody titers, providing passive protection to newborns.

    Methods: Two observer-blind, controlled studies (RSV F-020 [NCT02360475], RSV F-024 [NCT02753413]) evaluated immunogenicity and safety of an investigational RSV vaccine in healthy, non-pregnant 18-45-year-old women. Read More

    Helmet Versus Nasal-Prong CPAP in Infants With Acute Bronchiolitis.
    Respir Care 2018 Apr 30;63(4):455-463. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Background: Nasal prongs are frequently used to deliver noninvasive CPAP in bronchiolitis, especially in the youngest children. A helmet interface is an alternative that might be comparable to nasal prongs. We sought to compare these interfaces. Read More

    Retrospective analysis assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of paediatric acute respiratory tract infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    BMJ Open 2018 01 21;8(1):e016349. Epub 2018 Jan 21.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Background: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in low/middle-income countries. Using routine hospital data, we aimed to examine the spatial distribution, temporal trends and climatic risk factors of paediatric ARIs in Vietnam.

    Methods: Data from hospitalised paediatric (<16 years) patients with ARIs residing in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) between 2005 and 2010 were retrieved from the two main Children's Hospitals and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in HCMC. Read More

    Comparison of Patient Outcome Measures between a Traditional Teaching Hospitalist Service and a Non-Teaching Hospitalist Service at an Academic Children's Hospital.
    Pediatr Ther 2017 Dec 16;7(4). Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Background And Objectives: Inpatient pediatric care is increasingly provided by pediatric hospitalists. This, in addition to changes in resident duty hour restrictions, has led to the creation of new models of care for inpatient pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to compare traditional outcome measures between a pediatric hospitalist-only service and a more traditional academic service in which care was provided by pediatric hospitalists, residents, and medical students. Read More

    Effectiveness of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immunoprophylaxis on Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations among High-risk Infants.
    Am J Epidemiol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.
    We sought to determine the real-world effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis in a population-based cohort to inform policy. The study population included infants born 1996-2008 and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. During the RSV season (November-March), RSV immunoprophylaxis administration and the following 30 days were defined as RSV immunoprophylaxis protected period(s), and all other days as unprotected period(s). Read More

    Interaction between healthcare professionals and parents is a key determinant of parental distress during childhood hospitalisation for respiratory syncytial virus infection (European RSV Outcomes Study [EROS]).
    Acta Paediatr 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Neonatology and NICU, S. Anna Hospital, Torino, Italy.
    Aim: We characterised the distress that parents experienced when their child was hospitalised for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.

    Methods: This survey-based, observational study was conducted during 2014-2015. Meetings were held in Spain and Italy, with 24 parents of RSV hospitalised infants and 11 healthcare professionals experienced in RSV, which identified 110 factors related to parental distress. Read More

    [Expression of vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and its significance in children with bronchiolitis].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jan;20(1):43-47
    Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212000, China.
    Objective: To investigate the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in serum and induced sputum supernatant in children with bronchiolitis, as well as its role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis in children.

    Methods: A total of 67 children with bronchiolitis who were diagnosed and hospitalized between July 2015 and January 2017 were enrolled. According to the diagnostic criteria, these children were divided into mild group with 22 children, moderate group with 24 children, and severe group with 21 children. Read More

    Nebulized hypertonic saline in infants hospitalized with moderately severe bronchiolitis due to RSV infection: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Mar 12;53(3):358-365. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of General Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: The efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) therapy for shortening hospital length of stay (LOS) or improving bronchiolitic symptoms remains controversial. Most studies enrolled small numbers of subjects and did not consider the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nebulized HS therapy for acute bronchiolitis due to RSV in moderately ill hospitalized infants. Read More

    Multisite Emergency Department Inpatient Collaborative to Reduce Unnecessary Bronchiolitis Care.
    Pediatrics 2018 Feb 10;141(2). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Children's Hospital at Dartmouth-Hitchcock, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
    Background And Objectives: There is high variation in the care of acute viral bronchiolitis. We sought to promote collaboration between emergency department (ED) and inpatient (IP) units with the goal of reducing unnecessary testing and treatment.

    Methods: Multisite collaborative with improvement teams co-led by ED and IP physicians and a 1-year period of active participation. Read More

    Change in viral bronchiolitis management in primary care in the UK after the publication of NICE guideline.
    Thorax 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Paediatrics, Oxford Vaccine Group, University of Oxford, The NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Children's Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in general practitioner (GP) management before and after the publication of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence bronchiolitis guideline. In March 2015 and May 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to GPs. It was completed by 1001 GPs in 2015 and 1009 in 2016. Read More

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, nasopharyngeal airway metabolome, and bronchiolitis severity.
    Allergy 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are a risk factor for acute respiratory infection (eg, bronchiolitis) in children. However, little is known about the relation of circulating 25OHD with the many downstream functional molecules in target organs-such as the airway-and with clinical outcomes. In this prospective multicenter study of infants (age <1 year) hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we measured serum 25OHD levels and profiled the metabolome of 144 nasopharyngeal airway samples. Read More

    Relapse Among Infants Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis in Finland.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    From the Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku, Finland (LT, TJ); and Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (KH, JAE, CAC).
    In a prospective cohort of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined the rate of and characteristics associated with bronchiolitis relapse. Bronchiolitis relapse was documented in 22 (6%) of 391 children and median time to relapse was 2 (interquartile range, 1-7) days. Relapse occurred more often in males. Read More

    Bronchiolitis Obliterans and Pulmonary Fibrosis After Sulfur Mustard Inhalation in Rats.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    University of Colorado at Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, 129263, Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States ;
    Rationale: Inhalation of powerful chemical agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM), can have debilitating pulmonary consequences, such as bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and parenchymal fibrosis (PF). The underlying pathogenesis of disorders after SM inhalation is not clearly understood, resulting in a paucity of effective therapies.

    Objective: To evaluate the role of pro-fibrotic pathways involving TGF-β and PDGF in the development of BO and PF after inhalation injury sustained by SM, using a rat model. Read More

    Management of Recurrent Preschool, Doctor-Diagnosed Wheeze.
    Indian J Pediatr 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, Kwong Wah Hospital, 25 Waterloo Road, Hong Kong, SAR, China.
    Preschool wheeze occurs in half of the children before they reach 6 y of age and recurrence is also common. Recurrent preschool wheeze is classified as either typical or atypical. For typical recurrent preschool wheeze, the diagnoses are either asthma or bronchiolitis/bronchitis. Read More

    The association between anterior nares and nasopharyngeal microbiota in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis.
    Microbiome 2018 Jan 3;6(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Background: The airway microbiome is a subject of great interest for the study of respiratory disease. Anterior nare samples are more accessible than samples from deeper within the nasopharynx. However, the correlation between the microbiota found in the anterior nares and the microbiota found within the nasopharynx is unknown. Read More

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus Bronchiolitis Are Associated With Distinct Metabolic Pathways.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Mar;217(7):1160-1169
    Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Background: Bronchiolitis, the leading cause of hospitalization among infants in the United States, is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), followed by rhinovirus (RV). Conventional perception is that bronchiolitis is a single entity, albeit with different viral etiologies and degrees of severity.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of nasopharyngeal aspirates from 106 infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis due to either RSV only (80 patients) or RV only (26 patients). Read More

    Azithromycin versus placebo for the treatment of HIV-associated chronic lung disease in children and adolescents (BREATHE trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
    Trials 2017 Dec 28;18(1):622. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Biomedical Research and Training Institute, 10 Seagrave Road, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation. Read More

    Inert Gas Washout in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
    Chest 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Clinic of Pulmonary Medicine and Respiratory Cell Research, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a leading cause of chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGvHD) and is associated with mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). The nitrogen multiple breath washout test (N-MBW) measures ventilation inhomogeneity, a biomarker of central and peripheral airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to examine ventilation inhomogeneity according to cGvHD score and histologically defined bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Read More

    Current Concepts in the Evaluation and Management of Bronchiolitis.
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 2018 Mar 18;32(1):35-45. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Kansas City, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. Electronic address:
    Bronchiolitis is a lower respiratory tract illness caused by viral infection in children 2 years of age and younger, frequently associated with wheezing on physical examination. It is a common cause of hospitalization, particularly in patients with risk factors for more serious disease. The diagnosis can be made based on clinical signs and symptoms alone, and care is generally supportive with a focus on safely doing less for symptomatic children. Read More

    Does nebulized hypertonic saline shorten hospitalization in young children with acute viral wheezing?
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Feb 21;53(2):138-144. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Although previous studies have shown benefits of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) for improving airway clearance and shortening hospitalization in infants with bronchiolitis, prospective blinded studies in preschool children with acute viral wheezing are limited.

    Objectives: To determine nebulized 3% HS efficacy in young children admitted with acute viral wheezing.

    Methods: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in children aged 6 months to 5 years admitted with acute viral wheezing from July 1st to December 31st 2016. Read More

    Effects of traffic-related air pollution on susceptibility to infantile bronchiolitis and childhood asthma: A cohort study in Korea.
    J Asthma 2018 Mar 19;55(3):223-230. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    f Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine , University of Ulsan , Seoul , Korea.
    Objective: This study examined the role of exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on susceptibility to asthma in children with past episodes of bronchiolitis.

    Methods: The baseline data included 2,627 school children aged 6-14 years who had participated in the longitudinal follow-up survey of the Children's Health and Environmental Research of Korea. Lifetime wheezing, past episodes of bronchiolitis, and doctor-diagnosed asthma were evaluated using an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Read More

    Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR4, TLR2, TLR9, VDR, NOS2 and CCL5 genes with acute viral bronchiolitis.
    Gene 2018 Mar 15;645:7-17. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Rua Tessália Vieira de Camargo, 126, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Campinas CEP 13083-887, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Acute viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants during the first year of life. Most infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis do not present risk factors and are otherwise healthy. Our objective was to determine the genetic features associated with the risk and a severe course of bronchiolitis. Read More

    RSV vs. rhinovirus bronchiolitis: difference in nasal airway microRNA profiles and NFκB signaling.
    Pediatr Res 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC.
    BackgroundAlthough rhinovirus infection is associated with increased risks of acute and chronic respiratory outcomes during childhood compared with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to determine the differences in nasal airway microRNA profiles and their downstream effects between infants with rhinovirus and RSV bronchiolitis.MethodsAs part of a multicenter cohort study of infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined nasal samples obtained from 16 infants with rhinovirus and 16 infants with RSV. Read More

    Elevation of Serum Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Children with Acute Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis.
    Tohoku J Exp Med 2017 12;243(4):275-281
    Department of Pediatrics, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine.
    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide, a bioactive lipid to regulate cellular physiological functions. Thus, ASM activation has been reported as a key event in pathophysiological reactions including inflammation, cytokine release, oxidative stress, and endothelial damage in human diseases. Since ASM activation is associated with extracellular ASM secretion through unknown mechanisms, it can be detected by recognizing the elevation of secretory ASM (S-ASM) activity. Read More

    Respiratory syncytial virus in Brazilian infants - Ten years, two cohorts.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Jan 6;98:33-36. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas - Unicamp, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Each year, a considerable amount of children will experience at least one episode of acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) during their first year of life. About 10% of them will be hospitalized, with significant physical and economic burdens.

    Objectives: To compare two cohorts of infants with AVB, from same region, in a ten-year interval, regarding epidemiologic factors and viral etiology. Read More

    Acute bronchiolitis: Influence of viral co-infection in infants hospitalized over 12 consecutive epidemic seasons.
    J Med Virol 2018 Apr 11;90(4):631-638. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Paediatrics, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Bronchiolitis is the first lower respiratory tract viral infection manifesting in infants younger than 12 months of age. Our aim was to evaluate clinical and serological differences in infants with bronchiolitis from a single or from multiple viruses. Our secondary aim was to investigate differences in recurrent wheezing episodes after 12-24-36 months of follow-up. Read More

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