4,876 results match your criteria Pediatrics Apnea


Clinical Characteristics of Children With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Hospital in Latin America.

Front Pediatr 2022 9;10:921880. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Medellín, Colombia.

Objective: COVID-19 infections have shown a different behavior in children than in adults. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric patients seen at a reference hospital in Colombia.

Method: A descriptive, observational study in patients under the age of 18 years with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection (RT-PCR or antigen) between April 2020 and March 2021. Read More

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Spontaneous and reflex movements after diagnosis of clinical brain death: A lesson from acute encephalopathy.

Brain Dev 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Organ transplantation after brain death (BD) of the donor has been promoted in many countries as an established medical treatment. However, some problems with brain-dead organ transplantation have been reported. For example, there is no evidence as to the optimal observation period for a diagnosis and no evidence to support the interpretation of the various body movements observed after the determination of BD. Read More

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Endocrine and Metabolic Illnesses in Young Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

J Pers Med 2022 May 25;12(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an insatiable appetite that leads to morbid obesity. Previous studies reported health problems in adults with PWS. However, studies on younger adults are lacking, and there are no specific studies of endocrine and metabolic illness in this age group. Read More

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Progression of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Pediatric Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

Children (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 23142, Taiwan.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and causes significant consequences. This observational study was conducted to investigate the progression of OSAS in pediatric patients with PWS, who had not undergone upper airway surgery, through a longitudinal follow-up of their annual polysomnography results. Annual body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, sleep efficiency and stages, central apnea index (CAI), obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI), and oxygen saturation nadir values were longitudinally analyzed. Read More

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Oxygen saturation histogram classification system to evaluate response to doxapram treatment in preterm infants.

Pediatr Res 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: An oxygen saturation (SpO) histogram classification system has been shown to enable quantification of SpO instability into five types, based on histogram distribution and time spent at SpO ≤ 80%. We aimed to investigate this classification system as a tool to describe response to doxapram treatment in infants with severe apnea of prematurity.

Methods: This retrospective study included 61 very-low-birth-weight infants who received doxapram. Read More

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Secondary Analyses of the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial: A Narrative Review.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Importance: Adenotonsillectomy, performed for approximately 500 000 children annually in the US alone, is the first line of treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT), the first randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy, compared the management of pediatric nonsevere OSA by early adenotonsillectomy (eAT) vs watchful waiting with supportive care. Since the publication of the primary article in 2013, the CHAT study data set were made available via the National Sleep Research Resource, which allowed researchers to address a range of additional clinical questions relevant to the care of children with OSA. Read More

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Evaluation of the Global Lung Function Initiative reference equations in Belgian adults.

ERJ Open Res 2022 Apr 13;8(2). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Over the past decade, the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) Network has published all-age reference equations on spirometry, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ( ) and lung volumes.

Methods: We evaluated the appropriateness of these equations in an adult Caucasian population. Retrospective lung function data on subjects who performed tests prior to a diagnostic sleep investigation were analysed. Read More

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Female sex hormones and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in European women of a population-based cohort.

PLoS One 2022 22;17(6):e0269569. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea is higher in women after menopause. This is suggested to be a result of an altered sex hormone balance but has so far not been confirmed in a population-based study.

Objective: To investigate whether serum concentration of estrogens and progesterone are associated with the prevalence of sleep apnea symptoms in middle-aged women of the general population. Read More

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The case for the pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty in the management of velopharyngeal dysfunction.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Children's Health Ireland at Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland; Department of Surgery and Paediatrics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) occurs when there is inadequate closure of the velopharyngeal sphincter during speech. An incompetent velopharyngeal sphincter may require surgical intervention to create a functional seal between the oropharynx and the nasopharynx during speech. To date, no single pharyngoplasty procedure has emerged as superior to another, and the comparison of results between studies has been limited by variation in outcomes reporting. Read More

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CPAP for paediatric patients in Aotearoa New Zealand: audit of a developing service at Capital and Coast DHB 2005-2020.

N Z Med J 2022 Apr 14;135(1553):62-71. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Manager, WellSleep, Department of Medicine, University of Otago Wellington.

Aims: To document the establishment of a Paediatric Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) service within the Wellington Region, and review outcomes over the last 15 years.

Methods: A retrospective audit of the Paediatric Sleep Service records including clinic letters and polysomnography (PSG) studies for all paediatric patients commenced on CPAP treatment, or for whom CPAP treatment was offered, from November 2005 to December 2020. Data were collected on demographics, medical diagnoses, indications for respiratory support, ENT involvement and surgery. Read More

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The status of chronic lung disease diagnosis in Japan: Secondary publication.

Pediatr Int 2022 Jan;64(1):e15184

Department of Neonatology, Akita Red Cross Hospital, Akita, Japan.

Background: In Japan, the definition and classification of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) used for its diagnosis are a combination of those used in Japan and abroad.

Methods: To clarify the current state of CLD diagnosis, a questionnaire survey was conducted.

Results: Half of the patients of the medical centers included in the study were diagnosed with CLD in real time, while the other half were diagnosed after discharge. Read More

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January 2022

Association of Patient Characteristics With Postoperative Mortality in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy in 5 US States.

JAMA 2022 06;327(23):2317-2325

Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Importance: The rate of postoperative death in children undergoing tonsillectomy is uncertain. Mortality rates are not separately available for children at increased risk of complications, including young children (aged <3 y) and those with sleep-disordered breathing or complex chronic conditions.

Objective: To estimate postoperative mortality following tonsillectomy in US children, both overall and in relation to recognized risk factors for complications. Read More

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Cost-minimisation analysis of polysomnography and pulse oximetry in a risk stratification protocol for paediatric adenotonsillectomy.

ANZ J Surg 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Monash Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of respiratory compromise in the post-operative period following adenotonsillectomy (AT). This study analyses the economic cost of polysomnography or overnight oximetry as part of pre-operative risk stratification in paediatric AT, supplementing previously published research demonstrating the efficacy of this protocol in predicting respiratory complications.

Methods: This cost-minimisation analysis examines costs associated with pre-operative overnight oximetry and polysomnography in triaging paediatric patients older than 2 years old, with no major comorbidities except for OSA, undergoing AT for OSA (n = 1801) to either a secondary or quaternary Australian hospital. Read More

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Neonatal neurologic emergencies requiring access to paediatric emergency units: a retrospective observational study.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10273. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Unit of Rare Diseases of the Nervous System in Childhood, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Pediatrics and Child Neuropsychiatry, University of Catania, 95124, Catania, Italy.

Herein, authors present a retrospective, multi-center study to determine the number of accesses to Pediatric Emergency Unit (PEU) of patients within 28 days of life, admitted to (1) the Acute and Emergency Pediatric Unit, San Marco University Hospital, Catania, Italy; (2) Garibaldi Hospital for Emergency Care, Catania, Italy; (3) Cannizzaro Hospital for Emergency Care, Catania, Italy. We included neonates admitted for neurologic problems, from January 2015 to December 2020, to the 1-Acute and Emergency Access of the San Marco University Hospital, Catania, Italy [observation center 1 (OC1)]; 2-Garibaldi Hospital for Emergency Care, Catania, Italy (Observation Center 2-OC2); 3-Cannizzaro Hospital for Emergency Care, Catania, Italy (Observation Center 3-OC3). For each patient, we evaluated the severity of urgency, by studying the admission triage-coloured codes, the clinical data at admission and the discharge diagnosis. Read More

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Caffeine excites medial parabrachial nucleus neurons of mice by blocking adenosine A1 receptor.

Brain Res 2022 Jun 13;1790:147984. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109 Xueyuan Western Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027, PR China; The Second School of Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, PR China. Electronic address:

Caffeine has been used as a first-line drug for treatment of apnea neonatorum for decades due to its high safety and effectiveness. Studies report that caffeine mainly acts as a blocker of Adenosine Receptors (ARs). However, the mechanism of caffeine in reducing apnea neonatorum in the central nervous system has not been fully explored. Read More

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Caffeine: Some of the Evidence behind Its Use and Abuse in the Preterm Infant.

Neonatology 2022 Jun 10:1-5. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Apnea of prematurity is a developmental disorder affecting most extremely preterm infants. The consequences of apnea of prematurity on neurodevelopment are not well established, but several reports suggest that apnea and hypoxemia episodes may be associated with worse neurological outcome. Caffeine is the only FDA-approved drug for the prevention and treatment of apnea of prematurity. Read More

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PM air pollution exposure and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

Environ Res 2022 Jun 7;213:113611. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Epidemiology Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Research and Development, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Healthcare System, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Particulate matter air pollution <2.5 μm in diameter (PM) is a ubiquitous exposure primarily produced from fossil fuel combustion. Read More

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Long-Term Non-invasive Ventilation in Children With Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Front Pediatr 2022 23;10:886727. Epub 2022 May 23.

Divisions of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Context: Children with Down syndrome are at risk for obstructive sleep apnea, which may not be resolved by adenotonsillecotmy, as well as other respiratory disorders that may impact breathing during sleep. Long-term non-invasive ventilation, including continuous and bilevel positive airway pressure delivery, is an alternate treatment strategy.

Objective: To assess the use and outcomes of long-term non-invasive ventilation in children with Down syndrome including comparison to other children using long-term non-invasive ventilation. Read More

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Extracellular vesicle-derived miR-144 as a novel mechanism for chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced endothelial dysfunction.

Theranostics 2022 16;12(9):4237-4249. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, 100020, China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in cell-cell communication. However, whether and how extracellular vesicles are involved in chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced endothelial dysfunction is unknown. Comparative transcriptomics analysis and miRNA screening were used to identify the possible pathways or target molecules mediating chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced endothelial function. Read More

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Obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular disease, and amyloid in older adults with Down syndrome across the Alzheimer's continuum.

Sleep Adv 2022 5;3(1):zpac013. Epub 2022 May 5.

Gertrude. H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

We determined the extent to which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cerebrovascular disease and amyloid burden, and the relation of the two processes across clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnostic groups in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Adults with DS from the Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome (ADDS) study were included given available research MRI ( = 116; 50 ± 8 years; 42% women) and amyloid PET scans ( = 71; 50 ± 7 years; 39% women) at the time of analysis. Participants were characterized as cognitively stable (CS; 64%), with mild cognitive impairment-DS (MCI-DS; 23%), with possible AD dementia (5%), or with definite AD dementia (8%). Read More

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Sedation for less invasive surfactant administration in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pediatr Res 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Erasmus University Medical Center - Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Sedation to preterm neonates receiving less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) for respiratory distress syndrome is controversial.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OS) to evaluate the effect of sedative drugs for LISA on respiratory outcomes and adverse effects.

Results: One RCT (78 neonates) and two OS (519 neonates) were analyzed in pairwise meta-analysis and 30 studies (2164 neonates) in proportion-based meta-analysis. Read More

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Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with Chiari malformation type II: a case-control study and review of the literature.

J Clin Sleep Med 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Institute of Neurology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli", IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Study Objectives: The main aim was to evaluate the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with Chiari II malformation (CM-II). The secondary objectives were to evaluate the association between SDB, morphological abnormalities and neurological symptoms and to review the literature of patients with SDB and CM-II.

Methods: The study has a cross-sectional, case-control design. Read More

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Adenotonsillectomy Significantly Reduces Central Apneas in Patients with a Predominantly Obstructive Sleep Apnea component.

Laryngoscope 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Surgery, Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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Improving Home Ventilator Alarm Use Among Children Requiring Chronic Mechanical Ventilation.

Pediatrics 2022 06;149(6)

Division of Pulmonary Medicine.

Background And Objectives: Children requiring long-term mechanical ventilation are at high risk of mortality. Setting ventilator alarms may improve safety, but best practices for setting ventilator alarms have not been established. Our objective was to increase the mean proportion of critical ventilator alarms set for those children requiring chronic mechanical ventilation followed in our pulmonary clinic from 63% to >90%. Read More

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Atypical trigeminocardiac reflex during intranasal dexmedetomidine sedation of a 6-month-old premature baby.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 31;15(5). Epub 2022 May 31.

Cardiovascular Institute of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) is an established brainstem reflex leading to parasympathetic dysrhythmias-including haemodynamic irregularities, apnoea and gastric hypermotility-during stimulation of any sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve. Most of the clinical knowledge about TCR was gathered from general anaesthesia observations, not from procedural sedation.We present a case of a 6-month-old premature baby experiencing the reflex twice under dexmedetomidine-propofol-sedation while undergoing ophthalmic and ear examination. Read More

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Age and weight considerations for the use of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in pediatric populations: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine position statement.

J Clin Sleep Med 2022 Jun 1. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Emory Sleep Center and Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

This position statement provides guidance for age and weight considerations for using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in pediatric populations. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a task force of experts in pediatric sleep medicine to review the medical literature and develop a position statement based on a thorough review of these studies and their clinical expertise. The AASM Board of Directors approved the final position statement. Read More

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Feasibility of split night polysomnography in children to diagnose and treat sleep related breathing disorders.

Sleep Med 2022 Aug 18;96:107-112. Epub 2022 May 18.

Alberta Children's Hospital, 28 Oki Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T3B 6A8, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Study Objectives: The gold standard test for diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) in children is diagnostic polysomnography (PSG). This is often followed by a titration PSG to identify optimal non-invasive ventilation (NIV) pressures. Access to pediatric PSG is limited, resulting in delays to diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Read More

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Predicting obstructive sleep apnea severity in children referred for polysomnography: use of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and Subscales.

Sleep Breath 2022 May 28. Epub 2022 May 28.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, CA, USA.

Purpose: This study evaluated the role of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and associated subscales in predicting the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children referred for attended polysomnography (PSG).

Methods: This is a retrospective study of children (0-18 years) who completed PSQs the night of their initial diagnostic PSG (2019-2020). We excluded children with previous PSG, positive airway pressure titrations, or underlying genetic or craniofacial syndromes. Read More

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Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to Children and Adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA): Recommendations in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy.

Life (Basel) 2022 May 16;12(5). Epub 2022 May 16.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, 40139 Bologna, Italy.

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) in paediatrics is a rather frequent pathology caused by pathophysiological alterations leading to partial and prolonged obstruction (hypoventilation) and/or intermittent partial (hypopnoea) or complete (apnoea) obstruction of the upper airways. Paediatric OSA is characterised by daytime and night-time symptoms. Unfortunately, there are few data on shared diagnostic-therapeutic pathways that address OSA with a multidisciplinary approach in paediatric age. Read More

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