4,486 results match your criteria Pediatrics Apnea


Vitamin D as a biomarker of health in snoring children: a familial aggregation study.

Pediatr Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institut d'Investigació Sanitària de les Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Background: Hypovitaminosis D is a common health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and paternal and maternal vitamin D status in a sample of snoring children.

Methods: We selected 137 participants for whom serum 25(OH)D had been measured and underwent overnight polysomnography evaluation. Read More

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SNAP: Supportive noninvasive ventilation for acute chest syndrome prevention in children with sickle cell disease.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jun 8:e29136. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Preventing hypoxemia by optimizing lung aeration during sleep remains a challenge.

Objectives: To explore safety, feasibility, and tolerability of noninvasive, bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation (BiPAP) as preventative, supportive care for hospitalized, medically stable children with SCD on a general pediatric inpatient unit. Read More

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Prediction of pharmacokinetic values of two various dosages of caffeine in premature neonates with apnea.

Indian J Pharmacol 2021 Mar-Apr;53(2):108-114

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Despite extensive caffeine use in preterm infants, the pharmacokinetics (PKs) data are limited because of the studies are complicated to do in these patients. This research was investigated the PK profile of two various dosages of caffeine in premature neonates.

Materials And Methods: The PK values of caffeine in premature neonates with Apnea were predicted by using all of computer-based simulation (Simcyp), population-based PK, and modeling (P-Pharm). Read More

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Adenotonsillectomy in high risk patients: Hematologic abnormalities and COVID-19 considerations.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

Adenotonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists. It is vital that surgeons are aware of the risks in performing this surgery especially during the COVID-19 pandemic and in children with hematologic disorders. In this review we describe common hematologic disorders often noted in pediatric patients undergoing this procedure, as well as proper screening and management of these patients. Read More

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Polysomnographic Characteristics of Snoring Children: A Familial Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

Arch Bronconeumol 2021 Jun;57(6):387-392

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Institut d'Investigació Sanitària de les Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain; CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CibeRes) (CB06/06), Spain.

Background And Objectives: Available evidence suggests a familial basis for OSA. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential influences of parental OSA in predicting the diagnosis and severity of OSA in snoring children.

Methods: Observational study, we prospectively enrolled 84 children and their parents. Read More

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Metabolic alterations and systemic inflammation in overweight/obese children with obstructive sleep apnea.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252353. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Pediatric Pulmonology Division, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aim And Objective: Systemic inflammation has been documented in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However studies on childhood OSA and systemic inflammation are limited. This study aimed to determine the relation between OSA in overweight/obese children and various inflammatory markers. Read More

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Upper Airway Effective Compliance during Wakefulness and Sleep in Obese Adolescents Studied via 2-Dimensional Dynamic MRI and Semi-automated Image Segmentation.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 06 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Mechanical Engineering, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, NY, United States.

Novel biomarkers of upper airway biomechanics may improve diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Upper airway effective compliance (EC), the slope of cross-sectional area versus pressure estimated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), correlates with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and critical closing pressure (P). The study objectives are to develop a fast, simplified method for estimating EC using dynamic MRI and physiological measurements, and to explore the hypothesis that OSAS severity correlates with mechanical compliance during wakefulness and sleep. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of Maxitrol in Pediatric Age Group Below Two Years With Adenoid Hypertrophy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cureus 2021 Apr 28;13(4):e14736. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, King Abdullah Specialized Children Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, SAU.

Introduction Adenoid hypertrophy, a common condition in children, represents one of the common indications for surgery in pediatrics. Medical treatment alone is not effective, and most of the time patients are managed by surgical removal of the adenoid. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of intranasal Maxitrol® drops (Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland) in pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy aged less than two years and to document any side effects during its use. Read More

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Different Associations between Tonsil Microbiome, Chronic Tonsillitis, and Intermittent Hypoxemia among Obstructive Sleep Apnea Children of Different Weight Status: A Pilot Case-Control Study.

J Pers Med 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

The tonsil microbiome is associated with chronic tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, and the gut microbiome is associated with host weight status. In this study, we hypothesized that weight status may be associated with clinical profiles and the tonsil microbiome in children with OSA. We prospectively enrolled 33 non-healthy-weight (cases) and 33 healthy-weight (controls) pediatric OSA patients matched by the proportion of chronic tonsillitis. Read More

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Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulator: A Novel Treatment Approach for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Overview of Treatment, Including Diagnostic and Patient Criteria, Procedural Terminology Codes.

Chest 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Michael S. Aldrich Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Sleep Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Unilateral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve may result in clinically valuable patency of the upper airway in well selected patients for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. The Food and Drug Administration has established stringent criteria for the placement of this medical device. The treatment is a consideration among patients who have been non adherent or intolerant of PAP therapy, with moderate to severe OSA and a Body Mass Index of < 32 kg/m. Read More

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Cardiovascular risks of children with primary snoring: A 5-year follow-up study.

Respirology 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Background And Objective: This study aimed to investigate if childhood primary snoring (PS) was associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 5-year follow-up.

Methods: This was a prospective matched cohort study. Subjects were recruited from a hospital-based cohort established from years 2006 to 2012 and they were aged 6-18 years at baseline. Read More

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An assessment of opioids on respiratory depression in children with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

Paediatr Anaesth 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Consultant Anaesthetist, Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for respiratory depression following opioid administration as well as opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Little is known on how OSA status is associated with central ventilatory depression in pediatric surgical patients given a single dose of fentanyl.

Methods: This was a single center, prospective trial in children undergoing surgery requiring intubation and opioid administration. Read More

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Variability in Pediatric Brain Death Determination Protocols in the United States.

Neurology 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

Objective: To determine the variability in pediatric death by neurologic criteria (DNC) protocols between US pediatric institutions and compared to the 2011 DNC guidelines.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of DNC protocols obtained from pediatric institutions in the United States (US) via regional organ procurement organizations. Protocols were evaluated across five domains: general DNC procedures, prerequisites, neurologic examination, apnea testing and ancillary testing. Read More

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Abuse in Childhood and Risk for Sleep Disruption in Adulthood in the Black Women's Health Study.

Sleep Med 2021 Mar 10;83:260-270. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To investigate the association of early life abuse with sleep disruption risk in adulthood among U.S. Black women. Read More

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The prevalence of sleep problems among children in mainland China: a meta-analysis and systemic-analysis.

Sleep Med 2021 May 11;83:248-255. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, 350001, China. Electronic address:

Background: We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to identify a reliable estimate of sleep problems prevalence among children in mainland China and to describe its epidemiological characteristics.

Methods: Relevant studies were searched thoroughly via electronic databases included China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Weipu, PubMed, Embase and Medline databases from inception until December 2020. Prevalence estimates were calculated by random-effects models. Read More

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The Role of Combined Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring in Infants with Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Events.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2021 May 4;24(3):256-264. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

Purpose: Data on the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and brief resolved unexplained events (BRUE) in infants is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring in infants who have experienced BRUE.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of infants who were hospitalized on account of BRUE and required 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. Read More

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Weight Management in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Curr Obes Rep 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition that clinically presents during adolescence. PCOS is associated with increased rates of overweight and obesity, as well as higher rates of metabolic disease, especially type 2 diabetes. Weight loss decreases PCOS symptoms and risk for metabolic disease. Read More

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Adolescent Bariatric Surgery: Racial Disparities in 30-Day Outcomes Using the MBSAQIP from 2015 to 2018.

Obes Surg 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Surgery, Duke University, 407 Crutchfield St, Durham, NC, 27704, USA.

Introduction: Racial disparities exist in obesity prevalence and obesity-related comorbid conditions among youth. We hypothesized that non-White adolescents would have poorer 30-day outcomes after adolescent bariatric surgery.

Methods: Adolescent patients 19 years or younger who had bariatric surgery from January 2015 to December 2018 were identified in the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Initiative Program datafiles. Read More

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Risks and Benefits of Adenotonsillectomy in Children With Cerebral Palsy With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review.

Laryngoscope 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives/hypothesis: Assess the risks and benefits of adenotonsillectomy (AT) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with cerebral palsy (CP).

Study Design: Systematic review.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Registry from 1946 to 2021. Read More

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Images: Rhythmic movement disorder in a normal developing child with obstructive sleep apnea.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston, WV.

Abstract: Children can exhibit a plethora of strange movements during sleep. Asymptomatic rhythmic movements of the head, neck, and trunk can be normal. When these interfere with sleep or cause self-injury, it is pathologic and termed rhythmic movement disorder (RMD). Read More

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Procedural Sedation for Pediatric Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Korea.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 24;36(20):e136. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.

Background: Sedative upper endoscopy is similar in pediatrics and adults, but it is characteristically more likely to lead to respiratory failure. Although recommended guidelines for pediatric procedural sedation are available within South Korea and internationally, Korean pediatric endoscopists use different drugs, either alone or in combination, in practice. Efforts are being made to minimize the risk of sedation while avoiding procedural challenges. Read More

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Prevalence of elevated right ventricular pressure in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing pulmonary hypertension screening.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Study Objectives: Our objective was to determine the prevalence of elevated right ventricular pressure (RVP) as a surrogate marker for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) undergoing echocardiography.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of children age 2-21 years diagnosed with OSAS by an overnight polysomnogram (PSG) who underwent cardiac echocardiogram to screen for PH within 6 months of PSG in a tertiary inner-city pediatric hospital. The primary outcome was elevated RVP defined by estimated RVP ≥ 25 mm Hg above right atrial pressure or ventricular septal configuration consistent with elevated RVP. Read More

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The impact of obstructive sleep apnea on bronchiolitis severity in children with Down syndrome.

Sleep Med 2021 Apr 16;83:188-195. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Sleep Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acute bronchiolitis commonly causes respiratory failure in children ≤2 years, and is particularly severe in those with Down syndrome (DS). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common in DS, is also associated with respiratory complications. However, it is unknown whether OSA is associated with worse outcomes in children with and without DS, hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Read More

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Pharmacological Treatment of Severe Breathing Abnormalities in a Case of Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Mol Syndromol 2021 Apr 11;12(2):101-105. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Child Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Abnormal breathing patterns are a typical feature of Rett and Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and their variants. Their treatment can be challenging, with a risk of long-term detrimental consequences. Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) type 54 is a rare epileptic encephalopathy caused by pathogenic variants in the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U () gene. Read More

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Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in childhood: Lessons for the way forward.

Authors:
Gillian M Nixon

Respirology 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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Caffeine disrupts ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene-related pathways and exacerbates acetaminophen toxicity in human fetal immortalized hepatocytes.

Toxicology 2021 May 7;457:152811. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, USA; Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, USA; Department of Pathology, USA; Diabetes Center, USA; Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism, USA; Irwin S. and Sylvia Chanin Institute for Cancer Research, USA; Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Preterm infants are at greater risk for adverse drug effects due to hepatic immaturity. Multiple interventions during intensive care increases potential for drug interactions. In this setting, high-dose caffeine used for apnea in premature infants may increase acetaminophen toxicity by inhibiting ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene activity during DNA damage response. Read More

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Night of Kentucky blues: the case of the hypoxic child in the sleep laboratory.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

None: Sleep-disordered breathing is an increasingly identified condition in the pediatric population, resulting in an increasing number of direct to lab referrals for polysomnography (PSG). We present a unique case of a pediatric patient who demonstrated continuous hypoxemia during PSG. A 6-year-old African American female presented for PSG via direct referral for concern of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Read More

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Sleep-related breathing disorders associated with intrathecal baclofen therapy to treat patients with cerebral palsy: A cohort study and discussion.

NeuroRehabilitation 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Seattle Children's Hospital and Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Patients with cerebral palsy and other static encephalopathies (CP) are known to be at increased risk of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). Few studies have reviewed whether intrathecal baclofen (ITB) can contribute to SRBD.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of SRBD in patients with CP receiving ITB by using nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). Read More

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Achievement of maturational milestones among very low birth weight infants.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants must achieve several maturational milestones to be discharged home from the NICU.

Objective: Describe the timing of maturational milestones in VLBW infants and the impact of clinical variables and milestone achievement on postmenstrual age (PMA) at discharge.

Methods: For VLBW infants without severe lung disease discharged home from a level IV NICU, we assessed PMA at the achievement of thermoregulation, cardiorespiratory stability, feeding, and discharge. Read More

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Mucolipidosis Ⅱ and III with neurological symptoms due to spinal cord compression.

Brain Dev 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan; Child Healthcare and Genetic Science Laboratory, Division of Health Sciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

In mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), spinal cord compression (SCC) resulting from glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation is a critical complication that can cause significant neurological and respiratory morbidities. However, clinically similar disorders such as mucolipidosis types II and III (ML) with SCC have been scarcely reported. Herein, we report four patients with ML who had SCC. Read More

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