5,823 results match your criteria Pediatric Pulmonology[Journal]


Complicated pneumococcal pneumonia with pleural effusion or empyema in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Aim: The aim was to analyze the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical characteristics of patients with complicated pneumococcal pneumonia with pleural effusion (PE) or empyema.

Method: Prospective study in three Catalan hospitals in persons aged <18 years diagnosed with complicated pneumonia with PE or empyema with isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood or pleural fluid by culture or real-time PCR between January 2012 and June 2016. Patients were divided into <2 years and 2-17 years age groups. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24279
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24279DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Cerebral oxygenation associated with INSURE versus LISA procedures in surfactant-deficient newborn piglet RDS model.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain.

Background: Nasal continuous-positive airway pressure (nCPAP) with the INSURE (INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation) or LISA (Less-Invasive Surfactant Administration) procedures are increasingly being chosen as the initial treatment for neonates with surfactant deficiency. Our objective was to compare the effects on cerebral oxygenation of different methods for surfactant administration: INSURE and LISA, using a nasogastric tube (NT) or a LISAcath® catheter, in spontaneously breathing SF-deficient newborn piglets.

Methods: Eighteen newborn piglets with SF-deficient lung injury produced by repetitive bronchoalveolar lavages were randomly assigned to INSURE, LISA-NT, or LISAcath® groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24277DOI Listing
February 2019

Single-breath washout and association with structural lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Respiratory Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In children with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung clearance index (LCI) from multiple-breath washout (MBW) correlates with structural lung disease. As a shorter test, single-breath washout (SBW) represents an attractive alternative to assess the ventilation distribution, however, data for the correlation with lung imaging are lacking.

Methods: We assessed correlations between phase III slope (SIII) of double-tracer gas SBW, nitrogen MBW indices (LCI and moment ratios for overall ventilation distribution, Scond, and Sacin for conductive and mainly acinar ventilation, respectively) and structural lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography (CT) in children with CF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24271DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Upcoming events of interest.

Authors:

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar;54(3):364

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24095DOI Listing

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and exercise capacity, a longitudinal evaluation.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pediatric Surgery and Intensive Care, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: Children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) suffer from long-term pulmonary morbidity. Longitudinal data of exercise capacity in these children are lacking. We hypothesized that exercise capacity would be impaired in children with CDH and deteriorates over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24264DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Abolition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AUST-01 from an Australian CF center: Do other strains remain?

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Lung Bacteria Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24258DOI Listing
February 2019

Association between air pollution and sleep disordered breathing in children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Pediatric Sleep Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Pulmonology, Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background And Objective: Similar to other respiratory diseases, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) may be exacerbated by air contaminants. Air pollution may have an impact on incidence and severity of SDB in children. The aims of this study were to examine potential associations between the exposure to different air pollutants and SDB symptoms in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24256DOI Listing
February 2019

Bronchodilator responsiveness in children with asthma is not influenced by spacer device selection.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Respiratory Medicine, Perth Children's Hospital, Perth, Western Australia.

Introduction: Spacer devices optimize delivery of aerosol therapies and maximize therapeutic efficacy. We assessed the impact of spacer device on the prevalence and magnitude of bronchodilator response (BDR) in children with asthma.

Methods: Children with physician confirmed asthma and parentally reported symptoms in the last 12 months were recruited for this study. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ppul.24263
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24263DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Macrophage activation syndrome due to Nocardia spp in a pediatric patient with cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Nocardia spp is a gram-positive aerobic filamentous bacteria that causes pulmonary and systemic infections, especially in patients with immunosuppression or chronic lung diseases. It is rarely reported in children with cystic fibrosis. Macrophage activation syndrome is a life-threatening disease with an excessive inflammatory response usually triggered by infections. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24262
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24262DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Cystic fibrosis in El Salvador.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy, and Sleep Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24232DOI Listing
January 2019

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide in preterm-born subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Child Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Decreased lung function is common in preterm-born survivors. Increased fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) appears to be a reliable test for eosinophillic airway inflammation especially in asthma. We, systematically, reviewed the literature to compare FeNO levels in preterm-born children and adults who did or did not have chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) in infancy with term-born controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24270DOI Listing
January 2019

Sleep-disordered breathing is common among term and near term infants in the NICU.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 27. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Among older infants and children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has negative neurocognitive consequences. We evaluated the frequency and potential impact of SDB among newborns who require intensive care.

Study Design: Term and near-term newborns at risk for seizures underwent 12-h attended polysomnography in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24266DOI Listing
January 2019
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Exhaled nitric oxide predicts loss of asthma control in children after inhaled corticosteroids withdrawal.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 27. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Centro Respiratorio Dr. Alberto Álvarez, Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been proposed for monitoring airway inflammation, diagnosis, and prediction of steroid responsiveness in asthma. However, its utility after elective suspension of asthma medication is still unclear. We aimed to determine the association between eNO values and the subsequent loss of asthma control (LAC) in asymptomatic asthmatic children after inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) withdrawal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24268DOI Listing
January 2019

Oxygen saturation/FIO2 ratio at 36 weeks' PMA in 1005 preterm infants: Effect of gestational age and early respiratory disease patterns.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 27. Epub 2019 Jan 27.

Department of Mother and Child Health, Salesi Children's Hospital, Ancona, Italy.

Objective: To assess oxygen diffusion at 36 weeks' post-menstrual age in preterm infants by means of the non-invasive oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (36w-SFR) and to identify factors associated with 36w-SFR - ie, gestational age (GA) and early respiratory disease patterns (ERP).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.

Setting: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24265DOI Listing
January 2019

Magnetic resonance imaging of the larynx in the pediatric population: A systematic review.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, Erasmus Medical Centre-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques to image the larynx have evolved rapidly into a promising and safe imaging modality, without need for sedation or ionizing radiation. MRI is therefore of great interest to image pediatric laryngeal diseases. Our aim was to review MRI developments relevant for the pediatric larynx and to discuss future imaging options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24250DOI Listing
January 2019

Clinical, functional, and radiological outcome in children with pleural empyema.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Respiratory Center, Ricardo Gutiérrez children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: Few studies have prospectively evaluated recovery process and long-term consequences of pleural space infections.

Objective: To evaluate clinical, pulmonary, and diaphragmatic function and radiological outcome in patients hospitalized with pleural empyema.

Material And Methods: Previously healthy patients from 6 to 16 years were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24255DOI Listing
January 2019
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Surfactant protein D as a marker for pulmonary complications in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease: Relation to lung function tests.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Faculty of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is considered a candidate biomarker for lung integrity and for disease progression.

Aim: We determined the level of SP-D in children and adolescents with SCD and assessed its possible relation to pulmonary complications and lung function.

Methods: Serum SP-D levels were assessed in 50 SCD patients compared with 30 healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24257DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Nocturnal oximetry in children with obstructive lung disease or sleep-disordered breathing.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology and Sleep Disorders Laboratory, First Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine and Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Objectives: Although progress has been made in the standardized interpretation of nocturnal oximetry in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), no evidence exists on oximetry abnormalities in other respiratory disorders. We aimed to compare obstructive lung disease (OLD) and SDB regarding nocturnal oximetry parameters.

Methods: We analyzed oximetry recordings from children with (i) OLD (obliterative bronchiolitis; cystic fibrosis); (ii) snoring and adenotonsillar hypertrophy (SDB); and (iii) no respiratory disorder (controls). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24259DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Pulmonary findings in infants with cystic fibrosis during the first year of life: Results from the Baby Observational and Nutrition Study (BONUS) cohort study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Importance: Treatment recommendations for infants with CF standardize care, but most surveillance or treatment guidance of pulmonary manifestations are consensus-based due to sparse evidence.

Objective: To report observations about pulmonary correlates of growth and other clinical features in infants with CF.

Methods: We analyzed data from the prospective Baby Observational and Nutrition Study conducted in 28 centers across the US, including clinical features, medications, guardian diaries of respiratory symptoms, oropharyngeal swab cultures and chest radiographs (CXR) collected over the first year of life. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24261
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24261DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Salbutamol and ipratropium by inhaler is superior to nebulizer in children with severe acute asthma exacerbation: Randomized clinical trial.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Pediatrics, Emergency Department, Clinical Hospital, National University of Asunción, Asunción, Paraguay.

Introduction: In moderate-severe asthma exacerbation, salbutamol by inhaler (MDI) is superior to salbutamol delivered by nebulizer (NEB); however, to our knowledge, no studies in children with exclusively severe exacerbations were performed.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide by MDI versus by NEB in severe asthma exacerbations.

Methods: We performed a clinical trial enrolling 103 children (2-14 years of age) with severe asthma exacerbations (defined by the Pulmonary Score ≥ 7) seen at the emergency room in Asuncion, Paraguay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24244DOI Listing
January 2019

CF derived scoring systems do not fully describe the range of structural changes seen on CT scans in PCD.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Departments of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Structural lung changes seen on computed tomography (CT) scans in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) are currently described using scoring systems derived from CF populations. This practise assumes lung damage in the two conditions is identical, potentially resulting in a failure to identify PCD-specific changes. Our study addresses this assumption. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24249
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24249DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Lung disease and vitamin D levels in cystic fibrosis infants and preschoolers.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 20. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Vitamin D acts on the immune system and lung response. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may be deficient in this vitamin. The aims of the study were to evaluate vitamin D levels and severity of lung disease in infants and preschoolers diagnosed with CF, and to compare them to a group of children without pancreatic insufficiency (PI). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24260
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24260DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Trends in epidemiology and outcomes of respiratory distress syndrome in the United States.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 20. Epub 2019 Jan 20.

Division of Neonatology, Maimonides Infants and Children's Hospital, Brooklyn, New York.

Background: The management practices of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in the newborn have changed over time. We examine the trends in the epidemiology, resource utilization, and outcomes (mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD]) of RDS in preterm neonates ≤34 weeks gestational age (GA) in the United States.

Methods: In this retrospective serial cross-sectional study, we used ICD-9 codes to classify preterm infants GA ≤34 weeks between 2003 and 2014 from the National Inpatient Sample as having RDS or not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24241DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Tracheostomy speaking valve modification in children: A standardized approach leads to widespread use.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Tracheostomy is associated with negative effects on voice, speech, and feeding/swallowing. Speaking valves have beneficial effects in these areas but are often contra-indicated in children with airway problems due to high transtracheal pressure (TTP). Valves are modified by drilling to reduce excessive TTP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24209DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Nebulized gentamicin in combination with systemic antibiotics for eradicating early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Objectives: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) can be prevented with early eradication treatment. In resource-constrained environments, low-cost, off-label nebulized antibiotics, including intravenous gentamicin solution, are often used for eradication therapy. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical course of children with CF and early Pa infection, treated with a Pa eradication protocol combining inhaled gentamicin and systemic antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24254DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Household incense burning and children's respiratory health: A cohort study in Hong Kong.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Incense burning is an important source of indoor air pollution in many Asian regions. We investigated the associations between household incense burning and lung function, lung function growth and respiratory diseases and symptoms in primary school children in Hong Kong.

Methods: A total of 4041 children (mean age: 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24251DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

A review of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in children with a focus on the role of long-term treatment with macrolides.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Unité de Pneumologie Pédiatrique, CHU Timone Enfants, Marseille, France.

Bronchiectasis is a rare chronic airway disease arising from several respiratory and systemic diseases. The grade of evidence for specific treatment of childhood bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (CF) is low with very few randomized controlled trials. Treatment has been based mainly on evidence from studies in adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and patients with cystic fibrosis. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24252
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24252DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Effect of vasopressin on a porcine model of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 15;54(3):319-332. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is due to a failure of pulmonary vascular relaxation. Vasopressin, a systemic vasoconstrictor acting on smooth muscle AVPR1a receptors, is used in treatment of PPHN. We sought to determine acute effects of vasopressin infusion on pulmonary hemodynamics in a large animal model of hypoxic PPHN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24248DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Genetic determinants of acute asthma therapy response in children with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: We documented inter-individual variability in the response to acute asthma therapy in children, attributed in part to five clinical factors (oxygen saturation, asthma severity score, virus detection, fever, symptoms between exacerbations; DOORWAY study). The contribution of genetic determinants of failure of acute asthma management have not been elucidated.

Objective: We aim to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with emergency department (ED) management failure in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24247DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Terbutaline alleviates the lung injury in the neonatal rats exposed to endotoxin: Potential roles of epithelial sodium channels.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 15;54(3):280-288. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of neonates, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Intrauterine inflammation generates inflammatory mediators that damage the developing bronchoalveolar epithelium, resulting in neonatal lung injury. Lung fluid transport disorders are the main reasons for the development of pulmonary edema, an important pathology of lung injury. Previous studies suggested that epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play an important role in lung fluid transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24242DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Upcoming events of interest.

Authors:

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb;54(2):220

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24093DOI Listing
February 2019

Chest ultrasound findings in children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and SA-MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: Chest ultrasound is increasingly used for the diagnosis of pediatric lung disease but there are limited data for its use in pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

Aim: To describe chest ultrasound findings in children with suspected PTB.

Methods: Consecutive children, presenting with suspected PTB to a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town between July 2014 and March 2016, were enrolled in this cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24230DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Asthma is associated with increased probability of needing CPAP in children with severe obstructive sleep apnea.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 10;54(3):342-347. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Children's National Health System, Washington, District of Columbia.

Objective: Initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in children with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is challenging and the distinct features of the subset of children requiring CPAP are poorly defined. Asthma often coexists with OSAS in children. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of asthma in the need for CPAP therapy in children with severe OSAS. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24245
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24245DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Subcarinal bronchogenic cyst communicating with tracheal bronchial tree, misdiagnosed as Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 10;54(3):228-229. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24240
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24240DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Automated control of inspired oxygen (FiO ) in preterm infants: Literature review.

Authors:
Carlo Dani

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 10;54(3):358-363. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Division of Neonatology, Careggi University Hospital of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The vast majority (95%) of very preterm infants receive oxygen-therapy monitored by oxygen pulse saturation (SpO ). However, they spend a significant percentage of time out of the SpO target with a high risk of severe complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Recently, systems allowing the automated control of inspired oxygen (FiO ) for patient delivery to maintain target SpO has been become commercially available. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24238
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24238DOI Listing
March 2019
17 Reads

Airway microenvironment alterations and pathogen growth in cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) dysfunction is associated with epithelial cell vulnerability and with dysregulation of the local inflammatory responses resulting in excessive airway neutrophilic inflammation and pathogen growth. In combination with impaired mucociliary clearance, and dysregulation of defense function, bacterial infection follows with eventual airway damage and remodeling. Because of these inherent vulnerabilities, viral infections are also more severe and prolonged and appear to render the airway even more prone to bacterial infection. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24246
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24246DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Neonatal bronchoscopy: Role in respiratory disease of the newborn-A 7 year experience.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Discipline of Medical Biochemistry and Chemical Pathology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a standardized method to obtain specimen samples from the airway lumen of the respiratory system. BAL is used to diagnose lung infection and infection markers in neonates.

Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the utility of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in term and preterm neonates and to evaluate the use of BAL obtained by bronchoscopy in neonatal lung disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24243DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Children with poorly controlled asthma: Randomized controlled trial of a home-based environmental control intervention.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 6;54(3):245-256. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

The School of Pharmacy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Few trials have tested targeted environmental control (EC) interventions based on biomarkers of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure and allergen sensitization in reducing asthma emergency department (ED) visits in children with poorly controlled asthma.

Methods: Overall, 222 children with poorly controlled asthma were randomized into a home-based EC intervention (INT) or control (CON) group and followed for ED visits over 12 months. All children received allergen-specific IgE serologic testing and SHS exposure biomarker testing to inform the EC intervention. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24239
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24239DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Prediction of peak oxygen uptake using the modified shuttle test in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 6. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Several tests may be used to assess exercise intolerance in cystic fibrosis (CF), including the gold standard cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and the Modified Shuttle Test (MST).

Objective: To evaluate the use of the MST as a predictor of peak oxygen uptake (VO peak) and to compare VO peak and maximal heart rate (HRmax) obtained in both tests.

Methods: Cross-sectional study including individuals with CF aged between 6 and 20 years old. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24237
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24237DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Interleukin-4 -590C/T gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with acute lower respiratory infection: A multicenter study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 6;54(3):297-302. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Background: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is the leading cause of child mortality, especially in the developing world. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 4 (IL-4) gene have been linked to a variety of human diseases.

Objectives: To investigate whether the IL-4 -590C/T (rs2243250) polymorphism could be a genetic marker for susceptibility to ALRIs in young Egyptian children. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24235
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24235DOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

Health risk behaviors, violence exposure, and current asthma among adolescents in the United States.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 6;54(3):237-244. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Asthma may worsen during adolescence, due to both health risk behaviors and psychosocial stressors commonly encountered during this life stage.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of 24 612 high school students who participated in the 2009 and 2011 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relation between self-reported health risk behaviors or psychosocial stressors and current asthma. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24236
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24236DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads

Vitamin D3 in children with allergic asthma in clinical practice.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):225-227. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Allergy Clinic, Villa Montallegro, Genoa, Italy.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder; type 2 inflammation is the most common asthma endotype in childhood. T regulatory cells are functionally and allergen-specifically defective in allergic patients. Vitamin D3 exerts many functions on immune system, mainly concerning T regulatory function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24229DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Exhaled breath temperature as a tool for monitoring asthma control after an attack in children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):230-236. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Institute of Allergy, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) has been suggested as a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. There have been no studies examining longitudinal changes in EBT following asthma attacks.

Objective: To investigate changes in EBT during and after an asthma attack and to relate these changes to changes in respiratory physiological measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24225DOI Listing

Diffuse panbronchiolitis: A progressive fatal lung disease that is curable with azithromycin, but only if diagnosed!

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California.

Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a rare progressive and eventually fatal pulmonary disease first identified in Japan and initially seen predominantly in Southeast Asia. Macrolide antibiotics rapidly reverse symptoms and pathology, and their use increased the 5 and 10-year survival from 50 and 30 percent, respectively, to over 90%. Review of 181 case reports from previous publications found patients with DPB commonly had their pulmonary symptoms preceded by rhinosinusitis, frequently by many years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24226DOI Listing
January 2019

Nasal swab bacteriology by PCR during the first 24-months of life: A prospective birth cohort study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):289-296. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Most respiratory bacterial carriage studies in children are based on cross-sectional samples or longitudinal studies with infrequent sampling points. The prospective Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases birth cohort study intensively evaluated the community-based epidemiology of respiratory viruses and bacteria during the first 2-years of life. Here we report the bacteriologic findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24231DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Predictors of sleep hypoxemia in children with cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):273-279. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Dallas, Texas.

Objectives: To identify the determinants of nocturnal hypoxemia in children with CF using clinical parameters, polysomnography (PSG), and lung function.

Hypothesis: Sleep hypoxemia in children with CF is predicted by both apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (pFEV1).

Design: Retrospective case series. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24233
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24233DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Impact of breast milk on respiratory outcomes in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):313-318. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: The objective of our study was to examine whether outpatient respiratory morbidities in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are influenced by the human milk consumption.

Methods: Caregivers of subjects recruited from a BPD clinic completed questionnaires regarding breast milk intake and respiratory outcomes.

Results: One-hundred eighty-eight caregivers completed the questionnaire. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24228
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24228DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Comparison of two sweat test systems for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in newborns.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):264-272. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Children's Hospital of Eastern Switzerland, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Objectives: In the national newborn screening programme for CF in Switzerland, we compared the performance of two sweat test methods, by investigating the feasibility and diagnostic performance of the Macroduct collection method (with chloride mesurement) and Nanoduct test (measuring conductivity) for diagnosing CF.

Study-design: We included all newborns with a positive screening result between 2011 and 2015 who were referred to a CF-centre for sweat testing. In the CF-centre, a Macroduct and Nanoduct sweat test were performed simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24227DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Can early intervention in pediatric asthma improve long-term outcomes? A question that needs an answer.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Mar 4;54(3):348-357. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska.

Objective: Although many children with asthma do not experience persistence into adulthood, recent studies have suggested that poorly controlled asthma in childhood may be associated with significant airflow obstruction in adulthood. However, data regarding disease progression are lacking, and clinicians are not yet able to predict the course of a child's asthma. The goal of this article was to assess the current understanding of childhood asthma treatment and progression and to highlight gaps in information that remain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24224DOI Listing

Correcting standardized expiratory flows for prematurity in ex-preterm survivors-Is it necessary?

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Feb 27;54(2):205-211. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: To determine the effect of correcting for prematurity on standardized values for expiratory flow rates for participants from 5 years through to 70 years of age.

Methods: In a theoretical model we assumed starting values for expiratory flows that were expected to give ranges within ±2 SD. Keeping expiratory flows, ethnicity and height constant, we then determined how z scores varied between 5 and 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24222DOI Listing
February 2019