4,327 results match your criteria Pediatric Annals[Journal]


Common Annular Lesions in the Pediatric Population: Part 1.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e92-e96

Dermatologic presentations can quickly become overwhelming for clinicians due to the vast number of causes for these conditions. Characteristics of a rash, such as shape, color, size, and distribution, can significantly narrow the differential diagnosis. A solid framework to organize these presentations is critical for correctly identifying and treating skin issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190114-01DOI Listing
February 2019

Fertility Counseling for Adolescents.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e86-e91

Fertility awareness, or general knowledge about one's fertility, is low in adolescents and in adult women as well. Misconceptions about reproduction contribute to high rates of unplanned pregnancy in the United States, as well as delayed childbearing and infertility. Alhough primary care providers caring for adolescents have historically focused on contraception and reduction of sexually transmitted infections during their sexual and reproductive health conversations with adolescents and young adult women, fertility awareness counseling would help these women optimize their future fertility and make informed reproductive choices throughout their life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190117-01DOI Listing
February 2019

Contraceptive Needs of Adolescents with Chronic Illness.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e78-e85

Contraception and sexual health form a key part of comprehensive health care for all adolescents, including those who suffer from chronic illness. Multiple studies have shown that adolescents with chronic illness have rates of sexual activity equal to or greater than their healthy counterparts. Primary care pediatricians have the most comprehensive view of the health of their medically complex patients and the benefit of a longstanding relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190121-01DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

HPV Vaccine in Adolescents.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e71-e77

Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide, is the causative agent for cervical cancer and attributed to anogenital cancers as well as oropharyngeal cancer. Three effective, safe, prophylactic HPV vaccines have been licensed, and studies have demonstrated decreases in HPV prevalence and HPV-related disease endpoints without evidence of waning protection to date. In the United States, only the 9-valent vaccine, which covers 90% of the cancers attributed to HPV in US registries, is available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190118-02DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The Reproductive Health Care of Transgender Young People: A Guide for Primary Care Providers.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e64-e70

Primary care providers should have a general understanding of the medical care available to transgender youth throughout childhood and adolescence. Providers and parents should create an affirming environment for young people at every developmental stage, while ensuring thorough and thoughtful evaluations prior to any medical intervention. Transgender teens have unique reproductive health care needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190116-04DOI Listing
February 2019

Sexual Violence in Adolescents.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e58-e63

Sexual violence and intimate partner violence are common among adolescents, especially for those who are developmentally disabled. Pediatricians have a critical role in treating and preventing sexual violence in adolescents. As medical providers, they possess trusted access to identify sexual violence in adolescents and to intervene to help prevent further violence and mitigate associated health effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190118-01DOI Listing
February 2019

Emerging Issues in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health.

Authors:
Hina J Talib

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e56-e57

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February 2019

Birth Control Management for the Primary Care Provider.

Authors:
Rachel S Dawson

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e51-e55

Contraceptive management is occurring more frequently in the primary care setting. Pediatricians should be familiar with the most common methods of contraception due to the fact that families are comfortable seeking care for their adolescents at the primary care office for these types of concerns. Contraceptive methods are often used for noncontraceptive benefits as well, which makes it even more important to feel comfortable prescribing contraceptives at pediatricians' offices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190111-01DOI Listing
February 2019

Intranasal Steroid Therapy for Allergic Rhinitis.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e43-e48

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common medical condition in children. It is associated with significant morbidity because symptoms can adversely affect quality of life. The goals of treatment of AR are to provide effective prevention as well as symptom alleviation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181212-01DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Neonatal Skin Emergencies.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e36-e42

Although the majority of neonatal skin rashes can be safely monitored without intervention, there are a significant few that are dermatologic emergencies. When called to assess a neonate, it is important to distinguish what requires immediate diagnosis and treatment from those that represent benign etiologies. The skin may be the first clue to certain infections such as herpes simplex virus, syphilis, varicella, cytomegalovirus, fungal infections, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, all of which require immediate testing and some of which may lead to severe sequelae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181210-03DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Uncommon Neonatal Skin Lesions.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e30-e35

Certain rashes and cutaneous lesions in a newborn can be clues to more concerning diseases and conditions if recognized and evaluated promptly. Langerhans cell histiocytosis, cutaneous forms of cancer (such as leukemia cutis, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), developmental abnormalities such as neural tube or spinal dysraphism, and aplasia cutis congenita, nutritional deficiency, and immunodeficiency all have a range of cutaneous findings that will be reviewed herein to guide diagnosis and management. [Pediatr Ann. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Common Neonatal Skin Lesions: Melanocytic Nevi, Pigment Alterations, and Nonmelanocytic Nevi.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e23-e29

Birthmarks are common in the healthy population and are generally harmless. Certain presentations, however, raise concern for associated syndromes or potential complications. It is important for pediatricians to be familiar with both harmless and potentially concerning birthmarks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181207-01DOI Listing
January 2019

Common Neonatal Rashes.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e16-e22

Skin eruptions are commonly encountered in the neonatal and infant period and can be a source of concern for providers and parents alike. We present a brief, clinically focused discussion on topics commonly encountered by the pediatrician with a focus on pearls of knowledge to help distinguish diseases from one another and from more serious conditions. We review miliaria, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, neonatal cephalic pustulosis, erythema toxicum neonatorum, diaper dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181206-01DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Newborn Skin Care.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e11-e15

The skin serves as a unique barrier from the outside world and undergoes critical changes during its development and maturation. This article reviews evidence-based recommendations for the routine care of newborn skin that should be integrated into the pediatrician's practice. [Pediatr Ann. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Neonatal Dermatology.

Pediatr Ann 2019 01;48(1):e9-e10

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January 2019

Dental Care and Trauma Management in Children and Adolescents.

Authors:
Leah Khan

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e3-e8

Dental health in early childhood is a predictor for oral health as we age, and oral health is an important factor affecting overall health. For this reason, providing good guidance and early intervention is imperative to help set our patients up for success. To do this, providers must be familiar with dental anatomy and development, as well as recommendations for caries prevention, pacifier use, juice consumption, fluoride, and the establishment of a dental home. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181213-01DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Restless Legs Syndrome in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e504-e506

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common pediatric condition that often goes undiagnosed. The genetics and pathophysiology of this sensorimotor condition are still not well understood. RLS can affect any part of the body, but the thighs and calves are the most commonly affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181114-02DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Pediatric Hypertension.

Authors:
Debora Matossian

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e499-e503

The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension in children and adolescents has increased over the past decade. This trend is most likely related to increases in primary hypertension associated with increasing obesity rates in children. Lifestyle as well as genetics play a significant role in the development of primary hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181119-01DOI Listing
December 2018

The Role of Exercise Prescription in Pediatric Preventive Cardiology Programs.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e494-e498

Lifestyle changes such as exercise and dietary change are recommended first-line therapy for children with dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Although most clinicians recommend exercise, specific exercise prescriptions are not usually provided. The optimal type, duration, and intensity of activity to achieve a meaningful outcome is not definitively defined. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Percent Body Fat Measurement in the Medical Management of Children with Obesity.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e487-e493

Sustaining weight loss can be challenging, as physiological responses to weight loss, including metabolic and hormonal adaptations and decreased energy expenditure, promote weight regain. Paired with sustained dietary changes, physical activity can promote weight maintenance after successful weight loss, as physical activity can help maintain fat-free mass. We present several illustrative cases to highlight the potential use of body composition measurement using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) scale to augment obesity management counseling in a tertiary care pediatric weight-management clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181116-02DOI Listing
December 2018

Preserving Optimal Cardiovascular Health in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e479-e486

The origins of cardiovascular disease are at the beginning of life, and national guidelines recommend evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and hypertension as part of general pediatric care. In this review, a simple plan is proposed for clear and consistent monitoring and messaging throughout childhood, based on the American Heart Association's "cardiovascular health" construct. A framework is provided for age-appropriate scoring of the cardiovascular health components, including diet, physical activity and screen time, sleep, smoking exposure, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181115-01DOI Listing
December 2018

Acute Marijuana Intoxication in Children.

Authors:
M Denise Dowd

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e474-e476

As the number of states legalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational use continues to grow, there are an increasing number of children exposed to marijuana-containing products in homes and communities. Increased exposure leads to a greater probability of accidental ingestion and toxicity. Because marijuana ingestion can cause a dangerous and potentially life-threatening toxicity for children, pediatric health care providers need an increased awareness of the danger. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181119-02DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Newborn Screening Programs.

Authors:
C Lydia Wraight

Pediatr Ann 2018 12;47(12):e472-e473

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181121-01DOI Listing
December 2018

True Advocacy: Realistic for a Pediatric Provider?

Authors:
Joseph R Hageman

Pediatr Ann 2018 12;47(12):e470-e471

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181114-03DOI Listing
December 2018

Assessing Nutritional Risk Among Infants and Toddlers in Primary Care Practice.

Authors:
Robert D Murray

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e465-e469

Traditionally, nutritional risk has been defined by growth failure, with clinical intervention indicated when a child falls below the third to fifth percentile on growth charts. Although the velocity of linear growth and weight gain during the first years are unparalleled at any other time of life, this period is also unique for other reasons. Nutrition not only supports increased bone length, muscle mass, and tissue growth, but also continued development of several highly metabolic organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, the cardiorespiratory system, the kidneys, and the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181016-01DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Hepatobiliary Manifestations in Systemic Disease.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e458-e464

Liver disease in children occurs via a multitude of primary illnesses such as autoimmune hepatopathy, biliary atresia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, jaundice, hepatitis, and alterations in liver tests can often be a manifestation of systemic diseases. The liver is involved in many critical functions such as circulation, immunity, toxin clearance, and metabolism; when the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, immune system, or endocrine systems are compromised, the liver will be affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181023-01DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Autoimmune Liver Diseases in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e452-e457

Autoimmune liver disease remains difficult to diagnose, and distinguishing the various causes is difficult as well. In children, it can present with wide variation, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the "overlap syndrome" of AIH/PSC, also known as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis. These liver disorders are thought to be immune-mediated, but their etiology remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181022-02DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Nutrition in Pediatric Chronic Liver Disease.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e445-e451

More than one-half of children with chronic liver disease suffer from malnutrition, which leads not only to a poor quality of life and even possibly catastrophic complications, but also to poor outcomes after a liver transplantation. These children have increased metabolic demands but often decreased intake with malabsorption and altered nutrient utilization, all of which make it difficult to keep up with nutritional demands. Assessment of a patient's nutritional status should be timely, and it should be performed routinely and proactively. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads

Wilson's Disease: A Review for the General Pediatrician.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e440-e444

Wilson's disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and copper accumulation in various tissues. It is associated with the classic triad of cirrhosis, neurological manifestations, and the ocular finding of Kayser-Fleischer rings; however, the clinical presentation can vary greatly from incidental findings of abnormal liver enzymes to acute liver failure necessitating liver transplant. Pediatric patients may present with subtle findings including asymptomatic hepatomegaly, transaminitis, changes in behavior, movement disorders, or school failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181026-01DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads

Neonatal Cholestasis: A Primer of Selected Etiologies.

Authors:
Ranjani Ananth

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e433-e439

Cholestasis refers to impairment in formation or excretion of bile. This can be due to defects in intrahepatic production of bile, defects in the transmembrane transport of bile, or mechanical obstruction to bile flow. Clinical features of cholestasis reflect the retention of components of bile (bilirubin, bile acids, cholesterol) in the body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181018-01DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Pediatric Hepatology: An Update.

Authors:
Ruba K Azzam

Pediatr Ann 2018 11;47(11):e431-e432

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181031-01DOI Listing
November 2018

The Truth About Obesity, Exercise, and Nutrition.

Authors:
Rachel S Dawson

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e427-e430

There is a plethora of misinformation regarding obesity, diet, and exercise due to lack of supporting evidence on these topics. There are myths and facts about what exactly encompasses a healthy lifestyle that interfere with the ability to lose weight and stay healthy. These include topics such as the effects of small sustained increases in energy intake or expenditure, establishment of realistic goals, rapid weight loss, readiness for weight loss, physical activity, breast-feeding as well as the effects of eating breakfast daily, early childhood experiences, eating fruits and vegetables, weight that cycles up and down, snacking, and the environment. Read More

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November 2018
27 Reads

Drug Allergy.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e419-e425

Drug allergy is commonly encountered in clinical practice. It is an immunological response to a pharmaceutical agent. The clinical presentation can vary from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening conditions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180920-02DOI Listing
October 2018
11 Reads

Advocating for Automatic Eligibility for Early Intervention Services for Children Exposed to Lead.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e413-e418

Lead poisoning remains one of the most prevalent and preventable environmental health hazards affecting children. Low-level lead exposure has been shown to significantly increase the risk of learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delay. It also has substantial social implications as lead toxicity disproportionately affects children from low-income, ethnic minority households. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180924-01DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Approach to Children with Aggressive Behavior for General Pediatricians and Hospitalists: Part 2-Evaluation, Tests, and Treatment.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e408-e412

After reviewing the various etiologies that can contribute to a presentation of aggressive behavior in a child (see part 1), a physician should conduct a thorough history and physical examination. The history should be obtained from the patient and caregivers, both together and separately in adolescents. A good physical examination starts with assessment and interpretation of vital signs, followed by a head-to-toe examination focusing on the skin, eyes, and thyroid, and then a neurologic examination. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Approach to Children with Aggressive Behavior for General Pediatricians and Hospitalists: Part 1-Epidemiology and Etiology.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e402-e407

Children and adolescents are increasingly presenting to the hospital and emergency department with aggressive behavior and psychiatric emergencies. The rise in pediatric mental health problems, coupled with a lack of much needed resources, necessitates that pediatricians safely diagnose and treat patients presenting with aggressive behavior. In this article, we discuss the broad differential diagnosis that should be considered when initially evaluating a patient presenting with aggression or altered mental status; underlying causes include predisposing factors, comorbid conditions, and acute organic causes involving almost every organ system. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Sinusitis in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e396-e401

Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) mostly occurs as a complication of acute viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI), which is a common condition encountered in an outpatient setting. ABS manifests with three different presentations, most commonly as persistent symptoms of viral URI (nasal drainage and or cough) for more than 10 days. ABS is also diagnosed when the patient presents with severe symptoms of a URI accompanied by fever >102. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Enuresis Management in the Primary Care Pediatrics Clinic.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e390-e395

Enuresis is a frequent complaint not always volunteered by parents or patients. The pediatric clinician has to inquire about enuresis to break the secrecy surrounding this symptom that could be related to a more serious underlying renal, endocrine, or psychosocial disease. Determining the type of enuresis is crucial to offer optimal treatment. Read More

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October 2018
12 Reads

Common Problems in General Pediatrics.

Pediatr Ann 2018 10;47(10):e388-e389

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180919-03DOI Listing
October 2018

Trampolines: What's the Harm?

Authors:
M Denise Dowd

Pediatr Ann 2018 Oct;47(10):e385-e387

Trampolines hold the promise of fun and enjoyment for many children, but they are associated with a significant number of orthopedic and other injuries. Injuries vary from minor to severe, and the most common are extremity injuries. Although most injuries are associated with residential (ie, backyard) trampolines, a growing number of injuries now occur in trampoline parks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180918-01DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Vitamin K Administration.

Authors:
Poj Lysouvakon

Pediatr Ann 2018 10;47(10):e383-e384

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180926-01DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: A Review for Pediatricians.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Sep;47(9):e377-e380

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is one of the most common hip pathologies that occurs during adolescence, and its incidence has been increasing over the past decades. For this reason, pediatricians should be aware of this entity to ensure an early diagnosis and intervene in a timely manner. The typical patient with SCFE is an adolescent who is obese presenting with hip pain, but it can also occur in children who are not obese; therefore, SCFE should be part of the differential diagnosis in any skeletally immature patient presenting with hip or knee pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180730-01DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

Preventing Pediatric Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Sep;47(9):e371-e376

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infants is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite intense research efforts, safe and effective vaccines have remained elusive. Risk factors for the development of severe disease are well known, and those infants at highest risk are identified to receive RSV prophylaxis in the form of anti-RSV monoclonal antibody. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy in Clinical Practice.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Sep;47(9):e366-e370

Vaccines have had a profound impact on public health; however, parents are increasingly refusing or delaying vaccines for their children. Population-based studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of vaccines. Pediatricians should be well informed about vaccine development, safety, and efficacy to inspire parental confidence in vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180809-01DOI Listing
September 2018

Clostridium difficile Infection in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Sep;47(9):e359-e365

Clostridium difficile is an important cause of health care associated infections. The epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) in children has changed over the past few decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20180803-01DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read