4,345 results match your criteria Pediatric Annals[Journal]


Concussion in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e182-e185

Concussions are common in pediatric athletes, but they often go underreported. The topic of concussions has garnered much attention from the media recently, and this attention has resulted in the development of stricter guidelines for management of concussion by professional sporting leagues such as the National Football League and the National Hockey League. It is important to establish a clear understanding of the definitions, signs, and symptoms of concussion so that teachers, families, coaches, and physicians can better recognize it when it occurs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190326-01DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Full-Term Neonatal Respiratory Distress and Chronic Lung Disease.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e175-e181

Respiratory distress occurs in 5% to 7% of live births at term gestation. Most cases are mild and transient and can be attributed to transient tachypnea of the newborn or "wet lung." Severe respiratory distress is often due to nonpulmonary causes such as sepsis or congenital heart disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190328-01DOI Listing

Congenital Lung Malformations.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e169-e174

Congenital lung malformations (CLM) comprise a spectrum of anatomical anomalies of the lungs and respiratory tree. The prenatal growth pattern of CLMs is unpredictable with larger lesions causing life-threatening complications, such as hydrops fetalis, and smaller lesions remaining asymptomatic and potentially regressing. The most common CLMs are congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformations, bronchopulmonary sequestrations, congenital lobar emphysema, and bronchogenic cysts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190326-02DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Common Pediatric Airway Disorders.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e162-e168

Pediatric airway disorders may be congenital (anatomical) or acquired (infectious) and may involve the upper, lower, or entire airway, with obstruction being a common feature. The pathophysiology of upper airway obstruction in infants, children, and adolescents is distinctly different due to the anatomic differences that evolve with growth. Accordingly, clinical presentation and consequences of airway obstruction vary by age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190326-03DOI Listing

Review of Cystic Fibrosis.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e154-e161

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by pancreatic insufficiency and chronic endobronchial airway infection. This latter feature results in progressive bronchiectasis and ultimately respiratory failure, which is the leading cause of death in patients with CF. Other complications include sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, bowel obstruction, hepatobiliary disease, hyponatremic dehydration, and infertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190327-01DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Pulmonary Outcomes of Prematurity.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e148-e153

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease most commonly seen in premature infants who require mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Despite advances in neonatal care resulting in improved survival and decreased morbidity, limited progress has been made in reducing rates of BPD. Therapeutic options to protect the vulnerable developing lung are limited as are strategies to treat lung injury, resulting in ongoing concerns for long-term pulmonary morbidity after preterm birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190325-03DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Puberty: Onset and Progression.

Authors:
Leah Khan

Pediatr Ann 2019 Apr;48(4):e141-e145

Puberty is an important process that providers of health care to children and adolescents should be comfortable discussing. The normal process of puberty is complex and involves many different hormonal pathways. A clear understanding of these pathways will help providers counsel patients on what to expect as they anticipate and progress through puberty as well as be alerted when puberty is not progressing normally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190322-01DOI Listing

Common Annular Lesions in the Pediatric Population: Part 2.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e135-e138

Rash is a common chief complaint for patients presenting to their physician, especially within the pediatric field. The ability to distinguish characteristics of a rash, including morphology, distribution, and configuration, is critical to forming the differential diagnosis. This is the second article of a 2-part review that discusses the common rashes that present in an annular configuration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190222-01DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Controversies in Pediatric Asthma.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e128-e134

Pediatric asthma, the most common chronic disease of childhood, remains a significant burden to the health care system. Although there are guidelines for the management of pediatric asthma, there remain several controversies about how best to manage asthma in the primary care setting, and how to prevent asthma exacerbations and subsequent emergency department visits and hospitalizations. In this article, we address four of these controversies: use of written asthma treatment plans, the role of long-acting beta-agonists, spirometry and peak flow measurements in disease management, and engagement of school nurses in the health care team. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190226-01DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Exercise-Induced Dyspnea in Children and Adolescents: Differential Diagnosis.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e121-e127

Exercise-induced dyspnea in children and adolescents can occur for many reasons. Although asthma is the common cause, failure to prevent exercise-induced asthma by pretreatment with a bronchodilator, such as albuterol, indicates that other etiologies should be considered. Other causes of exercise-induced dyspnea include exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction, exercise-induced laryngomalacia, exercise-induced hyperventilation, chest wall restrictive abnormalities, cardiac causes, and normal physiologic limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190219-02DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Contemplating Chronic Cough in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e115-e120

Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons children seek care from their pediatrician. A cough can be distressing both to the patient and family as it may raise concerns for a significant underlying diagnosis that could warrant a thorough investigation. Chronic cough can be challenging for the family and the pediatrician due to its broad differential diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190221-01DOI Listing

Persistent Wheeze in Infants: A Guide for General Pediatricians.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e110-e114

Infants with persistent wheeze is a common diagnostic challenge for the general pediatrician because of the broad differential diagnoses. The initial diagnostic approach should include a comprehensive history, physical examination, and chest radiography. Additional testing may be warranted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190222-02DOI Listing

Asthma in Children: A Brief Review for Primary Care Providers.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e103-e109

Pediatric asthma is a common chronic condition with wide-ranging implications for children's health, their families, and the health care system. The diagnosis may be relatively straightforward for the child with characteristic symptoms, triggers, and response to therapy, but there are other less common presentations that can make the diagnosis challenging. Diagnosing asthma in a toddler with recurrent wheezing can be particularly difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190219-01DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Pediatric Pulmonology: Part 1.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e101-e102

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190221-02DOI Listing

Shared Decisions in Pediatrics.

Authors:
M Denise Dowd

Pediatr Ann 2019 Mar;48(3):e98-e100

Shared decision-making (SDM) is a structured approach to engaging patients in discussion in medical therapy when there is more than one viable option for care. SDM may decrease decisional conflict between providers and patients, increase trust, and possibly even help decrease health care costs. Much more is known about this approach in adult health care environments, but research on SDM in child health care settings is growing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190221-03DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Common Annular Lesions in the Pediatric Population: Part 1.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e92-e96

Dermatologic presentations can quickly become overwhelming for clinicians due to the vast number of causes for these conditions. Characteristics of a rash, such as shape, color, size, and distribution, can significantly narrow the differential diagnosis. A solid framework to organize these presentations is critical for correctly identifying and treating skin issues. Read More

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February 2019
6 Reads

Fertility Counseling for Adolescents.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e86-e91

Fertility awareness, or general knowledge about one's fertility, is low in adolescents and in adult women as well. Misconceptions about reproduction contribute to high rates of unplanned pregnancy in the United States, as well as delayed childbearing and infertility. Alhough primary care providers caring for adolescents have historically focused on contraception and reduction of sexually transmitted infections during their sexual and reproductive health conversations with adolescents and young adult women, fertility awareness counseling would help these women optimize their future fertility and make informed reproductive choices throughout their life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190117-01DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Contraceptive Needs of Adolescents with Chronic Illness.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e78-e85

Contraception and sexual health form a key part of comprehensive health care for all adolescents, including those who suffer from chronic illness. Multiple studies have shown that adolescents with chronic illness have rates of sexual activity equal to or greater than their healthy counterparts. Primary care pediatricians have the most comprehensive view of the health of their medically complex patients and the benefit of a longstanding relationship. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190121-01DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

HPV Vaccine in Adolescents.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e71-e77

Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide, is the causative agent for cervical cancer and attributed to anogenital cancers as well as oropharyngeal cancer. Three effective, safe, prophylactic HPV vaccines have been licensed, and studies have demonstrated decreases in HPV prevalence and HPV-related disease endpoints without evidence of waning protection to date. In the United States, only the 9-valent vaccine, which covers 90% of the cancers attributed to HPV in US registries, is available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190118-02DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

The Reproductive Health Care of Transgender Young People: A Guide for Primary Care Providers.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e64-e70

Primary care providers should have a general understanding of the medical care available to transgender youth throughout childhood and adolescence. Providers and parents should create an affirming environment for young people at every developmental stage, while ensuring thorough and thoughtful evaluations prior to any medical intervention. Transgender teens have unique reproductive health care needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190116-04DOI Listing
February 2019

Sexual Violence in Adolescents.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e58-e63

Sexual violence and intimate partner violence are common among adolescents, especially for those who are developmentally disabled. Pediatricians have a critical role in treating and preventing sexual violence in adolescents. As medical providers, they possess trusted access to identify sexual violence in adolescents and to intervene to help prevent further violence and mitigate associated health effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190118-01DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Emerging Issues in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health.

Authors:
Hina J Talib

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e56-e57

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February 2019

Birth Control Management for the Primary Care Provider.

Authors:
Rachel S Dawson

Pediatr Ann 2019 Feb;48(2):e51-e55

Contraceptive management is occurring more frequently in the primary care setting. Pediatricians should be familiar with the most common methods of contraception due to the fact that families are comfortable seeking care for their adolescents at the primary care office for these types of concerns. Contraceptive methods are often used for noncontraceptive benefits as well, which makes it even more important to feel comfortable prescribing contraceptives at pediatricians' offices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20190111-01DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Intranasal Steroid Therapy for Allergic Rhinitis.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e43-e48

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common medical condition in children. It is associated with significant morbidity because symptoms can adversely affect quality of life. The goals of treatment of AR are to provide effective prevention as well as symptom alleviation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181212-01DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Neonatal Skin Emergencies.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e36-e42

Although the majority of neonatal skin rashes can be safely monitored without intervention, there are a significant few that are dermatologic emergencies. When called to assess a neonate, it is important to distinguish what requires immediate diagnosis and treatment from those that represent benign etiologies. The skin may be the first clue to certain infections such as herpes simplex virus, syphilis, varicella, cytomegalovirus, fungal infections, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, all of which require immediate testing and some of which may lead to severe sequelae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181210-03DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Uncommon Neonatal Skin Lesions.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e30-e35

Certain rashes and cutaneous lesions in a newborn can be clues to more concerning diseases and conditions if recognized and evaluated promptly. Langerhans cell histiocytosis, cutaneous forms of cancer (such as leukemia cutis, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), developmental abnormalities such as neural tube or spinal dysraphism, and aplasia cutis congenita, nutritional deficiency, and immunodeficiency all have a range of cutaneous findings that will be reviewed herein to guide diagnosis and management. [Pediatr Ann. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181212-02DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Common Neonatal Skin Lesions: Melanocytic Nevi, Pigment Alterations, and Nonmelanocytic Nevi.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e23-e29

Birthmarks are common in the healthy population and are generally harmless. Certain presentations, however, raise concern for associated syndromes or potential complications. It is important for pediatricians to be familiar with both harmless and potentially concerning birthmarks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181207-01DOI Listing
January 2019

Common Neonatal Rashes.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e16-e22

Skin eruptions are commonly encountered in the neonatal and infant period and can be a source of concern for providers and parents alike. We present a brief, clinically focused discussion on topics commonly encountered by the pediatrician with a focus on pearls of knowledge to help distinguish diseases from one another and from more serious conditions. We review miliaria, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, neonatal cephalic pustulosis, erythema toxicum neonatorum, diaper dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181206-01DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Newborn Skin Care.

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e11-e15

The skin serves as a unique barrier from the outside world and undergoes critical changes during its development and maturation. This article reviews evidence-based recommendations for the routine care of newborn skin that should be integrated into the pediatrician's practice. [Pediatr Ann. Read More

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January 2019
4 Reads

Neonatal Dermatology.

Pediatr Ann 2019 01;48(1):e9-e10

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January 2019

Dental Care and Trauma Management in Children and Adolescents.

Authors:
Leah Khan

Pediatr Ann 2019 Jan;48(1):e3-e8

Dental health in early childhood is a predictor for oral health as we age, and oral health is an important factor affecting overall health. For this reason, providing good guidance and early intervention is imperative to help set our patients up for success. To do this, providers must be familiar with dental anatomy and development, as well as recommendations for caries prevention, pacifier use, juice consumption, fluoride, and the establishment of a dental home. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181213-01DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Restless Legs Syndrome in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e504-e506

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common pediatric condition that often goes undiagnosed. The genetics and pathophysiology of this sensorimotor condition are still not well understood. RLS can affect any part of the body, but the thighs and calves are the most commonly affected. Read More

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December 2018
21 Reads

Pediatric Hypertension.

Authors:
Debora Matossian

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e499-e503

The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension in children and adolescents has increased over the past decade. This trend is most likely related to increases in primary hypertension associated with increasing obesity rates in children. Lifestyle as well as genetics play a significant role in the development of primary hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181119-01DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The Role of Exercise Prescription in Pediatric Preventive Cardiology Programs.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e494-e498

Lifestyle changes such as exercise and dietary change are recommended first-line therapy for children with dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Although most clinicians recommend exercise, specific exercise prescriptions are not usually provided. The optimal type, duration, and intensity of activity to achieve a meaningful outcome is not definitively defined. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Percent Body Fat Measurement in the Medical Management of Children with Obesity.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e487-e493

Sustaining weight loss can be challenging, as physiological responses to weight loss, including metabolic and hormonal adaptations and decreased energy expenditure, promote weight regain. Paired with sustained dietary changes, physical activity can promote weight maintenance after successful weight loss, as physical activity can help maintain fat-free mass. We present several illustrative cases to highlight the potential use of body composition measurement using a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) scale to augment obesity management counseling in a tertiary care pediatric weight-management clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181116-02DOI Listing
December 2018

Preserving Optimal Cardiovascular Health in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e479-e486

The origins of cardiovascular disease are at the beginning of life, and national guidelines recommend evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and hypertension as part of general pediatric care. In this review, a simple plan is proposed for clear and consistent monitoring and messaging throughout childhood, based on the American Heart Association's "cardiovascular health" construct. A framework is provided for age-appropriate scoring of the cardiovascular health components, including diet, physical activity and screen time, sleep, smoking exposure, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181115-01DOI Listing
December 2018

Acute Marijuana Intoxication in Children.

Authors:
M Denise Dowd

Pediatr Ann 2018 Dec;47(12):e474-e476

As the number of states legalizing marijuana for medical and/or recreational use continues to grow, there are an increasing number of children exposed to marijuana-containing products in homes and communities. Increased exposure leads to a greater probability of accidental ingestion and toxicity. Because marijuana ingestion can cause a dangerous and potentially life-threatening toxicity for children, pediatric health care providers need an increased awareness of the danger. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Newborn Screening Programs.

Authors:
C Lydia Wraight

Pediatr Ann 2018 12;47(12):e472-e473

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181121-01DOI Listing
December 2018

True Advocacy: Realistic for a Pediatric Provider?

Authors:
Joseph R Hageman

Pediatr Ann 2018 12;47(12):e470-e471

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December 2018

Assessing Nutritional Risk Among Infants and Toddlers in Primary Care Practice.

Authors:
Robert D Murray

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e465-e469

Traditionally, nutritional risk has been defined by growth failure, with clinical intervention indicated when a child falls below the third to fifth percentile on growth charts. Although the velocity of linear growth and weight gain during the first years are unparalleled at any other time of life, this period is also unique for other reasons. Nutrition not only supports increased bone length, muscle mass, and tissue growth, but also continued development of several highly metabolic organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, the cardiorespiratory system, the kidneys, and the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181016-01DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Hepatobiliary Manifestations in Systemic Disease.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e458-e464

Liver disease in children occurs via a multitude of primary illnesses such as autoimmune hepatopathy, biliary atresia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, jaundice, hepatitis, and alterations in liver tests can often be a manifestation of systemic diseases. The liver is involved in many critical functions such as circulation, immunity, toxin clearance, and metabolism; when the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, immune system, or endocrine systems are compromised, the liver will be affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181023-01DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Autoimmune Liver Diseases in Children.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e452-e457

Autoimmune liver disease remains difficult to diagnose, and distinguishing the various causes is difficult as well. In children, it can present with wide variation, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the "overlap syndrome" of AIH/PSC, also known as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis. These liver disorders are thought to be immune-mediated, but their etiology remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181022-02DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads

Nutrition in Pediatric Chronic Liver Disease.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e445-e451

More than one-half of children with chronic liver disease suffer from malnutrition, which leads not only to a poor quality of life and even possibly catastrophic complications, but also to poor outcomes after a liver transplantation. These children have increased metabolic demands but often decreased intake with malabsorption and altered nutrient utilization, all of which make it difficult to keep up with nutritional demands. Assessment of a patient's nutritional status should be timely, and it should be performed routinely and proactively. Read More

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November 2018
17 Reads

Wilson's Disease: A Review for the General Pediatrician.

Pediatr Ann 2018 Nov;47(11):e440-e444

Wilson's disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and copper accumulation in various tissues. It is associated with the classic triad of cirrhosis, neurological manifestations, and the ocular finding of Kayser-Fleischer rings; however, the clinical presentation can vary greatly from incidental findings of abnormal liver enzymes to acute liver failure necessitating liver transplant. Pediatric patients may present with subtle findings including asymptomatic hepatomegaly, transaminitis, changes in behavior, movement disorders, or school failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20181026-01DOI Listing
November 2018
24 Reads