60,612 results match your criteria Patent Ductus Arteriosus Imaging


Investigating the Pharmacological Mechanisms of SheXiang XinTongNing Against Coronary Heart Disease Based on Network Pharmacology and Experimental Evaluation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:698981. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Tang Center of Herbal Medicine Research and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

SheXiang XinTongNing (XTN), which is composed of six traditional Chinese herbs, is a commercially available Chinese patent medicine that has been widely used as the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). Its mechanisms against coronary heart disease, however, remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacological mechanisms of XTN against CHD via network pharmacology and experimental evaluation. Read More

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Potential Mechanisms of Action of Chinese Patent Medicines for COVID-19: A Review.

Front Pharmacol 2021 15;12:668407. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Second Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emergent infectious pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is highly contagious and pathogenic. COVID-19 has rapidly swept across the world since it was first discovered in December 2019 and has drawn significant attention worldwide. During the early stages of the outbreak in China, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were involved in the whole treatment process. Read More

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Cell-Type-Specific High Throughput Toxicity Testing in Human Midbrain Organoids.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 15;14:715054. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department for Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Münster, Germany.

Toxicity testing is a crucial step in the development and approval of chemical compounds for human contact and consumption. However, existing model systems often fall short in their prediction of human toxicity because they may not sufficiently recapitulate human physiology. The complexity of three-dimensional (3D) human organ-like cell culture systems ("organoids") can generate potentially more relevant models of human physiology and disease, including toxicity predictions. Read More

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Effects of Photobiomodulation Therapy Combined with Static Magnetic Field in Severe COVID-19 Patients Requiring Intubation: A Pragmatic Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Inflamm Res 2021 24;14:3569-3585. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Laboratory of Phototherapy and Innovative Technologies in Health (LaPIT), Post-graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effects of photobiomodulation therapy combined with static magnetic field (PBMT-sMF) on the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality rate of severe COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and assess its role in preserving respiratory muscles and modulating inflammatory processes.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a prospectively registered, triple-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PBMT-sMF in severe COVID-19 ICU patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either PBMT-sMF or a placebo daily throughout their ICU stay. Read More

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Smoothing the steep microsurgery learning curve: considering alternative suture sizes for early-stage microsurgery training with in vivo rat models.

Eur J Plast Surg 2021 Jul 27:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY USA.

Background: Laboratory microsurgery training using invivo rat models is essential for clinical operation. However, challenges existin a structured training course when students transition from a non-livingmodel exercise to a living one. In the present article, we first demonstratethis steep learning curve in early-stage microsurgery training. Read More

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[Impending Paradoxical Embolization in a Patient with a Thrombus Straddling the Patent Foramen Ovale].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Aug;74(8):587-589

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan.

The patent foramen ovale (PFO) is known as a risk of paradoxical embolism in patients with deep venous thromboses. However, PFO is usually found after systemic embolic symptoms become apparent. A 60-year-old male had complained of dyspnea for two weeks. Read More

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Risk factors for diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis: A set of parallel case-control studies.

J Rheumatol 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States; Department of Medicine/Rheumatology, University of Iceland and Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States; Department of Medicine/Rheumatology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States; Department of Dermatology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States; Department of Medicine/Rheumatology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Source of Support: This work was supported in part by NIH K23 AR063764 (PI Ogdie) and internal funds from the University of Pennsylvania. Maureen Dubreil was supported by NIH K23 AR06912701. Conflict of Interest: Elana Meer, Telma Thrastardottir, Maureen Dubreuil, Xingmei Wang, and Yong Chen report no conflicts of interest. Joel Gelfand served as a consultant for BMS, Boehringer Ingelheim, Lilly, Janssen Biologics, Novartis Corp, UCB (DSMB), Neuroderm (DSMB), Dr. Reddy's Labs, Pfizer Inc., and Sun Pharma, receiving honoraria; receives research grants (to the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania) from Abbvie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Janssen, Novartis Corp, Celgene, Ortho Dermatologics, and Pfizer Inc.; and received payment for continuing medical education work related to psoriasis that was supported indirectly by Lilly, Ortho Dermatologics, and Novartis. Dr. Gelfand is a co-patent holder of resiquimod for treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Dr. Gelfand is a Deputy Editor for the Journal of Investigative Dermatology receiving honoraria from the Society for Investigative Dermatology and is a member of the Board of Directors for the International Psoriasis Council, receiving no honoraria. Thorvardur Love has received reimbursement from Celgene for speaking about guidelines for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Alexis Ogdie has served as a consultant for Abbvie, Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Corrona, Global Health Living Foundation, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and Takeda and has received grants to the University of Pennsylvania from Pfizer and Novartis and to Forward from Amgen. Her husband has received royalties from Novartis. Corresponding Author: Alexis Ogdie, MD MSCE, University of Pennsylvania, Division of Rheumatology, 3400 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104;

Objective: To compare potential risk factors for the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

Methods: Four parallel case-control studies were conducted within The Health Improvement Network using data between 1994 and 2015. Patients with PsA, psoriasis, RA, or AS were identified using validated code lists and matched to controls on age, sex, practice, and year. Read More

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Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema/baboon syndrome induced by traditional Chinese medicine.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) refers to an uncommon cutaneous adverse reaction that symmetrically involves the buttock and intertriginous areas after systemic exposure to the offending drug and is previously known as baboon syndrome. SDRIFE related with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has not been reported.

Objective: We presented a case of SDRIFE /baboon syndrome induced by TCM, Xi-Huang capsule. Read More

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Gene expression profiles compared in environmental and malnutrition enteropathy in Zambian children and adults.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jul 29;70:103509. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Departments of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States.

Background: Environmental enteropathy (EE) contributes to growth failure in millions of children worldwide, but its relationship to clinical malnutrition has not been elucidated. We used RNA sequencing to compare duodenal biopsies from adults and children with EE, and from children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), to define key features of these malnutrition-related enteropathies.

Methods: RNA was extracted and sequenced from biopsies of children with SAM in hospital (n=27), children with non-responsive stunting in the community (n=30), and adults living in the same community (n=37) using an identical sequencing and analysis pipeline. Read More

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Reelin changes hippocampal learning in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 29;414:113482. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Molecular Genetics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, United States; Center for Translational Neurodegeneration Research, UT Southwestern Medical Center, United States; Department of Neuroscience, UT Southwestern Medical Center, United States; Department of Neurology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

The hippocampal formation (HF) is a neuroanatomical region essential for learning and memory. As one of the earliest regions to display the histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), determining the specific mechanisms of the HF's vulnerability is of capital importance. Reelin, a glycoprotein crucial in cortical lamination during embryonic neurogenesis, has an uncommon expression pattern within the HF and has been implicated in both learning and AD pathogenesis. Read More

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The use of a next-generation sequencing-derived machine-learning risk-prediction model (OncoCast-MPM) for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a retrospective study.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Biostatistics Service, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Current risk stratification for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma based on disease stage and histology is inadequate. For some individuals with early-stage epithelioid tumours, a good prognosis by current guidelines can progress rapidly; for others with advanced sarcomatoid cancers, a poor prognosis can progress slowly. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a machine-learning tool-known as OncoCast-MPM-that could create a model for patient prognosis. Read More

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Novel ECG features and machine learning to optimize culprit lesion detection in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Acute & Tertiary Care Nursing, PA, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, PA, USA; Division of Cardiology at University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Novel temporal-spatial features of the 12‑lead ECG can conceptually optimize culprit lesions' detection beyond that of classical ST amplitude measurements. We sought to develop a data-driven approach for ECG feature selection to build a clinically relevant algorithm for real-time detection of culprit lesion.

Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of chest pain patients transported by emergency medical services to three tertiary care hospitals in the US. Read More

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Restoring lost nigrostriatal fibers in Parkinson's disease based on clinically-inspired design criteria.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, United States; Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Corporal Michael Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting around 10 million people worldwide. The death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the axonal fibers that constitute the nigrostriatal pathway leads to a loss of dopamine in the striatum that causes the motor symptoms of this disease. Traditional treatments have focused on reducing symptoms, while therapies with human fetal or stem cell-derived neurons have centered on implanting these cells in the striatum to restore its innervation. Read More

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Affinity maturation of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies confers potency, breadth, and resilience to viral escape mutations.

Immunity 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Retrovirology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Electronic address:

Antibodies elicited by infection accumulate somatic mutations in germinal centers that can increase affinity for cognate antigens. We analyzed 6 independent groups of clonally related severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies from 5 individuals shortly after infection and later in convalescence to determine the impact of maturation over months. In addition to increased affinity and neutralization potency, antibody evolution changed the mutational pathways for the acquisition of viral resistance and restricted neutralization escape options. Read More

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Skeletal stem and progenitor cells maintain cranial suture patency and prevent craniosynostosis.

Nat Commun 2021 07 30;12(1):4640. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Cranial sutures are major growth centers for the calvarial vault, and their premature fusion leads to a pathologic condition called craniosynostosis. This study investigates whether skeletal stem/progenitor cells are resident in the cranial sutures. Prospective isolation by FACS identifies this population with a significant difference in spatio-temporal representation between fusing versus patent sutures. Read More

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GHB analogs confer neuroprotection through specific interaction with the CaMKIIα hub domain.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;

Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) is a key neuronal signaling protein and an emerging drug target. The central hub domain regulates the activity of CaMKIIα by organizing the holoenzyme complex into functional oligomers, yet pharmacological modulation of the hub domain has never been demonstrated. Here, using a combination of photoaffinity labeling and chemical proteomics, we show that compounds related to the natural substance γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) bind selectively to CaMKIIα. Read More

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A functional mammalian display screen identifies rare antibodies that stimulate NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-2552;

Therapies that boost the antitumor immune response have shown a great deal of success. Although most of these therapies have focused on enhancing T cell functions, there is a growing interest in developing therapies that can target other immune cell subsets. Like T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic effector cells that play a key role in the antitumor response. Read More

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High-affinity T-cell receptor specific for MyD88 L265P mutation for adoptive T-cell therapy of B-cell malignancies.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Adoptive transfer of engineered T cells has shown remarkable success in B-cell malignancies. However, the most common strategy of targeting lineage-specific antigens can lead to undesirable side effects. Also, a substantial fraction of patients have refractory disease. Read More

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The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression in the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively uncommon disease with few reported molecular markers. This study evaluated Tim-3 and PD-1 expression in primary UTUC and its impact on patients' clinical outcomes.

Methods: Tim-3 and PD-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded sections from 101 UTUC patients. Read More

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Plasma kallikrein predicts primary graft dysfunction after heart transplant.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is the leading cause of early mortality after heart transplant. Pre-transplant predictors of PGD remain elusive and its etiology remains unclear.

Methods: Microvesicles were isolated from 88 pre-transplant serum samples and underwent proteomic evaluation using TMT mass spectrometry. Read More

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Metabolic flexibility during normal pregnancy allows appropriate adaptation during gestation independently of BMI.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 19;44:254-262. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Unidad de Vinculación Científica de La Facultad de Medicina UNAM-INMEGEN, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Overweight and obesity in reproductive-age women hasten the development of insulin resistance and increase risk for deterioration of pregnancy metabolism. These pregnancy-associated metabolic changes are similar to those of the metabolic syndrome. Thus, some metabolic flexibility must allow appropriate adaptation to the metabolic load that pregnancy imposes. Read More

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AMFormulaS: an intelligent retrieval system for traditional Chinese medicine formulas.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 Jul 30;21(Suppl 2):56. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, China.

Background: Formula is an important means of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat diseases and has great research significance. There are many formula databases, but accessing rich information efficiently is difficult due to the small-scale data and lack of intelligent search engine.

Methods: We selected 38,000 formulas from a semi-structured database, and then segmented text, extracted information, and standardized terms. Read More

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S-nitroso human serum albumin as a nitric oxide donor in drug-eluting vascular grafts: biofunctionality and preclinical evaluation.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, Austria; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna, Austria; Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration. Electronic address:

Currently available synthetic small diameter vascular grafts reveal low patency rates due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Biofunctionalized grafts releasing nitric oxide (NO) in situ may overcome these limitations. In this study, a drug-eluting vascular graft was designed by blending polycaprolactone (PCL) with S-nitroso-human-serum-albumin (S-NO-HSA), a nitric oxide donor with prolonged half-life. Read More

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Myeloablative Fractionated Busulfan with Fludarabine in Older Patients: Long Term Disease-Specific Outcomes of a Prospective Phase II Clinical Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Background: Compared to reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) reduces relapse but is avoided in older patients due to higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). To meet the need for a myeloablative regimen for older patients, we developed a novel fludarabine and busulfan MAC regimen. We fractionated the dose of busulfan and gave it for six days over a two-week period and demonstrated the feasibility and safety of this approach. Read More

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Competitive binding of extracellular accumulated heparan sulfate reduces lysosomal storage defects and triggers neuronal differentiation in a model of Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jul 27:119113. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders associated with the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. The resulting cellular accumulation of GAGs is responsible for widespread tissue and organ dysfunctions. The MPS III, caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the degradation of heparan sulfate (HS), includes four subtypes (A, B, C, and D) that present significant neurological manifestations such as progressive cognitive decline and behavioral disorders. Read More

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TRIM8 modulates the EWS/FLI oncoprotein to promote survival in Ewing sarcoma.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Fusion-transcription factors (fusion-TFs) represent a class of driver oncoproteins that are difficult to therapeutically target. Recently, protein degradation has emerged as a strategy to target these challenging oncoproteins. The mechanisms that regulate fusion-TF stability, however, are generally unknown. Read More

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Commensal bacteria and fungi differentially regulate tumor responses to radiation therapy.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA; F. Widjaja Foundation Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Studies suggest that the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy is influenced by intestinal bacteria. However, the influence of the microbiome on radiation therapy is not as well understood, and the microbiome comprises more than bacteria. Here, we find that intestinal fungi regulate antitumor immune responses following radiation in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma and that fungi and bacteria have opposite influences on these responses. Read More

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Venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy with cladribine, idarubicin, and cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a cohort from a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e552-e561

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia.

Methods: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Read More

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Single-cell RNA Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Factors in the Preconceptional Human Endometrium.

Hum Reprod 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Igenomix Foundation, INCLIVA Health Research Institute, C/Narcis de Monturiol Estarriol 11B, 46980, Valencia, Spain.

Study Question: Are SARS-CoV-2 canonical cell entry machinery, consisting of ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1 and LY6E, or alternative potential cell entry machinery, consisting of BSG, ANPEP, CD209, CLEC4G, TMPRSS4, TMPRSS11A, FURIN, CTSB, CTSL and IFITM1, expressed in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle?

Summary Answer: Analysis of cell entry factors for SARS-CoV-2 by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) in the preconceptional human endometrium reveals low risk of infection.

What Is Known Already: Gene expression datasets from bulk endometrial tissue show no significant expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and TMPRSS2. This is in contrast to reported expression of ACE2 at the single-cell level in the decidua and trophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy, as well as vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. Read More

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Attenuating nicotine's effects with high affinity human anti-nicotine monoclonal antibodies.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0254247. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Nic•mAb Strategic Alliance, San Diego, California, United States of America.

Use of nicotine-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to sequester and reduce nicotine distribution to brain has been proposed as a therapeutic approach to treat nicotine addiction (the basis of tobacco use disorder). A series of monoclonal antibodies with high affinity for nicotine (nic•mAbs) was isolated from B-cells of vaccinated smokers. Genes encoding 32 unique nicotine binding antibodies were cloned, and the mAbs expressed and tested by surface plasmon resonance to determine their affinity for S-(-)-nicotine. Read More

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