84,077 results match your criteria Parkinson Disease Dementia


The association between Parkinson's disease symptom side-of-onset and performance on the MDS-UPDRS scale part IV: Motor complications.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 4;396:262-265. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, 1648 Pierce Dr. NE, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA; Atlanta VA Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, 1670 Clairmont Rd., Decatur, GA 30033, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, 1648 Pierce Dr. NE, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with aging characterized by loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and a reduction in dopamine levels in the striatum. PD is commonly treated using dopamine-replacement medication called levodopa. Levodopa has decreasing efficacy over time. Read More

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December 2018

Preferences for rural specialist health care in the treatment of Parkinson.

Aust J Prim Health 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

People living with Parkinson's disease (PWPD) in rural areas have limited access to local condition-specific care. This paper examines the healthcare preferences of PWPD living in rural areas and how a community-driven initiative to employ a movement disorder nurse (MDN) functioned to address barriers to health services access. A qualitative design facilitated an understanding of how interactions with the health system shaped PWPD and their carer's experiences of living in a regional community. Read More

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December 2018

Utility and implications of exome sequencing in early-onset Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Background: Although the genetic load is high in early-onset Parkinson's disease, thorough investigation of the genetic diagnostic yield has yet to be established. The objectives of this study were to assess variants in known genes for PD and other movement disorders and to find new candidates in 50 patients with early-onset PD.

Methods: We searched for variants either within genes listed by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature or rare homozygous variants in novel candidate genes. Read More

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December 2018

Microglial cell activation and senescence are characteristic of the pathology FXTAS.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MIND Institute, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.

Background: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. Expansions of more than 200 CGG repeats give rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of cognitive impairment. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is characterized by cerebellar tremor and ataxia, and the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. Read More

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December 2018

Nigral iron deposition in common tremor disorders.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Objective: We investigated R2* relaxation rates as a marker of iron content in the substantia nigra in patients with common tremor disorders and explored their diagnostic properties.

Methods: Mean nigral R2* rates were measured in 40 patients with tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 with tremor in dystonia, 25 with essential tremor, and 25 healthy controls.

Results: Tremor-dominant PD patients had significantly higher nigral R2* values (34. Read More

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December 2018

Disruption of the default mode network and its intrinsic functional connectivity underlies minor hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Minor hallucinations and well-structured hallucinations are considered in the severity continuum of the psychotic spectrum associated with Parkinson's disease. Although their chronological relationship is largely unknown, the spatial patterns of brain atrophy in these 2 forms of hallucinations partially overlap, suggesting they share similar pathophysiological processes. Functional connectivity studies show that disruption of functional networks involved in perception and attention could be relevant in the emergence of well-structured hallucinations. Read More

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December 2018

A chemogenetic approach for treating experimental Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: PD is a common neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the cortico-basal ganglia loop.

Objective: To investigate whether chemogenetic-mediated neuromodulation of various nuclei and pathways can counterbalance basal ganglia network abnormalities and improve motor disability in experimental PD.

Methods: Experimental PD was induced by stereotactic injection of 6-OHDA to the medial forebrain bundle. Read More

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December 2018

Dopamine, oxidative stress and protein-quinone modifications in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Chimica, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, ITALY.

Dopamine (DA) is the most important catecholamine in the brain, as it is the most abundant and the precursor of other neurotransmitters. Degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease represents the best-studied link between DA neurotransmission and neuropathology. Catecholamines are reactive molecules that are handled through complex control and transport systems. Read More

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December 2018

Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging investigation of basal forebrain damage and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Brain and Spine Institute - ICM, Center for NeuroImaging Research - CENIR, Paris, France.

Background: Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) may result from damage in the cortex as well as in the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic inputs to the cortex. Cholinergic inputs to the cortex mainly originate from the basal forebrain and are clustered in several regions, called Ch1 to Ch4, that project to the hippocampus (Ch1-2), the olfactory bulb (Ch3), and the cortex and amygdala (Ch4).

Objective: We investigated changes in basal forebrain and their role in cognitive deficits in PD. Read More

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December 2018

The Nest Building Test in Mice for Assessment of General Well-Being.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:87-91

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

This chapter presents a method for assessing general behavior, well-being, and sensorimotor gating. A detailed protocol is given for assessment of nest building performance in female mice using a strict scoring system. The test can be used for assessing moods and behaviors associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Read More

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January 2019

PDX Finder: A portal for patient-derived tumor xenograft model discovery.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.

Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse models are a versatile oncology research platform for studying tumor biology and for testing chemotherapeutic approaches tailored to genomic characteristics of individual patients' tumors. PDX models are generated and distributed by a diverse group of academic labs, multi-institution consortia and contract research organizations. The distributed nature of PDX repositories and the use of different metadata standards for describing model characteristics presents a significant challenge to identifying PDX models relevant to specific cancer research questions. Read More

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December 2018

Kinetic Modeling of pH-Dependent Oxidation of Dopamine by Iron and Its Relevance to Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2018 26;12:859. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. While age is the most significant risk factor, the exact cause of this disease and the most effective approaches to mitigation remain unclear. It has long been proposed that dopamine may play a role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease in view of its ability to generate both protein-modifying quinones such as aminochrome and reactive oxygen species, especially in the presence of pathological iron accumulation in the primary site of neuron loss. Read More

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November 2018

Brain SIRT1 Mediates Metabolic Homeostasis and Neuroprotection.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 23;9:702. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Laboratories, Department of Neurology, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States.

Sirtuins are evolutionarily conserved proteins that use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a co-substrate in their enzymatic reactions. There are seven proteins (SIRT1-7) in the human sirtuin family, among which SIRT1 is the most conserved and characterized. SIRT1 in the brain, in particular, within the hypothalamus, plays crucial roles in regulating systemic energy homeostasis and circadian rhythm. Read More

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November 2018

Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery for Parkinson Disease Coexisting With Communicating Hydrocephalus: A Case Report.

Front Neurol 2018 23;9:1011. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Hospital Clínico, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

We report a successful bilateral globus pallidus internus-deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) for a Parkinson disease (PD) patient with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and an unusually long anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line. A 54-year-old man presented with a history of 3 months of severe shuffling gait, rigidity, slow movements of the left side limbs, and difficulty managing finances. A brain MRI revealed marked ventriculomegaly (Evans index = 0. Read More

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November 2018

A Comparative Study of Early and Late Onset Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):256-262

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD); the pathogenesis and natural course of which has not been fully understood.

Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate patients with FOG in PD and ascertain factors contributing to an early onset of FOG in patients with PD.

Methodology: A chart review of 100 patients with PD (FOG [+] 50, FOG [-]: 50) was performed. Read More

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December 2018

Role of Physical Activity in Parkinson's Disease.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):242-249

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is common, age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder caused by a severe loss of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Given the projected increase in the number of people with PD over the coming decades, interventions aimed at minimizing morbidity and improve quality of life are crucial. There is currently no fully proven pharmacological therapy that can modify or slow the disease progression. Read More

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December 2018

Metabolomic investigations in cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208752. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Analytische BioGeoChemie, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

The underlying mechanisms of Parkinson´s disease are not completely revealed. Especially, early diagnostic biomarkers are lacking. To characterize early pathophysiological events, research is focusing on metabolomics. Read More

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December 2018

[Breve recorrido histórico de la enfermedad de Parkinson a 200 años de su descripción].

Gac Med Mex 2018 ;154(6):719-726

Laboratorio Clínico de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas. Secretaría de Salud, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Ciudad de México, México.

The original description of what currently is known as Parkinson's disease was published 200 years ago. During both these centuries, knowledge on symptomatology, pathophysiology, genetics and pharmaceutical and surgical treatment has significantly increased; however, this nosological entity continues to be of imprecise origin and progressive evolution. In the present review, the historical events that contributed to describe and improve the understanding of this disease are summarized. Read More

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January 2018

Lower Extremity Muscle Strength and Force Variability in Persons With Parkinson Disease.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):56-62

Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Centers, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville, Florida (J.W.S.); and Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.A.C., C.J.H.).

Background And Purpose: Adequate lower limb strength and motor control are essential for mobility and quality of life. People with Parkinson disease (PD) experience a significant and progressive decline in motor capabilities as part of this neurodegenerative disease. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of PD on (1) muscular strength and (2) force steadiness in muscles that are primarily responsible for locomotion and stability. Read More

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January 2019

Auditory Cueing for Gait Impairment in Persons With Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Study of Changes in Response With Disease Progression.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):50-55

Institute of Neuroscience/Newcastle University Institute of Ageing, Clinical Ageing Research Unit, Campus for Ageing and Vitality Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (E.L.S., S.L., D.M., L.R., R.M.); Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, Brazil (E.L.S.); School of Clinical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand (S.L.); John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Centre, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (D.M.); The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom (L.R.); and Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland (R.M.).

Background And Purpose: Gait impairments in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) are difficult to manage. Auditory cueing has been shown to be an effective therapy. However, the optimal time to introduce cues with respect to disease stage has not yet been established. Read More

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January 2019

Factors Associated With Responsiveness to Gait and Balance Training in People With Parkinson Disease.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):42-49

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (N.L., D.C., C.J., B.L., M.H., E.F.); Function Area Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Allied Health Professionals Function, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden (N.L., D.C., B.L., M.H., E.F.); Community Health Sciences Faculty, Physiotherapy Department, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa (C.J.); and Stockholms Sjukhem, R&D Unit, Stockholm, Sweden (E.F., B.L.).

Background And Purpose: Although increasing evidence supports the benefit- of exercise among people with Parkinson disease (PwPD), it is unclear whether a given exercise modality suits all PwPD, given the heterogeneity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with responsiveness to a highly challenging training intervention that incorporated dual-task exercises.

Methods: Forty-seven PwPD (mean age: 73 years; 19 females, Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3) who had participated in 10 weeks of highly challenging gait and balance training were included. Read More

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January 2019

Predicting Motor Sequence Learning in People With Parkinson Disease.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):33-41

Physical Therapy and Athletic Training (G.N.O., S.S.P., K.R.L., C.S.W., S.Y.S., L.E.D.), Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation (K.R.L., L.E.D.), University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Faculty of Health Sciences, the University of Sydney, Australia (S.S.P.); Physical Therapy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Fayetteville (C.S.W.); and Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Phoenix (S.Y.S.).

Background And Purpose: Skill acquisition (ie, performance changes during practice) occurs in a nonlinear fashion. Despite this, motor learning is typically measured by comparing discrete timepoints. Thus, typical measures of motor learning do not detect skill acquisition characteristics that may be clinically meaningful. Read More

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January 2019

Exercise and Parkinson Disease: Comparing Tango, Treadmill, and Stretching.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):26-32

Program in Physical Therapy (K.S.R., M.E.M., R.P.D., J.S.P., G.M.E.), Department of Neurology (M.E.M., R.P.D., J.S.P., G.M.E.), Department of Neuroscience (J.S.P., G.M.E.), Department of Radiology (J.S.P.), and Program in Occupational Therapy (J.S.P.), Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis, Missouri; and Department of Kinesiology and Occupational Therapy Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison (K.A.P.).

Background And Purpose: Impaired gait, balance, and motor function are common in Parkinson disease (PD) and may lead to falls and injuries. Different forms of exercise improve motor function in persons with PD, but determining which form of exercise is most effective requires a direct comparison of various approaches. In this prospective, controlled trial, we evaluated the impact of tango, treadmill walking, and stretching on gait, balance, motor function, and quality of life. Read More

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January 2019

A High-Intensity Exercise Boot Camp for Persons With Parkinson Disease: A Phase II, Pragmatic, Randomized Clinical Trial of Feasibility, Safety, Signal of Efficacy, and Disease Mechanisms.

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):12-25

Departments of Physical Therapy (M.R.L.), Kinesiology and Nutritional Sciences (J.W.N.), and Psychology (J.W.K.), University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Alzheimer's Association, Chicago, Illinois (A.S.M.); and Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico and New Mexico VA Healthcare System, Albuquerque, New Mexico (S.P.R.).

Background And Purpose: The feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a high-intensity multimodal exercise program (aerobic, strengthening, and balance training) have not been well vetted in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). Thus, the primary aim was to determine whether a high-intensity multimodal exercise boot camp (HIBC) was both feasible and safe in persons with PD. The secondary aim was to determine whether the program would produce greater benefit than a usual care, low-intensity exercise program (UC). Read More

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January 2019

Determinants of Dual-Task Training Effect Size in Parkinson Disease: Who Will Benefit Most?

J Neurol Phys Ther 2019 Jan;43(1):3-11

Neuromotor Rehabilitation Research Group, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium (C.S., L.M., S.B., P.G., A.N., E.H.); and Department of Neurology, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice (E.A.M.) and Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (B.R.B.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Dual-task interventions show positive effects in people with Parkinson disease (PD), but it remains unclear which factors determine the size of these benefits. As a secondary analysis of the DUALITY trial, the aim of this study was to assess the determinants of the effect size after 2 types of dual-task practice.

Methods: We randomly allocated 121 participants with PD to receive either integrated or consecutive dual-task training. Read More

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January 2019

Implications of alpha-synuclein nitration at tyrosine 39 in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and .

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):319-327

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Methamphetamine is an amphetamine-type psychostimulant that can damage dopaminergic neurons and cause characteristic pathological changes similar to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. However, its specific mechanism of action is still unclear. In the present study, we established a Parkinson's disease pathology model by exposing SH-SY5Y cells and C57BL/6J mice to methamphetamine. Read More

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February 2019

CHCHD10 is involved in the development of Parkinson's disease caused by CHCHD2 loss-of-function mutation p.T61I.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Oct 23;75:38-41. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Previously we identified the p.Thr61Ile mutation in coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 (CHCHD2) in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. But the mechanism is still unclear. Read More

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October 2018

inPentasomes: An innovative nose-to-brain pentamidine delivery blunts MPTP parkinsonism in mice.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome, Italy.

Preclinical and clinical evidences have demonstrated that astroglial-derived S100B protein is a key element in neuroinflammation underlying the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), so much as that S100B inhibitors have been proposed as promising candidates for PD targeted therapy. Pentamidine, an old-developed antiprotozoal drug, currently used for pneumocystis carinii is one of the most potent inhibitors of S100B activity, but despite this effect, is limited by its low capability to cross blood brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this problem, we developed a non-invasive intranasal delivery system, chitosan coated niosomes with entrapped pentamidine (inPentasomes), in the attempt to provide a novel pharmacological approach to ameliorate parkinsonism induced by subchronic MPTP administration in C57BL-6 J mice. Read More

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December 2018

Admixing MPTP-resistant and MPTP-vulnerable mice enhances striatal field potentials and Calbindin-D28K expression to avert motor behaviour deficits.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, 560029, India. Electronic address:

Asian-Indians are less vulnerable to Parkinson's disease (PD) than the Caucasians. Their admixed populace has even lesser risk. Studying this phenomenon using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-susceptible C57BL/6J, MPTP-resistant CD-1 and their resistant crossbred mice revealed differences in the nigrostriatal cyto-molecular features. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of fluoxetine on functional outcomes after acute stroke (FOCUS): a pragmatic, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

Authors:

Lancet 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Background: Results of small trials indicate that fluoxetine might improve functional outcomes after stroke. The FOCUS trial aimed to provide a precise estimate of these effects.

Methods: FOCUS was a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 103 hospitals in the UK. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and genetic characteristics of late-onset Huntington's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands; GROW Research Institute for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: The frequency of late-onset Huntington's disease (>59 years) is assumed to be low and the clinical course milder. However, previous literature on late-onset disease is scarce and inconclusive.

Objective: Our aim is to study clinical characteristics of late-onset compared to common-onset HD patients in a large cohort of HD patients from the Registry database. Read More

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November 2018

Neuroimaging, genetic, and enzymatic study in a Japanese family with a GBA gross deletion.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) variants are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases with GBA variants, however, are not well understood. In order to determine the effect of a deletion mutation in GBA, we performed a neuroimaging, genetic, and enzymatic study in a Japanese family with a gross deletion of exons 3 to 11 in GBA. Read More

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December 2018

Thalamic and ventricular volumes predict motor response to deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, 660 S Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8111, St Louis, MO, 63110, USA; Department of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, 660 S. Euclid Ave, Campus Box 8225, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Brain atrophy frequently occurs with Parkinson's disease (PD) and relates to increased motor symptoms of PD. The predictive value of neuroimaging-based measures of global and regional brain volume on motor outcomes in deep brain stimulation (DBS) remains unclear but potentially could improve patient selection and targeting.

Objectives: To determine the predictive value of preoperative volumetric MRI measures of cortical and subcortical brain volume on motor outcomes of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS in PD. Read More

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November 2018

Lipidomic Analysis of α-Synuclein Neurotoxicity Identifies Stearoyl CoA Desaturase as a Target for Parkinson Treatment.

Mol Cell 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

In Parkinson's disease (PD), α-synuclein (αS) pathologically impacts the brain, a highly lipid-rich organ. We investigated how alterations in αS or lipid/fatty acid homeostasis affect each other. Lipidomic profiling of human αS-expressing yeast revealed increases in oleic acid (OA, 18:1), diglycerides, and triglycerides. Read More

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December 2018

Multiparametric MR imaging of Parkinsonisms at 3 tesla: Its role in the differentiation of idiopathic Parkinson's disease versus atypical Parkinsonian disorders.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Dec 1;109:95-100. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Neuroradiology Unit, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico IRCCS Ca' Granda, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: The Nigrosome-1 and putaminal hypointensity depicted on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and midbrain atrophy assessed on T1-weighted are some of the most common radiological parameters to diagnose Parkinsonism at Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. Our aim is to assess the feasibility of these signs in the differentiation of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients versus disease (DC) and healthy controls (HC) and in the assessment of the Atypical Progressive Parkinsonisms (APPs).

Methods: Presence or loss of the Nigrosome-1 was assessed retrospectively on multiple-echo SWI obtained on a 3 T scan by two neuroradiologists. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive MRI quantification of the substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Dec 28;109:48-56. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Purpose: To quantify dopaminergic neurodegeneration and iron overload in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to evaluate Parkinson's disease (PD) using both quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and neuromelanin imaging.

Materials And Methods: We studied 39 PD patients (PD group) and 25 healthy controls (HC group) who underwent brain MRI with QSM and neuromelanin imaging. QSM and neuromelanin values of the SNpc were obtained using a voxel-based automated region segmentation system. Read More

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December 2018

Using Kinect to classify Parkinson's disease stages related to severity of gait impairment.

BMC Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 10;19(1):471. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neurodegenerative Disorders Area, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, Begiristain Doktorea Pasealekua, Donostia-San Sebastian, 20014, Spain.

Background: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease associated with motor problems such as gait impairment. Different systems based on 3D cameras, accelerometers or gyroscopes have been used in related works in order to study gait disturbances in PD. Kinect has also been used to build these kinds of systems, but contradictory results have been reported: some works conclude that Kinect does not provide an accurate method of measuring gait kinematics variables, but others, on the contrary, report good accuracy results. Read More

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December 2018

Apolipoprotein E Polymorphisms and Parkinson Disease With or Without Dementia: A Meta-Analysis Including 6453 Participants.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2018 Dec 9:891988718813675. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

3 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

A large number of case-control studies have investigated the association of apolipoprotein E ( APOE) polymorphisms with Parkinson disease (PD) and Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the relationship between APOE polymorphisms and PD/PDD risk. We searched for published studies in PubMed, Web of Science, WanFang Data (in Chinese), and CNKI (in Chinese) from inception to June 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Protective mechanism of Wnt4 gene on Parkinson's disease (PD) transgenic Drosophila .

Int J Neurosci 2018 Dec 11:1-25. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

d Basic Medical College , Guilin Medical University , Guilin 541004.

The main pathological change of Parkinson's disease (PD) is progressive degeneration and necrosis of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, forming a Lewy body in many of the remaining neurons. Studies have found that in transgenic Drosophila, mutations in the PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (PINK1) gene may cause indirect flight muscle defects in Drosophila, and mitochondrial structural dysfunction as well. In this study, Wnt4 gene overexpression and knockdown were performed in PINK1 mutant PD transgenic Drosophila, and the protective effect of Wnt4 gene on PD transgenic Drosophila and its possible mechanism were explored. Read More

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December 2018

Optical Study of p-Doping in GaAs Nanowires for Low-Threshold and High-Yield Lasing.

Nano Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Physics and Astronomy and the Institute for Compound Semiconductors , Cardiff University , Cardiff , CF10 3AT , United Kingdom.

Semiconductor nanowires suffer from significant non-radiative surface recombination; however, heavy p-type doping has proven to be a viable option to increase the radiative recombination rate and, hence, quantum efficiency of emission, allowing the demonstration of room-temperature lasing. Using a large-scale optical technique, we have studied Zn-doped GaAs nanowires to understand and quantify the effect of doping on growth and lasing properties. We measure the non-radiative recombination rate ( k) to be (0. Read More

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December 2018

(Pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides: BBB permeable monoamine oxidase B inhibitors with neuroprotective effect on cortical neurons.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 13;162:793-809. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Centre of Phytochemistry, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 9, Sofia, 1113, Bulgaria.

An extensive study was performed to develop a series of (pyrrolo-pyridin-5-yl)benzamides as reversible MAO-B inhibitors. Compounds 14 (NTZ-2020, hMAO-B IC = 1.11 nM, K = 0. Read More

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November 2018
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Development and biochemical characterization of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease bearing defective glucocerebrosidase activity.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

GBA1 gene encode for the lysosomal membrane protein glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 heterozygous mutations profoundly impair GCase activity and are currently recognized as an important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deficits in lysosomal degradation pathways may contribute to pathological α-synuclein accumulation, thereby favoring dopaminergic neuron degeneration and associated microglial activation. Read More

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December 2018

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of IPX203 in Patients With Advanced Parkinson Disease: A Comparison With Immediate-Release Carbidopa-Levodopa and With Extended-Release Carbidopa-Levodopa Capsules.

Clin Neuropharmacol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Impax Laboratories, LLC, Hayward, CA.

Objective: IPX203 is an investigational oral extended-release capsule formulation of carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD). The aim of this study was to characterize the single-dose pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of IPX203 in subjects with advanced Parkinson disease compared with immediate-release (IR) CD-LD and extended-release CD-LD (Rytary).

Methods: This was a randomized, open-label, rater-blinded, multicenter, single-dose crossover study. Read More

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December 2018

Conditional Haploinsufficiency of β-Catenin Aggravates Neuronal Damage in a Paraquat-Based Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

The canonical Wnt pathway is critical for both the development and adulthood survival and homeostatic maintenance of the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Expanding evidence has demonstrated that genetic factors associated with familial Parkinson disease (PD) deregulate this important pathway, suggesting that a disturbed canonical Wnt pathway is likely involved in PD pathogenesis; yet, the specific role of this pathway in sporadic PD remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of specific inhibition of the canonical pathway by hemizygous knockout of β-catenin, the obligatory component of the canonical Wnt pathway, on paraquat (PQ)-induced DA neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra in vivo. Read More

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December 2018

White Matter Changes Along the Electrode Lead in Patients Treated With Deep Brain Stimulation.

Front Neurol 2018 21;9:983. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for various movement disorders. There is little data available about the potential damage to brain parenchyma through DBS treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients treated with DBS. Read More

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November 2018
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Disruption of Multiple Distinctive Neural Networks Associated With Impulse Control Disorder in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 21;12:462. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czechia.

The phenomenon of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease appears as an arduous side effect of dopaminergic therapy with potentially detrimental consequences for the life of the patients. Although conceptualized as a result of non-physiologic chronic dopaminergic stimulation, recent advances speculate on combined disruption of other networks as well. In the search for neuroanatomical correlates of this multifaceted disturbance, this study employs two distinct, well-defined tasks of close association to motor inhibition and decision-making impulsivity, Go/No Go and Delay discounting. Read More

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November 2018
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Ukgansan protects dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 factor signaling pathway.

Neurochem Int 2018 Nov 30;122:208-215. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Oriental Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy and Kyung Hee East-West Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The sustenance of redox homeostasis in brain is the crucial factor to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response is well known for the main cellular endogenous defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study investigated for the first time the effects and possible mechanisms of action of Ukgansan on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models of PD. Read More

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November 2018

Neuropathology of Circadian Alterations in Parkinson Disease.

Authors:
Karim Fifel

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

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December 2018