7,537 results match your criteria Parasitology[Journal]


Using human head lice to unravel neglect and cause of death.

Parasitology 2018 Dec 10:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Section, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading,Reading, RG6 6AS,UK.

Despite the common association of human lice with abandoned or neglected people, no procedure to assess pediculosis, aimed to detect signs of neglect, exists. Investigating the two most common forms of head louse infestation, regular and severe, we define lice-markers of neglect and develop a protocol and survey form to record and assess pediculosis. The study of head lice from a deceased victim of neglect helped unravel time-length since death, frequency of exposure to neglect and the cause and circumstances related to the death. Read More

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December 2018

Host species influence on flea (Siphonaptera) infection parameters of terrestrial micromammals in a temperate forest of Mexico.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 29:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Centro Tlaxcala de Biología de la Conducta, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala,Km 1.5 Carretera Tlaxcala-Puebla S/N, La Loma Xicohténcatl, C.P. 90070, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala,México.

Studies of abundance and distribution of organisms are fundamental to ecology. The identity of host species is known to be one of the major factors influencing ectoparasitic flea abundance, but explanations are still needed regarding how host taxa influence abundance parameters of different flea species. This study was carried out at La Malinche National Park (LMNP), Tlaxcala, Mexico, where previously 11 flea species had been recorded on 8 host species. Read More

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November 2018

Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Vittaforma corneae (Phylum Microsporidia) inhibit staurosporine-induced apoptosis in human THP-1 macrophages in vitro.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 29:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Microbiology,Tulane National Primate Research Center,Covington, LA 70433,USA.

Obligately intracellular microsporidia regulate their host cell life cycles, including apoptosis, but this has not been evaluated in phagocytic host cells such as macrophages that can facilitate infection but also can be activated to kill microsporidia. We examined two biologically dissimilar human-infecting microsporidia species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Vittaforma corneae, for their effects on staurosporine-induced apoptosis in the human macrophage-differentiated cell line, THP1. Apoptosis was measured after exposure of THP-1 cells to live and dead mature organisms via direct fluorometric measurement of Caspase 3, colorimetric and fluorometric TUNEL assays, and mRNA gene expression profiles using Apoptosis RT2 Profiler PCR Array. Read More

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November 2018

Elucidating in vitro and in vivo phenotypic behaviour of L. infantum/L. major natural hybrids.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 29:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Global Health and Tropical Medicine,GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL,Rua Junqueira 100, 1349-008 Lisbon,Portugal.

The clinical manifestation and course of Leishmania infections depend on factors such as species, virulence and host-immunity. Although trypanosomatids are considered to have clonal propagation, genetic hybridization has produced successful natural hybrid lineages. Hybrids displaying strong selective advantages may have an impact on pathogenesis and the eco-epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Hepatozoon milleri sp. nov. (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in Akodon montensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from southeastern Brazil.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 29:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Parasitologia, Campus de Botucatu, Distrito de Rubião Junior,Botucatu, São Paulo,Brazil.

Members of the genus Hepatozoon (Miller, 1908) are blood parasites found in a wide range of host species, including wild rodents; however, information about the life cycle, distribution and Hepatozoon species diversity infecting these mammals are lacking. We studied the parasite stages and DNA sequences of Hepatozoon sp. of 11 naturally infected Akodon montensis. Read More

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November 2018

Model systems for investigating disease processes in neurocysticercosis.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 15:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Division of Cell Biology, Department of Human Biology,Neuroscience Institute and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town,Anzio Road,Observatory, Cape Town,Western Cape 7935,South Africa.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) occurs following brain infection by larvae of the cestode Taenia solium. It is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy worldwide and therefore constitutes a critical health challenge with significant global relevance. Despite this, much is still unknown about many key pathogenic aspects of the disease, including how cerebral infection with T. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Species and site contributions to β-diversity in fleas parasitic on the Palearctic small mammals: ecology, geography and host species composition matter the most.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 15:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Wyler Department of Dryland Agriculture,French Associates Institute for Agriculture, French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Sede Boqer Campus, 84990 Midreshet Ben-Gurion,Israel.

The β-diversity of fleas parasitic on small mammals in 45 regions of the Palearctic was partitioned into species [species contributions to β-diversity (SCBD)] and site ( = assemblage) contributions [local contributions to β-diversity (LCBD)]. We asked what are the factors affecting SCBD and LCBD and tested whether (a) variation in ecological, morphological, life history and geographic traits of fleas can predict SCBD and (b) variation in flea and host community metrics, off-host environmental factors, host species composition of flea assemblages can predict LCBD. We used spatial variables to describe geographic distribution of flea assemblages with various LCBD values. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Evaluation of salinomycin isolated from Streptomyces albus JSY-2 against the ciliate, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 14:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Healthy Freshwater Aquaculture,Key Laboratory of Fish Health and Nutrition of Zhejiang Province,Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries,Huzhou,China.

The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Trichostatin A induces Trypanosoma cruzi histone and tubulin acetylation: effects on cell division and microtubule cytoskeleton remodelling.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 13:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Laboratório de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer,Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ,21491-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ,Brazil.

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a public health concern in Latin America. Epigenetic events, such as histone acetylation, affect DNA topology, replication and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in chromatin compaction and post-translational modifications of cytoplasmic proteins, such as tubulin. Read More

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November 2018

Glucose deprivation activates a cAMP-independent protein kinase from Trypanosoma equiperdum.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 13:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Departamento de Biología Celular,Universidad Simón Bolívar,Caracas,Venezuela.

Kemptide (sequence: LRRASLG) is a synthetic peptide holding the consensus recognition site for the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). cAMP-independent protein kinases that phosphorylate kemptide were stimulated in Trypanosoma equiperdum following glucose deprivation. An enriched kemptide kinase-containing fraction was isolated from glucose-starved parasites using sedimentation throughout a sucrose gradient, followed by sequential chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-300. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Genetic and morphometric categorization of Taenia ovis from Sheep in Iran.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences,Kerman, 76169-14115,Iran.

Little is known about the genetic and morphological characters of Taenia ovis. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sheep isolates of T. ovis using rostellar hook morphometry as well as mitochondrial genes sequence analysis. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Parasite-specific proliferative responses of chicken spleen cells upon in vitro stimulation with Eimeria tenella antigen.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 9:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Microbiology,National Veterinary Institute,SE-751 89 Uppsala,Sweden.

This study aimed to set up methodology to monitor parasite-specific T-cell activation in vitro using Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A sonicated E. tenella sporozoite protein preparation was used for the activation of chicken spleen cell cultures. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Insights into the metabolism and behaviour of Varroa destructor mites from analysis of their waste excretions.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 9:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Bee Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center,Beltsville, Maryland 20705,USA.

Varroa destructor mites (Acari: Varroidae) are harmful ectoparasites of Apis mellifera honey bees. Female foundresses of wax-capped pupal host cells and their daughters feed on host fluids from open wounds on the host's integument. Details of V. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Angiostrongylosis in Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) and Lycalopex gymnocercus (Pampas fox) in Southern Brazil.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 5:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Pathology,Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS),Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090,42505, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000,Brazil.

The objective of this study was to identify species of Angiostrongylus spp. infecting wild carnivores in Southern Brazil, as well as to describe gross and histopathological findings associated with the infection. Necropsy was conducted in 16 wild carnivores parasitized by Angiostrongylus spp. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily Hemiuroidea (Platyhelminthes, Neodermata: Trematoda) based on partial 28S rDNA sequences.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 5:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography,Moscow, V. Krasnoselskaya Str., 17, 107140,Russia.

In the present paper, the phylogenetic relationships between genera, subfamilies and families of the Hemiuroidea are explored. Twelve new sequences of 28 rDNA and data taken from GenBank (NSBI) on 43 species affiliated to 34 genera were included in the analysis. Most of the hemiuroidean trematodes form two highly supported clades (A and B), which are sister groups to each other. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

The resistance against Trichinella spiralis infection induced by primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 5:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Medical Zoology,Kyung Hee University School of Medicine,Seoul,Korea.

Human infections with Trichinella spiralis and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common, as T. spiralis infections are re-emerging in various parts of the world and RSV infections remain a threat for infants. Yet, studies investigating the relationship pertaining to the two are severely lacking. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Substrate specificity of the neutral sphingomyelinase from Trypanosoma brucei.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 5:1-13. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Biomedical Sciences Research Complex,Schools of Biology and Chemistry,University of St Andrews,Fife, KY16 9ST,UK.

The kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis in both humans and animals. Infections place a significant health and economic burden on developing nations in sub-Saharan Africa, but few effective anti-parasitic treatments are currently available. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify new leads for drug development. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Anthelmintic resistance and novel control options in equine gastrointestinal nematodes.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 5:1-13. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,University of Copenhagen,Frederiksberg,Denmark.

Control of equine nematodes has relied on benzimidazoles (BZs), tetrahydropyrimidines and macrocyclic lactones. The intensive use of anthelmintics has led to the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in equine cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum. Field studies indicate that BZ and pyrantel resistance is widespread in cyathostomins and there are also increasing reports of resistance to macrocyclic lactones in cyathostomins and P. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads
2.560 Impact Factor

The leishmanicidal activity of artemisinin is mediated by cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 5:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Pharmacology,Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research,Kolkata-700 020,India.

Endoperoxides kill malaria parasites via cleavage of their endoperoxide bridge by haem or iron, leading to generation of cytotoxic oxygen-centred radicals. In view of the Leishmania parasites having a relatively compromised anti-oxidant defense and high iron content, this study aims to establish the underlying mechanism(s) accounting for the apoptotic-like death of Leishmania promastigotes by artemisinin, an endoperoxide. The formation of reactive oxygen species was confirmed by flow cytometry and was accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial complexes I-III and II-III. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Trichodinid infections in internal organs of shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) collected around an industrial harbour in Nuuk, Greenland.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 25:1-5. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania,Launceston, Tasmania, 7250,Australia.

Trichodinids are parasites generally found on gills and skin of a broad number of aquatic animals. Only a small number of endozoic species has been reported from the urinary tract, intestine and urogenital system in some fish, amphibians and molluscs. This is the first report on the presence of endozoic trichodinids in the spleen, kidney and liver of shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Effects of temperature on Paramoeba perurans growth in culture and the associated microbial community.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 25:1-10. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Marine Scotland Science Marine Laboratory,375 Victoria Rd, Aberdeen AB11 9DB,UK.

Population growth, in vitro, of three Paramoeba perurans cultures, one polyclonal (G) and two clonal (B8, CE6, derived from G), previously shown to differ in virulence (B8 > G > CE6), was compared at 10 and 15 °C. B8 showed a significantly higher increase in attached and in suspended amoebae over time at 15 and 10 °C, respectively. CE6 and G also had significantly higher numbers of suspended amoebae at 10 °C compared with 15 °C at experiment termination. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Haematophagic Caenorhabditis elegans.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 25:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham,Boots Sciences Building,University Park,Nottingham, NG7 2RD,UK.

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living nematode that resides in soil and typically feeds on bacteria. We postulate that haematophagic C. elegans could provide a model to evaluate vaccine responses to intestinal proteins from hematophagous nematode parasites, such as Necator americanus. Read More

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October 2018
15 Reads

Unveiling patterns of genetic variation in parasite-host associations: an example with pinworms and Neotropical primates.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 16:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Departamento de Zoología,Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Mexico City,Mexico.

Patterns of genetic variation among populations can reveal the evolutionary history of species. Pinworm parasites are highly host specific and form strong co-evolutionary associations with their primate hosts. Here, we describe the genetic variation observed in four Trypanoxyuris species infecting different howler and spider monkey subspecies in Central America to determine if historical dispersal processes and speciation in the host could explain the genetic patterns observed in the parasites. Read More

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October 2018

Hexokinase as a versatile molecular genetic marker for Microsporidia.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 15:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection,Podbelskogo, 3,196608 St. Petersburg, Pushkin,Russia.

Hexokinase (HK) is a core glycolytic enzyme of Microsporidia which regulates host cell metabolic processes. The goal of the present study was to test for the utility of HK for molecular phylogenetics, species identification and molecular detection of microsporidia in infected insects. HK sequence-based reconstructions were essentially similar to those based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase (RPB1) gene sequences, as well as previously published rRNA gene and genome-based trees. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

The drivers and consequences of unstable Plasmodium dynamics: a long-term study of three malaria parasite species infecting a tropical lizard.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 15:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation,University of Florida,Gainesville, FL,USA.

Understanding the consequences of environmental fluctuations for parasite dynamics requires a long-term view stretching over many transmission cycles. Here we studied the dynamics of three malaria parasites (Plasmodium azurophilum, P. leucocytica and P. Read More

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October 2018

Consumer and host body size effects on the removal of trematode cercariae by ambient communities.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 15:1-6. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Coastal Systems,NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, and Utrecht University,P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB den Burg, Texel,the Netherlands.

Parasite transmission can be altered via the removal of parasites by the ambient communities in which parasite-host interactions take place. However, the mechanisms driving parasite removal remain poorly understood. Using marine trematode cercariae as a model system, we investigated the effects of consumer and host body size on parasite removal rates. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Giardia duodenalis in the UK: current knowledge of risk factors and public health implications.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 15:1-12. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

The Moredun Research Institute,Pentlands Science Park,Bush Loan,Penicuik,Scotland EH26 0PZ,UK.

Giardia duodenalis is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite known to cause giardiasis throughout the world. Potential transmission vehicles for this zoonotic parasite are both water and food sources. As such consumption of water contaminated by feces, or food sources washed in contaminated water containing parasite cysts, may result in outbreaks. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

The alcohol dehydrogenase with a broad range of substrate specificity regulates vitality and reproduction of the plant-parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 15:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

College of Life Sciences, Qingdao University,Qingdao 266071, PR,China.

Pine wilt disease, which is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has caused huge damage to pine forests around the world. In this study, we analysed the PWN transcriptome to investigate the expression of genes related to the associated bacterial species Pseudomonas fluorescens and found that the gene adh-1 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was upregulated. The open reading frame of adh-1, which encoded a protein of 352 amino acid residues, was cloned from B. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A tale of three kingdoms: members of the Phylum Nematoda independently acquired the detoxifying enzyme cyanase through horizontal gene transfer from plants and bacteria.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 10:1-8. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Parasitic Diseases Lab,Beltsville, MD 20705USA.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played an important role in the evolution of nematodes. Among candidate genes, cyanase, which is typically found only in plants, bacteria and fungi, is present in more than 35 members of the Phylum Nematoda, but absent from free-living and clade V organisms. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cyanases of clade I organisms Trichinella spp. Read More

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October 2018

Parasite and host biomass and reproductive output in barnacle populations in the rocky intertidal zone.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 10:1-6. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography - Marine Biology Research Division, University of California,San Diego,La Jolla,California 92093,USA.

The rocky intertidal zone has a long history of ecological study with barnacles frequently serving as a model system to explore foundational theories. Parasites are often ignored in community ecology studies, and this particularly holds for true for the rocky intertidal zone. We explore the role of the isopod parasite, Hemioniscus balani, on its host, the acorn barnacle, Chthamalus fissus. Read More

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October 2018

Experimental combination therapy using low doses of benznidazole and allopurinol in mouse models of Trypanosoma cruzi chronic infection.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 10:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Instituto Nacional de Parasitología 'Dr Mario Fatala Chaben',ANLIS CG Malbrán, Ministerio de Salud. Avenida Paseo Colón 568 ZIP Code: 1063, Buenos Aires,Argentina.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of low doses of benznidazole (BNZ) on continuous administration (BNZc), combined with allopurinol (ALO), in C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Nicaragua strain and T. cruzi Sylvio-X10/4 clone. TcN-C57BL/6J was also treated with intermittent doses of BNZ (BNZit). Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Phylogeny and comprehensive revision of mugiliform-infecting myxobolids (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae), with the morphological and molecular redescription of the cryptic species Myxobolus exiguus.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 10:1-18. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

University Institute of Health Sciences & Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, CESPU,Rua Central da Gandra no. 1317, 4585-116 Gandra,Portugal.

Mullets inhabit a wide range of habitats from tropical to temperate regions and play a critical role in their ecosystems. This commercially important fish group constitutes a significant source of food in several geographic regions, and the production of some species for consumption is an increasing trend. About 64 myxosporean species have been reported in mullets, some of which are cryptic, as is the case of Myxobolus exiguus, and M. Read More

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October 2018

Accurate identification of Australian mosquitoes using protein profiling.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 1:1-10. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Aix Marseille University,IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin 13005 Marseille,France.

Australian mosquito species significantly impact human health through nuisance biting and the transmission of endemic and exotic pathogens. Surveillance programmes designed to provide an early warning of mosquito-borne disease risk require reliable identification of mosquitoes. This study aimed to investigate the viability of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a rapid and inexpensive approach to the identification of Australian mosquitoes and was validated using a three-step taxonomic approach. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Malaria pigment accelerates MTT - formazan exocytosis in human endothelial cells.

Parasitology 2018 Oct 1:1-8. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche e Odontoiatriche,Università degli Studi di Milano,Milano,Italy.

Haemozoin is a by-product of haemoglobin digestion by intraerythrocytic malaria parasites, which induces immunologic responses on different tissues, including endothelial cells. In the present paper, the incubation of human microvascular endothelial cells with haemozoin significantly inhibited MTT reduction, a measure of cytotoxicity, without increasing the release of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, haemozoin did not induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest nor decreased the number of live cells, suggesting that cells viability itself was not affected and that the inhibition of MTT reduction was only apparent and probably due to accelerated MTT-formazan exocytosis. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Remarkable morphological variation in the proboscis of Neorhadinorhynchus nudus (Harada, 1938) (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchida).

Parasitology 2018 Sep 27:1-8. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Hebei Province,College of Life Sciences, Hebei Normal University,050024 Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province,P. R. China.

The acanthocephalans are characterized by a retractible proboscis, armed with rows of recurved hooks, which serves as the primary organ for attachment of the adult worm to the intestinal wall of the vertebrate definitive host. Whilst there is a considerable variation in the size, shape and armature of the proboscis across the phylum, intraspecific variation is generally regarded to be minimal. Consequently, subtle differences in proboscis morphology are often used to delimit congeneric species. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

Molecular investigation of the Pfmdr1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Henan Province imported from Africa.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 27:1-8. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Parasite Disease Control and Prevention,Henan Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention,Zhengzhou, Henan,China.

Efficacious antimalarial drugs are important for malaria control and elimination, and continuous monitoring of their efficacy is essential. The prevalence and distribution of Pfmdr1 were evaluated in African migrant workers in Henan Province. Among 632 isolates, 13 haplotypes were identified, NYSND (39. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Infection patterns of trematodes across size classes of an invasive snail species using field and laboratory studies.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 27:1-7. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Biology,University of Massachusetts Dartmouth,285 Old Westport Road, Dartmouth, MA 02747,USA.

In the Upper Mississippi River Region, invasive faucet snails (Bithynia tentaculata) and their trematode parasites have been implicated in more than 182 000 waterfowl deaths since 1996. Estimating transmission potential depends on accurate assessments of susceptible host population size. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying snail-host susceptibility in this system. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Association of riverine prawns and intermediate host snails and correlation with human schistosomiasis in two river systems in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 24;145(13):1792-1800. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny,Abidjan,Côte d'Ivoire.

The current emphasis of schistosomiasis control is placed on preventive chemotherapy using praziquantel. However, reinfection may occur rapidly in the absence of complementary interventions. Recent studies from Senegal suggest that predatory prawns might feed on intermediate host snails and thus impact on schistosomiasis transmission. Read More

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November 2018

pH-mediated inhibition of a bumble bee parasite by an intestinal symbiont.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 24:1-9. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Entomology,University of California Riverside,Riverside, CA,USA.

Gut symbionts can augment resistance to pathogens by stimulating host-immune responses, competing for space and nutrients, or producing antimicrobial metabolites. Gut microbiota of social bees, which pollinate many crops and wildflowers, protect hosts against diverse infections and might counteract pathogen-related bee declines. Bumble bee gut microbiota, and specifically abundance of Lactobacillus 'Firm-5' bacteria, can enhance resistance to the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia bombi. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Numerous Fasciola plasminogen-binding proteins may underlie blood-brain barrier leakage and explain neurological disorder complexity and heterogeneity in the acute and chronic phases of human fascioliasis.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 24:1-15. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Departamento de Parasitología,Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia,Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia,Spain.

Human fascioliasis is a worldwide, pathogenic food-borne trematodiasis. Impressive clinical pictures comprising puzzling polymorphisms, manifestation multifocality, disease evolution changes, sequelae and mortality, have been reported in patients presenting with neurological, meningeal, neuropsychic and ocular disorders caused at distance by flukes infecting the liver. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analyses of the Fasciola hepatica excretome/secretome identified numerous, several new, plasminogen-binding proteins enhancing plasmin generation. Read More

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September 2018

Zoonotic pathogens in fluctuating common vole (Microtus arvalis) populations: occurrence and dynamics.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 24:1-10. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos,IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071, Ciudad Real,Spain.

Diseases and host dynamics are linked, but their associations may vary in strength, be time-lagged, and depend on environmental influences. Where a vector is involved in disease transmission, its dynamics are an additional influence, and we often lack a general understanding on how diseases, hosts and vectors interact. We report on the occurrence of six zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Francisella and Rickettsia) in common voles (Microtus arvalis) throughout a population fluctuation and how their prevalence varies according to host density, seasonality and vector prevalence. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Prospects for the elimination of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: exploring disease trends through time at the Barombi crater lakes, South-West Cameroon.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 24;145(13):1700-1714. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Parasitology,Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine,Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA,UK.

In Cameroon, there is a national programme engaged in the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. In certain locations, the programme is transitioning from morbidity control towards local interruption of parasite transmission. The volcanic crater lake villages of Barombi Mbo and Barombi Kotto are well-known transmission foci and are excellent context-specific locations to assess appropriate disease control interventions. Read More

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November 2018

Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in West and Central Africa: unresolved questions.

Parasitology 2018 Nov 13;145(13):1748-1757. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Life Sciences,Natural History Museum,Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD,UK.

Paragonimiasis, human lung fluke disease, is a foodborne anthropozoonosis caused by the trematodes assigned to Paragonimus and is regarded by the World Health Organization as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). The life cycle of this medically important parasite centres on a complex freshwater biological community that includes two intermediate hosts: a mollusc and a decapod, usually a brachyuran. Although there is a perception that the biology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Paragonimus is well understood, in reality, this is not the case, especially in Africa. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

A systematic review of the Trypanosoma cruzi genetic heterogeneity, host immune response and genetic factors as plausible drivers of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 13:1-15. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Grupo de Investigaciones Microbiológicas-UR (GIMUR), Programa de Biología,Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas,Universidad del Rosario,Bogotá,Colombia.

Chagas disease is a complex tropical pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite displays massive genetic diversity and has been classified by international consensus in at least six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) that are broadly distributed in the American continent. The main clinical manifestation of the disease is the chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) that is lethal in the infected individuals. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione-based metallodrugs and synergistic effect with metronidazole.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 12:1-5. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Parasitologia, Faculdade de Farmácia,Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,Av. Ipiranga, 2752, 90610-000, Porto Alegre, RS,Brazil.

Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted infection, human trichomoniasis, and is associated with an increased susceptibility to HIV. An escalation in resistance (2.5-10%) to the clinical drug, metronidazole (MTZ), has been detected and this compound also has adverse side-effects. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

High-through identification of T cell-specific phage-exposed mimotopes using PBMCs from tegumentary leishmaniasis patients and their use as vaccine candidates against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 10:1-11. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical,Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena, 190, Belo Horizonte, 30130-100, Minas Gerais,Brazil.

In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Read More

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September 2018
12 Reads

Antimalarial bednet protection of children disappears when shared by three or more people in a high transmission setting of western Kenya.

Parasitology 2018 Sep 10:1-9. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

NUITM-KEMRI Project, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University,Nairobi,Kenya.

A sizeable proportion of households is forced to share single long-lasting insecticide treated net (LLIN). However, the relationship between increasing numbers of people sharing a net and the risk for Plasmodium infection is unclear. This study revealed whether risk for Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with the number of people sharing a LLIN in a holoendemic area of Kenya. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads