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    646 results match your criteria Parapoxviruses

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    Poxvirus-Induced Vascular Angiogenesis Mimicking Pyogenic Granuloma.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Bahçeşehir University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
    The orf virus, a member of poxvirus family, is a zoonotic parapoxvirus endemic in many countries, mostly seen among sheep, goats, oxen, and may be transmitted to humans. Orf virus infections may induce ulceration, papulonodular, pustular, or ecthyma lesions in the skin. Rarely, orf virus provokes extensive vasculoendothelial proliferation by encoding an apparent homolog of the mammalian vascular endothelial growth factor family of molecules. Read More

    Comparative sequence and structural analysis of Indian orf viruses based on major envelope immune-dominant protein (F1L), an homologue of pox viral p35/H3 protein.
    Gene 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Pox Virus Laboratory, Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, 263138, Nainital (District), Uttarakhand, India.
    Orf virus (ORFV), a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, is the cause of orf, a highly contagious zoonotic viral disease that affects mainly sheep and goats. In the present study, the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Indian ORFV isolates (n = 15) from natural outbreaks in sheep and goats belonging to different geographical regions were analysed on the basis of F1L gene along with homology modelling of F1L protein. Multiple sequence alignments revealed highly conserved C-terminus and heterogeneity of N-terminus region of F1L among all orf viruses studied. Read More

    Parapoxvirus Infections in the Country of Georgia: A Case Series.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Infections caused by viruses of the parapoxvirus (PPV) genus, including orf and pseudocowpox viruses, are frequently seen in both humans and animals in many regions of the world. These infections are often misdiagnosed or neglected because of the lack of clinician awareness, inadequate diagnostic capacity, and their relatively mild disease presentation, which may result in affected individuals not seeking medical attention. Although PPV infections should be routinely considered in patients with cutaneous lesions, especially in those who have occupational exposure to farm animals, they are often excluded from the differential diagnosis because they are not perceived as serious, resulting in underestimation of the burden of disease. Read More

    Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?
    Viruses 2018 03 22;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    (ret) University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Burnfoot, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7TN, UK.
    Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population. Read More

    Orf virus infection in Alaskan mountain goats, Dall's sheep, muskoxen, caribou and Sitka black-tailed deer.
    Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 21;60(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Nursing and Health Sciences-Vestfold, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Background: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed.

    Results: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands. Read More

    Parapoxviral vulvovaginitis in Holstein cows.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Feb 1:1040638718758829. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Tulare Laboratory (Moeller, Adaska, Blanchard), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA.
    A group of Holstein first-calved heifers developed small pustules and ulcers on the vulva and in the vagina during the first 1-4 wk postpartum. The lesions varied from small red pinpoint foci to pustules and ulcers, 3-5 mm diameter. Some ulcers coalesced to form large ulcerated areas up to 15 mm diameter. Read More

    Genetic diversity of Orf virus isolated from sheep in Uruguay.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 24;163(5):1285-1291. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a disease widely spread in the world that occasionally causes zoonotic infections. This work is the first molecular characterization of ORFV in Uruguay, where we analyzed twenty-one sheep samples, eighteen of which were recovered from thirteen ORFV outbreaks that occurred during 2004 to 2011 as well as three strains from a national vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis and the derived amino acid sequences from the B2L gene suggest that the Uruguayan virus do not form a unique cluster, with most of them displaying similarities with worldwide ORFV isolates as well as our vaccine strains. Read More

    Milker's nodules: classic histological findings.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840
    Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.
    Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More

    Molecular identification and investigations of contagious ecthyma (Orf virus) in small ruminants, North west Ethiopia.
    BMC Vet Res 2018 Jan 15;14(1):13. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Department of Clinical Studies, University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Background: Orf virus, the prototype of parapoxvirus, is the main causative agent of contagious ecthyma. Little is known about the status of the disease in Ethiopia and this study was aimed at determining its status using PCR as a confirmatory tool.

    Methods: a total of 400 randomly selected sheep and goat was screened for the identification of the virus using amplification of B2L gene and transfection of mammalian cells (VERO cells). Read More

    Association of two clusters of Orf virus isolates in outbreaks of infection in goat in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey.
    Virusdisease 2017 Sep 22;28(3):345-348. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Veterinary Control Institute, Meram, 42080 Konya, Turkey.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious pustular dermatitis and can cause skin disease in sheep and goats. In this study, two outbreaks of ORFV infection in goats in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey were investigated. Samples were collected from 1- to 4-month-old kids (n = 9) in two different flocks in the Aksaray and Konya Provinces during the months of March and May 2016. Read More

    Novel chimeric parapoxvirus CF189 as an oncolytic immunotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.
    Surgery 2018 Feb 22;163(2):336-342. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA; Center for Gene Therapy, Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA. Electronic address:
    Background: Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Here we describe a novel, genetically engineered parapoxvirus that efficiently kills triple-negative breast cancer.

    Methods: A novel chimeric parapoxvirus (CF189) was generated via homologous recombination and identified through high-throughput screening. Read More

    [A case of Orf disease complicated by erythema multiforme].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 16;24(12):1241-1243. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Service d'accueil des urgences, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France.
    Ecthyma contagiosum, or Orf, is a specific infection of small ruminants accidentally reaching humans. Few cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of ecthyma contagiosum occurred in a 9-year-old girl after contact with a flock of ecthyma sheep. Read More

    An unusual presentation of pseudocowpox associated with an outbreak of pustular ulcerative vulvovaginitis in a Swedish dairy herd.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Mar 20;30(2):256-259. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Departments of Microbiology (Blomqvist, Ullman, Renström, Leijon), National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Read More

    Milker's nodule: an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 5;32(4):537-541. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus, is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle by-products or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers and agricultural tourists. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of sheep oral mucosa response to Orf virus infection.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(10):e0186681. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease with worldwide distribution, which is caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) belonging to the Parapoxvirus. To study the alteration of host gene expression in response to ORFV infection at the transcriptional level, several young small-tailed Han sheep were inoculated with ORFV, and their oral mucosa tissue samples (T0, T3, T7 and T15) were collected on day 0, 3, 7 and 15 after ORFV infection respectively. RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons were performed, showing that 1928, 3219 and 2646 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among T3 vs. Read More

    Dermoscopic features and types of orf and milker's nodule.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Aug 2;34(4):357-362. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Dermatology, Diyarbakır Ergani State Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.
    Introduction: Orf and milker's nodule are zoonotic cutaneous diseases generated by parapoxviruses. Contribution of dermoscopy to the diagnosis of these diseases has not been studied in the medical literature as to our knowledge.

    Aim: To investigate whether dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in orf and milker's nodule diagnosis or not. Read More

    Extensive orf infection in a toddler with associated id reaction.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Nov 21;34(6):e337-e340. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Orf is a zoonotic parapoxvirus typically transmitted to humans by a bite from goats or sheep. We present an unusual case of multiple orf lesions on the fingers of a 13-month-old child who was bitten by a goat and subsequently developed progressive swelling, blistering, and necrotic papulonodules of the hand followed by an additional diffuse, pruritic, papular rash. A primary diagnosis of orf infection was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the diffuse eruption was clinically consistent with an id reaction. Read More

    Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro α- and γ-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment.
    Vaccines (Basel) 2017 Sep 19;5(3). Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    LABÉO Frank Duncombe, Unité BioTARGen, EA 7450, Normandie Université, 14053 Caen, France.
    Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses. Read More

    Immunogenicity of ORFV-based vectors expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in livestock species.
    Virology 2017 11 9;511:229-239. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA; South Dakota Center for Biologics Research and Commercialization (SD-CBRC), South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Electronic address:
    The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) encodes several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that modulate host-innate and pro-inflammatory responses and has been proposed as a vaccine delivery vector for use in animal species. Here we describe the construction and characterization of two recombinant ORFV vectors expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G). The RABV-G gene was inserted in the ORFV024 or ORFV121 gene loci, which encode for IMPs that are unique to parapoxviruses and inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Read More

    First isolation and genetic characterization of pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Japan.
    Virol J 2017 09 6;14(1):172. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.
    Background: Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) infects cattle worldwide with zoonotic potential but has not been isolated in Japan. Thus, the epidemiological status of PCPV infection in cattle is undetermined.

    Results: In May 2016, a cattle in a farm in Yamaguchi Prefecture showed white vesicles and hyperemia in the mucosa under the tongue surface, but not on the teats and coronary cushions. Read More

    The whole genomic analysis of orf virus strain HN3/12 isolated from Henan province, central China.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 18;13(1):260. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of orf, a globally-occurring, acute, pustular, contagious disease affecting sheep, goats and humans with a worldwide distribution. Currently, the genomic analysis of four ORFV strains from the Fujian province in southern China and a NA1/11 strain isolated from the Jilin province in northeast China have been reported. However, little is known about the genomic information of ORFV strains from central China. Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

    OH1 from Orf Virus: A New Tyrosine Phosphatase that Displays Distinct Structural Features and Triple Substrate Specificity.
    J Mol Biol 2017 Sep 25;429(18):2816-2824. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Sección Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:
    Viral tyrosine phosphatases such as VH1 from Vaccinia and Variola virus are recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. While proteins sharing sequence to VH1 have been identified in other viruses, their structural and functional characterization is not known. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the VH1 homolog in the Orf virus, herein named OH1. Read More

    Orf Virus Infection in Humans: A Review With a Focus on Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Jul;16(7):684-689
    Ecthyma contagiosum, also called contagious pustular dermatosis, is a zoonotic disease caused by the orf virus (OrfV). As a member of the poxviridae family and parapoxvirus genus, this dermatotropic virus has developed an array of mechanisms by which to evade the host immune system in both humans and animals. The ubiquitousness of this pathogen in sheep, goats, and deer has led to the development of orf in diverse areas around the world. Read More

    Systemic interferon alfa injections for the treatment of a giant orf.
    Cutis 2017 May;99(5):E19-E21
    Department of Dermatology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infection caused by a parapoxvirus and is endemic in sheep and goats. It may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. We report a case of a giant orf in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which proliferated dramatically after surgical excision and resolved after systemic interferon alfa-2a injections. Read More

    Characterization of an orf virus isolate from an outbreak in Heilongjiang province, China.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 19;162(10):3143-3149. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Virology Laboratory, College of Biological Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, 2 Xinyang road, Daqing, 163319, China.
    Contagious ecthyma, caused by orf virus (ORFV), is an epitheliotrophic contagious disease with zoonotic implications that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recently, a novel ORFV strain, OV/HLJ/04, was successfully isolated from the skin and mucosal lesions of a goat with severe clinical sore mouth symptoms in Heilongjiang province of China. The OV/HLJ/04 isolate was characterized by electron microscopy, serological tests, and experimental reproduction of disease. Read More

    Diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of a multifocal cutaneous orf virus with mixed bacterial infection outbreak in goats in Fujian province, China.
    Arch Virol 2017 Oct 16;162(10):2997-3006. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Stomatology and Medicine, Foshan University, Foshan, 528000, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.
    Outbreaks of orf virus on goat farms are common in China. In this study, we investigated a severe multifocal cutaneous orf virus outbreak with a correlative mixed bacterial infection which persisted for up to 6 months, and which had a high morbidity (93.7%) and mortality (15%) among kids in a herd of crossbreed goats in Fujian province in China. Read More

    Recovery of the first full-length genome sequence of a parapoxvirus directly from a clinical sample.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3734. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    German Center for Infection Research, Hamburg - Borstel - Lübeck - Riems, Germany.
    We recovered the first full-length poxvirus genome, including the terminal hairpin region, directly from complex clinical material using a combination of second generation short read and third generation nanopore sequencing technologies. The complete viral genome sequence was directly recovered from a skin lesion of a grey seal thereby preventing sequence changes due to in vitro passaging of the virus. Subsequent analysis of the proteins encoded by this virus identified genes specific for skin adaptation and pathogenesis of parapoxviruses. Read More

    Cyclophilin B facilitates the replication of Orf virus.
    Virol J 2017 06 15;14(1):114. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, 130062, China.
    Background: Viruses interact with host cellular factors to construct a more favourable environment for their efficient replication. Expression of cyclophilin B (CypB), a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), was found to be significantly up-regulated. Recently, a number of studies have shown that CypB is important in the replication of several viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16). Read More

    An Overwiev of ORF Virus Infection in Humans and Animals.
    Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2017 ;12(1):21-30
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039-Kayseri. Turkey.
    Background: Orf virus is a DNA virus that belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus. The virus is a causative agent of orf in humans or contagious ecthyma in animals which is mostly seen in sheep, goat and cattle.

    Discussion: Orf is an emerging zoonosis with an increasing number of worldwide outbreaks that have been reported. Read More

    Orf virus infection.
    Rev Med Virol 2017 Jul 8;27(4). Epub 2017 May 8.
    Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is an important pathogen responsible for a highly contagious zoonotic viral infection that threatens those who handle sheep and goats. Orf virus is the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus, and its resilience in the environment and ability to reinfect its host has contributed to the spread and maintenance of the infection in many species. In healthy humans, the disease usually resolves spontaneously within 3 to 6 weeks. Read More

    Giant Orf on the Nose.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 May;28(3):e234-e235
    *Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gaziantep 25 Aralik State Hospital, Gaziantep †National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by parapoxvirus. Orf lesions are typically seen on the hand, but they have rarely been reported on the nose. Herein, the authors report a rare patient of an orf lesion on the nose of a 52-year-old man after the Muslim celebration of the feast of the sacrifice. Read More

    Outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus 2 infections in calves causing ear and facial skin lesions.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Sep 19;29(5):686-690. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, San Bernardino Laboratory (Negrão Watanabe), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA.
    We describe 3 outbreaks of superficial dermatitis caused by bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) in dairy breed calves. Clinically, all of the affected calves were 12-26 d of age, had alopecia and crusts on the face and ears, and were non-pruritic and afebrile. Affected animals recovered spontaneously without any treatment within 2-4 wk after onset of clinical signs based on 1 herd with follow up. Read More

    Identification and phylogenetic analysis of contagious ecthyma virus from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2017 Mar 24;84(1):e1-e5. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Pathobiology, Shiraz University.
    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats and camels. The identification and characterisation of a parapoxvirus (PPV) infecting camels is described here. The virus was detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kerman and Shiraz in Iran. Read More

    Genetic characterization of orf virus associated with an outbreak of severe orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka, Zambia (2015).
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 4;162(8):2363-2367. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, PO Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Orf or contagious ecthyma is a neglected and economically important zoonotic disease caused by a dermatotropic parapoxvirus that commonly affects domestic small ruminants. Although orf is globally distributed, there is a paucity of information on the disease in many African countries. Here, a suspected severe outbreak of orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka was investigated. Read More

    Development and validation of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of parapoxviruses.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Jul 20;29(4):499-507. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Reagents and Vaccines Services Section (Das, Ward, Lowe, Xu, Jia), Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Greenport, NY.
    Parapoxviruses (PaPVs) cause widespread infections in ruminants worldwide. All PaPVs are zoonotic and may infect humans after direct or indirect contact with infected animals. Herein we report the development and validation of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of PaPVs. Read More

    Human orf complicated by epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Feb 17;178(2):547-550. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Dermatology Department, Saint-Louis Hospital, 1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010, Paris, France.
    Orf is a DNA parapoxvirus transmitted to humans by contact with infected goats and sheep. Many complications have been reported after orf infection, including erythema multiforme. A few cases of autoimmune bullous dermatosis complicating orf disease have been reported to date. Read More

    Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 04;23(4):649-653
    During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia. Read More

    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    Identification and characterization of Orf virus 050 protein proteolysis.
    Virus Genes 2017 Jun 11;53(3):400-409. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.
    The Orf virus 050 (ORFV050) gene is located in the core region of the ORFV genome. It is similar to Vaccinia virus (VV) Copenhagen L4R, and encodes the DNA-binding virion core protein VP8, which has structures similar to the VV P25K core protein and may undergo similar proteolytic processing during virus assembly. Three conserved Ala-Gly-X motifs at putative cleavage sites were identified in ORFV050. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the genus of the family and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Development of real-time and lateral flow strip reverse transcription recombinase polymerase Amplification assays for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus.
    Virol J 2017 02 7;14(1):24. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, China.
    Background: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important, Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. PPR virus (PPRV), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, is the causal agent of PPR. Therefore, sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of PPRV are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose suspected case of PPR. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 19;162(4):953-962. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa M-D), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine-Binding Protein of Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus Inhibits Neutrophil and Monocyte Infiltration in Inflammatory and Wound Models of Mouse Skin.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(12):e0168007. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a Parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in cattle and is transmissible to humans. Previous studies have shown that BPSV encodes a distinctive chemokine-binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are critically involved in the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation and infected tissue, suggesting that the CBP plays a role in immune evasion by preventing immune cells reaching sites of infection. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Ankyrin Repeat Proteins of Orf Virus Influence the Cellular Hypoxia Response Pathway.
    J Virol 2017 Jan 16;91(1). Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional activator with a central role in regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. It is also emerging as a major target for viral manipulation of the cellular environment. Under normoxic conditions, HIF is tightly suppressed by the activity of oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. Read More

    A multiplex PCR for viruses associated with exanthematic and vesicular disease in cattle.
    J Virol Methods 2017 01 25;239:38-41. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, building 63A, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, zip-code 97105-900, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Exanthematic and papulo-vesicular lesions in the udder and teats of milking cows are fairly common in some Brazilian dairies, especially those with poor sanitary conditions and hand milking. The orthopoxvirus Vaccinia virus (VACV) and the parapoxviruses Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and Bovine popular stomatitis virus (BPSV) have been frequently associated with such conditions. Elsewhere, Bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) has also been associated with similar clinical signs. Read More

    Detection of pseudocowpox virus in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with vesicular disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2016.
    Vet Q 2017 Dec 8;37(1):16-22. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    a Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minhas Gerais , Pedro Leopoldo , Minas Gerais , Brazil.
    Background: Parapoxviruses are zoonotic viruses that infect cattle, goats and sheep; there have also been reports of infections in camels, domestic cats and seals.

    Objective: The objective of this report was to describe a case of vesicular disease caused by pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil.

    Animals: Sixty buffalo less than 6 months old exhibited ulcers and widespread peeling of the tongue epithelium. Read More

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine papular stomatitis virus.
    J Virol Methods 2016 12 14;238:42-47. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Program for Nurturing Global Leaders in Tropical and Emerging Communicable Diseases, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) causes pustular cutaneous disease in cattle worldwide. This paper describes the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect BPSV which did not cross-react with other parapoxviruses. To assess analytical sensitivity of this LAMP assay, DNA was extracted from serially diluted BPSV from which the infectious titer was determined by a novel assay based on calf kidney epithelial cells. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

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