667 results match your criteria Parapoxviruses


First report of camel contagious ecthyma in Nigeria.

Open Vet J 2018 19;8(2):208-211. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

Camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) is a viral disease of camelids that is caused by a Parapoxvirus (PPV) which is a DNA virus of the viral family: . Diseases affecting camels in Nigeria are scarcely reported. CCE or the laboratory detection of camel PPV (CPPV) has not been reported in Nigeria. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Orf virus: A promising new therapeutic agent.

Rev Med Virol 2018 Oct 28:e2013. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Stomatology and Medicine, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong Province, China.

The orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic, epitheliotropic, DNA parapoxvirus that infects principally sheep and goats. Exposure of animals to the virus or immunization by an ORFV preparation can accentuate the severity of disease, which has provoked an interest in the underlying cellular, virological, and molecular mechanisms. The identified ORFV virulence genes and the fact that the virus can repeatedly infect a host, owing to its evasive mechanisms, contribute to the development of potent immune modulators in various animal species. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads
5.574 Impact Factor

Contaminants in Atlantic walruses in Svalbard part 1: Relationships between exposure, diet and pathogen prevalence.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jan 3;244:9-18. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, N-9296, Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address:

This study investigated relationships between organohalogen compound (OHC) exposure, feeding habits, and pathogen exposure in a recovering population of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Various samples were collected from 39 free-living, apparently healthy, adult male walruses immobilised at three sampling locations during the summers of 2014 and 2015. Concentrations of lipophilic compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) were analysed in blubber samples, and concentrations of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were determined in plasma samples. Read More

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January 2019

Dermatopathology of Orf Virus (Malaysian Isolates) in Mice Experimentally Inoculated at Different Sites with and without Dexamethasone Administration.

J Pathog 2018 1;2018:9207576. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Orf is a clinical manifestation of parapoxvirus infection often fatal in goats and sheep especially when they are under stress or influenced by unfavorable environment. This study investigated the pathogenicity of two Orf virus isolates (ORFV UPM1/14 and UPM2/14) and host response in mouse model by using different inoculation sites with/without prior exposure to dexamethasone. Treatments with dexamethasone served as an immunosuppressant that may mimic stress situation in affected animals. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Phylodynamics of parapoxvirus genus in Mexico (2007-2011).

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Nov 4;65:12-14. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

United States Department of Agriculture, Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Science, Technology, and Analysis Services, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory-Diagnostic Services Section, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, New York, United States. Electronic address:

In this study we report for the first time the phylodynamics of the parapoxvirus (PPV) genus in Mexico. Based on the analysis by PCR of 124 epithelial samples collected between 2007 and 2011 from naturally infected goats, sheep and cows in Mexico, we found that different PPV were present in 21 out of the 24 states sampled during this study. Our phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of different PPV species in Mexico, and their phylogenetic relationship with other PPV circulating in the US and Canada. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read
3.020 Impact Factor

Short communication: Parapoxvirus and Orthopoxvirus coinfection in milk of naturally infected cows.

J Dairy Sci 2018 Sep 13;101(9):7801-7803. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Virologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil 31.270-901. Electronic address:

Several studies have shown the occurrence of poxvirus infections associated with exanthematic lesions in cattle from many Brazilian states. Coinfection between viruses belonging to 2 genera, Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV), was already identified from the lesions of affected cows and humans. The DNA and infectious viral particles of Vaccinia virus, an OPXV, have been detected in milk of naturally and experimentally infected cows. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Phylogenetic Analysis of ORF Viruses From Five Contagious Ecthyma Outbreaks in Argentinian Goats.

Front Vet Sci 2018 19;5:134. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Instituto de Biotecnología, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of Contagious Ecthyma (CE) disease that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans with a worldwide distribution. To date, only two strains from Argentinian sheep have been characterized at the molecular level and there is little information on ORFV strains circulating in Argentina. Here we describe and analyze five outbreaks of CE in goats in three geographic regions of the country: Northwest, Center, and Southwest. Read More

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June 2018
12 Reads

Molecular evidence and phylogenetic analysis of orf virus isolates from outbreaks in Tripura state of North-East India.

Virusdisease 2018 Jun 22;29(2):216-220. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

1Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital District, Uttarakhand 263 138 India.

This study describes the first confirmed report of contagious ecthyma in Black Bengal goats from Tripura state, a North-Eastern state of India situated at the Indo-Bangladesh border. Outbreaks were characterized by the high rates of morbidity (58-67%), low mortality (8-10%) and case fatality (11-15%). The etiology of the outbreaks was confirmed as orf virus (ORFV) by standard virological/serological and molecular techniques including sequence analysis of B2L, a major envelop protein gene of genus . Read More

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June 2018
9 Reads

Orf Virus Encoded Protein ORFV119 Induces Cell Apoptosis Through the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways.

Front Microbiol 2018 29;9:1056. Epub 2018 May 29.

Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Apoptosis, a significant form of cell death, has a leading role in the host cell defense against virus infection. Viruses have evolved a series of strategies that block apoptosis during the early stage of viral infection to enhance viral replication, and induce apoptosis in the late stages to facilitate viral particle release from the cells. Here we show that orf virus (ORFV), the causative agent of orf, encodes an apoptosis-inducing protein ORFV119. Read More

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May 2018
10 Reads
3.940 Impact Factor

Pathogenicity of blood orf virus isolates in the development of dairy goat contagious pustular dermatitis.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Jun 13;219:178-182. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Veterinary Immunology Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Contagious pustular dermatitis is an exanthematous zoonotic disease caused by the orf virus. Pandemic outbreaks of this disease cause great economic losses, while the pathogenesis of this disease still remains obscure. In this study, blood samples were collected from 628 asymptomatic goats across China for PCR-based virus detection. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Erythema multiforme after orf virus infection.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jul 15;35(4):e237-e238. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid, Spain.

The case of a 6-year-old boy with multiple, target-shaped lesions and a crusted nodule on his right index finger is presented. Based on clinical findings and the patient's recent contact with sheep and goats, a diagnosis of orf disease associated with erythema multiforme was suspected. Microscopy studies confirmed the presence of parapoxvirus in the primary lesion. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads
1.520 Impact Factor

Passive immunity to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus following immunization of pregnant gilts with a recombinant orf virus vector expressing the spike protein.

Arch Virol 2018 Sep 3;163(9):2327-2335. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, 1155 North Campus Drive, Box 2175, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA.

Passive immunity is critical for protection of neonatal piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we investigated the immunogenicity of an orf virus (ORFV) vector expressing the full-length spike (S) protein of PEDV (ORFV-PEDV-S) in pregnant gilts and its ability to confer passive immunity and protection in piglets. Three doses of ORFV-PEDV-S were given to two groups of PEDV-negative pregnant gilts, with the last dose being administered two weeks prior to farrowing. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read
1 Citation
2.280 Impact Factor

Poxvirus-Induced Vascular Angiogenesis Mimicking Pyogenic Granuloma.

Am J Dermatopathol 2018 Sep;40(9):e126-e129

Department of Dermatology, Bahçeşehir University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

The orf virus, a member of poxvirus family, is a zoonotic parapoxvirus endemic in many countries, mostly seen among sheep, goats, oxen, and may be transmitted to humans. Orf virus infections may induce ulceration, papulonodular, pustular, or ecthyma lesions in the skin. Rarely, orf virus provokes extensive vasculoendothelial proliferation by encoding an apparent homolog of the mammalian vascular endothelial growth factor family of molecules. Read More

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September 2018
11 Reads

Comparative sequence and structural analysis of Indian orf viruses based on major envelope immuno-dominant protein (F1L), an homologue of pox viral p35/H3 protein.

Gene 2018 Jul 12;663:72-82. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Pox Virus Laboratory, Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Mukteswar, 263138, Nainital (District), Uttarakhand, India.

Orf virus (ORFV), a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, is the cause of orf, a highly contagious zoonotic viral disease that affects mainly sheep and goats. In the present study, the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Indian ORFV isolates (n = 15) from natural outbreaks in sheep and goats belonging to different geographical regions were analysed on the basis of F1L gene along with homology modelling of F1L protein. Multiple sequence alignments revealed highly conserved C-terminus and heterogeneity of N-terminus region of F1L among all orf viruses studied. Read More

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July 2018
12 Reads

Parapoxvirus Infections in the Country of Georgia: A Case Series.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 5;98(6):1870-1875. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Infections caused by viruses of the parapoxvirus (PPV) genus, including orf and pseudocowpox viruses, are frequently seen in both humans and animals in many regions of the world. These infections are often misdiagnosed or neglected because of the lack of clinician awareness, inadequate diagnostic capacity, and their relatively mild disease presentation, which may result in affected individuals not seeking medical attention. Although PPV infections should be routinely considered in patients with cutaneous lesions, especially in those who have occupational exposure to farm animals, they are often excluded from the differential diagnosis because they are not perceived as serious, resulting in underestimation of the burden of disease. Read More

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June 2018
6 Reads

Identification of host cellular proteins LAGE3 and IGFBP6 that interact with orf virus protein ORFV024.

Gene 2018 Jun 29;661:60-67. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Stomatology and Medicine, Foshan University, 5 Hebin Road, Chancheng District, Foshan, Guangdong Province 528000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Orf virus (ORFV) is the pathogen causing contagious pustular dermatitis in goats, sheep and herdsmen. Evidence has confirmed that ORFV can be used as a preventive and therapeutic immunomodulatory agent in several animal models. Our previous data demonstrated that ORFV024 is able to inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and act as an important modulator for early immune responses against viral infection. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads
2.140 Impact Factor

Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?

Viruses 2018 03 22;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.

(ret) University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Burnfoot, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7TN, UK.

Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

[Orf virus in human, confirmation in case report from Chile].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Dec;34(6):607-609

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.

Infection with the orf virus, also known as contagious ecthyma, is recognized as an occupational zoonosis worldwide. It is diagnosed by cutaneous lesions that progress rapidly from macules to papules, vesicles and pustules. The clinical case of a student of veterinary medicine who had had contact with goats, clinically healthy and without apparent lesions, which occured 19 days ago, is reported. Read More

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December 2017
4 Reads

Orf virus infection in Alaskan mountain goats, Dall's sheep, muskoxen, caribou and Sitka black-tailed deer.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 21;60(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Nursing and Health Sciences-Vestfold, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway.

Background: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed.

Results: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands. Read More

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February 2018
12 Reads

Parapoxviral vulvovaginitis in Holstein cows.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 May 11;30(3):464-467. Epub 2018 Feb 11.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Tulare Laboratory (Moeller, Adaska, Blanchard), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA.

A group of Holstein first-calved heifers developed small pustules and ulcers on the vulva and in the vagina during the first 1-4 wk postpartum. The lesions varied from small red pinpoint foci to pustules and ulcers, 3-5 mm diameter. Some ulcers coalesced to form large ulcerated areas up to 15 mm diameter. Read More

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May 2018
7 Reads

Genetic diversity of Orf virus isolated from sheep in Uruguay.

Arch Virol 2018 May 24;163(5):1285-1291. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a disease widely spread in the world that occasionally causes zoonotic infections. This work is the first molecular characterization of ORFV in Uruguay, where we analyzed twenty-one sheep samples, eighteen of which were recovered from thirteen ORFV outbreaks that occurred during 2004 to 2011 as well as three strains from a national vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis and the derived amino acid sequences from the B2L gene suggest that the Uruguayan virus do not form a unique cluster, with most of them displaying similarities with worldwide ORFV isolates as well as our vaccine strains. Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

Milker's nodules: classic histological findings.

An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840

Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.

Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Molecular identification and investigations of contagious ecthyma (Orf virus) in small ruminants, North west Ethiopia.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Jan 15;14(1):13. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Department of Clinical Studies, University of Gondar, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Orf virus, the prototype of parapoxvirus, is the main causative agent of contagious ecthyma. Little is known about the status of the disease in Ethiopia and this study was aimed at determining its status using PCR as a confirmatory tool.

Methods: a total of 400 randomly selected sheep and goat was screened for the identification of the virus using amplification of B2L gene and transfection of mammalian cells (VERO cells). Read More

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January 2018
21 Reads

Association of two clusters of Orf virus isolates in outbreaks of infection in goat in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey.

Authors:
Murat Şevik

Virusdisease 2017 Sep 22;28(3):345-348. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Veterinary Control Institute, Meram, 42080 Konya, Turkey.

Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious pustular dermatitis and can cause skin disease in sheep and goats. In this study, two outbreaks of ORFV infection in goats in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey were investigated. Samples were collected from 1- to 4-month-old kids (n = 9) in two different flocks in the Aksaray and Konya Provinces during the months of March and May 2016. Read More

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September 2017
1 Read

A parapoxviral virion protein targets the retinoblastoma protein to inhibit NF-κB signaling.

PLoS Pathog 2017 12 15;13(12):e1006779. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States of America.

Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. Read More

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December 2017
11 Reads

Rapidly Growing Nodule on the Finger of a 20-year-old Woman: A Quiz.

Acta Derm Venereol 2018 Apr;98(4):469-470

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University of Munich, Biedersteiner Str. 29, DE-80802 Munich, Germany.

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April 2018
11 Reads

Novel chimeric parapoxvirus CF189 as an oncolytic immunotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.

Surgery 2018 02 22;163(2):336-342. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA; Center for Gene Therapy, Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. Here we describe a novel, genetically engineered parapoxvirus that efficiently kills triple-negative breast cancer.

Methods: A novel chimeric parapoxvirus (CF189) was generated via homologous recombination and identified through high-throughput screening. Read More

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February 2018
11 Reads

[A case of Orf disease complicated by erythema multiforme].

Authors:
M Maman Y Medhioub

Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 16;24(12):1241-1243. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Service d'accueil des urgences, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France.

Ecthyma contagiosum, or Orf, is a specific infection of small ruminants accidentally reaching humans. Few cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of ecthyma contagiosum occurred in a 9-year-old girl after contact with a flock of ecthyma sheep. Read More

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December 2017
1 Read

An unusual presentation of pseudocowpox associated with an outbreak of pustular ulcerative vulvovaginitis in a Swedish dairy herd.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Mar 20;30(2):256-259. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Departments of Microbiology (Blomqvist, Ullman, Renström, Leijon), National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.

Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Read More

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March 2018
10 Reads

Milker's nodule: an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 5;32(4):537-541. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.

Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus, is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle by-products or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers and agricultural tourists. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Tender edematous nodules on the hand.

Cutis 2017 Sep;100(3):148;158;166

Cooper Medical School, Rowan University, Camden, New Jersey, USA.

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September 2017
3 Reads

Transcriptome analysis of sheep oral mucosa response to Orf virus infection.

PLoS One 2017 26;12(10):e0186681. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.

Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease with worldwide distribution, which is caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) belonging to the Parapoxvirus. To study the alteration of host gene expression in response to ORFV infection at the transcriptional level, several young small-tailed Han sheep were inoculated with ORFV, and their oral mucosa tissue samples (T0, T3, T7 and T15) were collected on day 0, 3, 7 and 15 after ORFV infection respectively. RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons were performed, showing that 1928, 3219 and 2646 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among T3 vs. Read More

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November 2017
8 Reads

Human orf: Atypical rash in an urban medical practice.

Can Fam Physician 2017 10;63(10):769-771

Instructor at Pharma-Medical Science College of Canada in Toronto.

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October 2017
2 Reads

Dermoscopic features and types of orf and milker's nodule.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Aug 2;34(4):357-362. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Dermatology, Diyarbakır Ergani State Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Introduction: Orf and milker's nodule are zoonotic cutaneous diseases generated by parapoxviruses. Contribution of dermoscopy to the diagnosis of these diseases has not been studied in the medical literature as to our knowledge.

Aim: To investigate whether dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in orf and milker's nodule diagnosis or not. Read More

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August 2017
3 Reads

Extensive orf infection in a toddler with associated id reaction.

Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Nov 21;34(6):e337-e340. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Orf is a zoonotic parapoxvirus typically transmitted to humans by a bite from goats or sheep. We present an unusual case of multiple orf lesions on the fingers of a 13-month-old child who was bitten by a goat and subsequently developed progressive swelling, blistering, and necrotic papulonodules of the hand followed by an additional diffuse, pruritic, papular rash. A primary diagnosis of orf infection was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the diffuse eruption was clinically consistent with an id reaction. Read More

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November 2017
9 Reads

Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro α- and γ-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment.

Vaccines (Basel) 2017 Sep 19;5(3). Epub 2017 Sep 19.

LABÉO Frank Duncombe, Unité BioTARGen, EA 7450, Normandie Université, 14053 Caen, France.

Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses. Read More

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September 2017
25 Reads

Immunogenicity of ORFV-based vectors expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in livestock species.

Virology 2017 11 9;511:229-239. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA; South Dakota Center for Biologics Research and Commercialization (SD-CBRC), South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Electronic address:

The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) encodes several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that modulate host-innate and pro-inflammatory responses and has been proposed as a vaccine delivery vector for use in animal species. Here we describe the construction and characterization of two recombinant ORFV vectors expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G). The RABV-G gene was inserted in the ORFV024 or ORFV121 gene loci, which encode for IMPs that are unique to parapoxviruses and inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Read More

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November 2017
15 Reads

First isolation and genetic characterization of pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Japan.

Virol J 2017 09 6;14(1):172. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.

Background: Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) infects cattle worldwide with zoonotic potential but has not been isolated in Japan. Thus, the epidemiological status of PCPV infection in cattle is undetermined.

Results: In May 2016, a cattle in a farm in Yamaguchi Prefecture showed white vesicles and hyperemia in the mucosa under the tongue surface, but not on the teats and coronary cushions. Read More

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September 2017
30 Reads

The whole genomic analysis of orf virus strain HN3/12 isolated from Henan province, central China.

BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 18;13(1):260. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of orf, a globally-occurring, acute, pustular, contagious disease affecting sheep, goats and humans with a worldwide distribution. Currently, the genomic analysis of four ORFV strains from the Fujian province in southern China and a NA1/11 strain isolated from the Jilin province in northeast China have been reported. However, little is known about the genomic information of ORFV strains from central China. Read More

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August 2017
7 Reads

A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.

Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

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August 2017
26 Reads

OH1 from Orf Virus: A New Tyrosine Phosphatase that Displays Distinct Structural Features and Triple Substrate Specificity.

J Mol Biol 2017 Sep 25;429(18):2816-2824. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Sección Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Viral tyrosine phosphatases such as VH1 from Vaccinia and Variola virus are recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. While proteins sharing sequence to VH1 have been identified in other viruses, their structural and functional characterization is not known. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the VH1 homolog in the Orf virus, herein named OH1. Read More

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September 2017
6 Reads

Inactivated Orf-virus shows disease modifying antiviral activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpesvirus infection.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2018 Oct 27;51(5):587-592. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Inactivated Orf virus (iORFV) has been used as a preventative as well as a therapeutic immunomodulator in veterinary medicine in different species. iORFV elicits strong effects on cytokine secretion in mice and human immune cells leading to an auto-regulated loop of initial up-regulation of inflammatory and Th1-related cytokines followed by Th2-related cytokines that attenuate immunopathology. The therapeutic potential of iORFV has been recognized in several models for difficult-to-treat disease areas such as chronic viral diseases, liver fibrosis or various forms of cancer. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Orf Virus Infection in Humans: A Review With a Focus on Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Jul;16(7):684-689

Ecthyma contagiosum, also called contagious pustular dermatosis, is a zoonotic disease caused by the orf virus (OrfV). As a member of the poxviridae family and parapoxvirus genus, this dermatotropic virus has developed an array of mechanisms by which to evade the host immune system in both humans and animals. The ubiquitousness of this pathogen in sheep, goats, and deer has led to the development of orf in diverse areas around the world. Read More

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July 2017
9 Reads

Systemic interferon alfa injections for the treatment of a giant orf.

Cutis 2017 May;99(5):E19-E21

Department of Dermatology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

Orf is a zoonotic infection caused by a parapoxvirus and is endemic in sheep and goats. It may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. We report a case of a giant orf in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which proliferated dramatically after surgical excision and resolved after systemic interferon alfa-2a injections. Read More

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May 2017
7 Reads

Characterization of an orf virus isolate from an outbreak in Heilongjiang province, China.

Arch Virol 2017 Oct 19;162(10):3143-3149. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Virology Laboratory, College of Biological Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, 2 Xinyang road, Daqing, 163319, China.

Contagious ecthyma, caused by orf virus (ORFV), is an epitheliotrophic contagious disease with zoonotic implications that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recently, a novel ORFV strain, OV/HLJ/04, was successfully isolated from the skin and mucosal lesions of a goat with severe clinical sore mouth symptoms in Heilongjiang province of China. The OV/HLJ/04 isolate was characterized by electron microscopy, serological tests, and experimental reproduction of disease. Read More

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October 2017
21 Reads

Diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of a multifocal cutaneous orf virus with mixed bacterial infection outbreak in goats in Fujian province, China.

Arch Virol 2017 Oct 16;162(10):2997-3006. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Stomatology and Medicine, Foshan University, Foshan, 528000, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Outbreaks of orf virus on goat farms are common in China. In this study, we investigated a severe multifocal cutaneous orf virus outbreak with a correlative mixed bacterial infection which persisted for up to 6 months, and which had a high morbidity (93.7%) and mortality (15%) among kids in a herd of crossbreed goats in Fujian province in China. Read More

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October 2017
6 Reads

Recovery of the first full-length genome sequence of a parapoxvirus directly from a clinical sample.

Sci Rep 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3734. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

German Center for Infection Research, Hamburg - Borstel - Lübeck - Riems, Germany.

We recovered the first full-length poxvirus genome, including the terminal hairpin region, directly from complex clinical material using a combination of second generation short read and third generation nanopore sequencing technologies. The complete viral genome sequence was directly recovered from a skin lesion of a grey seal thereby preventing sequence changes due to in vitro passaging of the virus. Subsequent analysis of the proteins encoded by this virus identified genes specific for skin adaptation and pathogenesis of parapoxviruses. Read More

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June 2017
30 Reads

Cyclophilin B facilitates the replication of Orf virus.

Virol J 2017 06 15;14(1):114. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, 130062, China.

Background: Viruses interact with host cellular factors to construct a more favourable environment for their efficient replication. Expression of cyclophilin B (CypB), a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), was found to be significantly up-regulated. Recently, a number of studies have shown that CypB is important in the replication of several viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16). Read More

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June 2017
6 Reads

An Overwiev of ORF Virus Infection in Humans and Animals.

Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2017 ;12(1):21-30

Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039-Kayseri. Turkey.

Background: Orf virus is a DNA virus that belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus. The virus is a causative agent of orf in humans or contagious ecthyma in animals which is mostly seen in sheep, goat and cattle.

Discussion: Orf is an emerging zoonosis with an increasing number of worldwide outbreaks that have been reported. Read More

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June 2018
17 Reads

Orf virus infection.

Rev Med Virol 2017 07 8;27(4). Epub 2017 May 8.

Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Orf virus (ORFV) is an important pathogen responsible for a highly contagious zoonotic viral infection that threatens those who handle sheep and goats. Orf virus is the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus, and its resilience in the environment and ability to reinfect its host has contributed to the spread and maintenance of the infection in many species. In healthy humans, the disease usually resolves spontaneously within 3 to 6 weeks. Read More

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July 2017
9 Reads