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    629 results match your criteria Parapoxviruses

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    [A case of Orf disease complicated by erythema multiforme].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Service d'accueil des urgences, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France.
    Ecthyma contagiosum, or Orf, is a specific infection of small ruminants accidentally reaching humans. Few cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of ecthyma contagiosum occurred in a 9-year-old girl after contact with a flock of ecthyma sheep. Read More

    An unusual presentation of pseudocowpox associated with an outbreak of pustular ulcerative vulvovaginitis in a Swedish dairy herd.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Nov 1:1040638717737126. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Departments of Microbiology (Blomqvist, Ullman, Renström, Leijon), National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Read More

    Milker's nodule:an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle byproducts, or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers, and agricultural tourists. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of sheep oral mucosa response to Orf virus infection.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(10):e0186681. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease with worldwide distribution, which is caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) belonging to the Parapoxvirus. To study the alteration of host gene expression in response to ORFV infection at the transcriptional level, several young small-tailed Han sheep were inoculated with ORFV, and their oral mucosa tissue samples (T0, T3, T7 and T15) were collected on day 0, 3, 7 and 15 after ORFV infection respectively. RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons were performed, showing that 1928, 3219 and 2646 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among T3 vs. Read More

    Dermoscopic features and types of orf and milker's nodule.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Aug 2;34(4):357-362. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Dermatology, Diyarbakır Ergani State Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.
    Introduction: Orf and milker's nodule are zoonotic cutaneous diseases generated by parapoxviruses. Contribution of dermoscopy to the diagnosis of these diseases has not been studied in the medical literature as to our knowledge.

    Aim: To investigate whether dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in orf and milker's nodule diagnosis or not. Read More

    Extensive orf infection in a toddler with associated id reaction.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Nov 21;34(6):e337-e340. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
    Orf is a zoonotic parapoxvirus typically transmitted to humans by a bite from goats or sheep. We present an unusual case of multiple orf lesions on the fingers of a 13-month-old child who was bitten by a goat and subsequently developed progressive swelling, blistering, and necrotic papulonodules of the hand followed by an additional diffuse, pruritic, papular rash. A primary diagnosis of orf infection was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the diffuse eruption was clinically consistent with an id reaction. Read More

    Equine PBMC Cytokines Profile after In Vitro α- and γ-EHV Infection: Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus Ovis Based-Immunomodulator Treatment.
    Vaccines (Basel) 2017 Sep 19;5(3). Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    LABÉO Frank Duncombe, Unité BioTARGen, EA 7450, Normandie Université, 14053 Caen, France.
    Equine herpesviruses (EHV) infect horses early during life and the persistence of these viruses through establishment of latency represents a real risk. A better understanding of the immune response to EHV infection is necessary to improve our methods of prevention and decrease the risk of transmission. The objectives of this study were to characterise the cytokine gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after in vitro EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-2 infection and to determine the efficacy of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) against these 3 viruses. Read More

    Immunogenicity of ORFV-based vectors expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in livestock species.
    Virology 2017 Nov 9;511:229-239. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA; South Dakota Center for Biologics Research and Commercialization (SD-CBRC), South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. Electronic address:
    The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) encodes several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that modulate host-innate and pro-inflammatory responses and has been proposed as a vaccine delivery vector for use in animal species. Here we describe the construction and characterization of two recombinant ORFV vectors expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G). The RABV-G gene was inserted in the ORFV024 or ORFV121 gene loci, which encode for IMPs that are unique to parapoxviruses and inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Read More

    First isolation and genetic characterization of pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Japan.
    Virol J 2017 Sep 6;14(1):172. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.
    Background: Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) infects cattle worldwide with zoonotic potential but has not been isolated in Japan. Thus, the epidemiological status of PCPV infection in cattle is undetermined.

    Results: In May 2016, a cattle in a farm in Yamaguchi Prefecture showed white vesicles and hyperemia in the mucosa under the tongue surface, but not on the teats and coronary cushions. Read More

    The whole genomic analysis of orf virus strain HN3/12 isolated from Henan province, central China.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 18;13(1):260. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of orf, a globally-occurring, acute, pustular, contagious disease affecting sheep, goats and humans with a worldwide distribution. Currently, the genomic analysis of four ORFV strains from the Fujian province in southern China and a NA1/11 strain isolated from the Jilin province in northeast China have been reported. However, little is known about the genomic information of ORFV strains from central China. Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

    OH1 from Orf Virus: A New Tyrosine Phosphatase that Displays Distinct Structural Features and Triple Substrate Specificity.
    J Mol Biol 2017 Sep 25;429(18):2816-2824. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Sección Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:
    Viral tyrosine phosphatases such as VH1 from Vaccinia and Variola virus are recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. While proteins sharing sequence to VH1 have been identified in other viruses, their structural and functional characterization is not known. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the VH1 homolog in the Orf virus, herein named OH1. Read More

    Orf Virus Infection in Humans: A Review With a Focus on Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Jul;16(7):684-689
    Ecthyma contagiosum, also called contagious pustular dermatosis, is a zoonotic disease caused by the orf virus (OrfV). As a member of the poxviridae family and parapoxvirus genus, this dermatotropic virus has developed an array of mechanisms by which to evade the host immune system in both humans and animals. The ubiquitousness of this pathogen in sheep, goats, and deer has led to the development of orf in diverse areas around the world. Read More

    Systemic interferon alfa injections for the treatment of a giant orf.
    Cutis 2017 May;99(5):E19-E21
    Department of Dermatology, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infection caused by a parapoxvirus and is endemic in sheep and goats. It may be transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals. We report a case of a giant orf in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which proliferated dramatically after surgical excision and resolved after systemic interferon alfa-2a injections. Read More

    Recovery of the first full-length genome sequence of a parapoxvirus directly from a clinical sample.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3734. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    German Center for Infection Research, Hamburg - Borstel - Lübeck - Riems, Germany.
    We recovered the first full-length poxvirus genome, including the terminal hairpin region, directly from complex clinical material using a combination of second generation short read and third generation nanopore sequencing technologies. The complete viral genome sequence was directly recovered from a skin lesion of a grey seal thereby preventing sequence changes due to in vitro passaging of the virus. Subsequent analysis of the proteins encoded by this virus identified genes specific for skin adaptation and pathogenesis of parapoxviruses. Read More

    An Overwiev of ORF Virus Infection in Humans and Animals.
    Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2017 ;12(1):21-30
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039-Kayseri. Turkey.
    Background: Orf virus is a DNA virus that belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus. The virus is a causative agent of orf in humans or contagious ecthyma in animals which is mostly seen in sheep, goat and cattle.

    Discussion: Orf is an emerging zoonosis with an increasing number of worldwide outbreaks that have been reported. Read More

    Orf virus infection.
    Rev Med Virol 2017 Jul 8;27(4). Epub 2017 May 8.
    Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is an important pathogen responsible for a highly contagious zoonotic viral infection that threatens those who handle sheep and goats. Orf virus is the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus, and its resilience in the environment and ability to reinfect its host has contributed to the spread and maintenance of the infection in many species. In healthy humans, the disease usually resolves spontaneously within 3 to 6 weeks. Read More

    Giant Orf on the Nose.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 May;28(3):e234-e235
    *Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gaziantep 25 Aralik State Hospital, Gaziantep †National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by parapoxvirus. Orf lesions are typically seen on the hand, but they have rarely been reported on the nose. Herein, the authors report a rare patient of an orf lesion on the nose of a 52-year-old man after the Muslim celebration of the feast of the sacrifice. Read More

    Outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus 2 infections in calves causing ear and facial skin lesions.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Sep 19;29(5):686-690. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, San Bernardino Laboratory (Negrão Watanabe), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA.
    We describe 3 outbreaks of superficial dermatitis caused by bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) in dairy breed calves. Clinically, all of the affected calves were 12-26 d of age, had alopecia and crusts on the face and ears, and were non-pruritic and afebrile. Affected animals recovered spontaneously without any treatment within 2-4 wk after onset of clinical signs based on 1 herd with follow up. Read More

    Identification and phylogenetic analysis of contagious ecthyma virus from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran.
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2017 Mar 24;84(1):e1-e5. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Pathobiology, Shiraz University.
    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats and camels. The identification and characterisation of a parapoxvirus (PPV) infecting camels is described here. The virus was detected in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Kerman and Shiraz in Iran. Read More

    Genetic characterization of orf virus associated with an outbreak of severe orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka, Zambia (2015).
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 4;162(8):2363-2367. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, PO Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Orf or contagious ecthyma is a neglected and economically important zoonotic disease caused by a dermatotropic parapoxvirus that commonly affects domestic small ruminants. Although orf is globally distributed, there is a paucity of information on the disease in many African countries. Here, a suspected severe outbreak of orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka was investigated. Read More

    Development and validation of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of parapoxviruses.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Jul 20;29(4):499-507. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Reagents and Vaccines Services Section (Das, Ward, Lowe, Xu, Jia), Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Greenport, NY.
    Parapoxviruses (PaPVs) cause widespread infections in ruminants worldwide. All PaPVs are zoonotic and may infect humans after direct or indirect contact with infected animals. Herein we report the development and validation of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of PaPVs. Read More

    Human orf complicated by epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Mar 24. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Dermatology Department, Saint-Louis Hospital, 1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010, Paris, France.
    Orf is a DNA parapoxvirus transmitted to humans by contact with infected goats and sheep. Many complications have been reported after orf infection, including erythema multiforme. A few cases of autoimmune bullous dermatosis complicating orf disease have been reported to date. Read More

    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Giant Orf on the Nose.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    *Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gaziantep 25 Aralik State Hospital, Gaziantep †National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by parapoxvirus. Orf lesions are typically seen on the hand, but they have rarely been reported on the nose. Herein, the authors report a rare patient of an orf lesion on the nose of a 52-year-old man after the Muslim celebration of the feast of the sacrifice. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 19;162(4):953-962. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine-Binding Protein of Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus Inhibits Neutrophil and Monocyte Infiltration in Inflammatory and Wound Models of Mouse Skin.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(12):e0168007. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a Parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in cattle and is transmissible to humans. Previous studies have shown that BPSV encodes a distinctive chemokine-binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are critically involved in the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation and infected tissue, suggesting that the CBP plays a role in immune evasion by preventing immune cells reaching sites of infection. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Ankyrin Repeat Proteins of Orf Virus Influence the Cellular Hypoxia Response Pathway.
    J Virol 2017 Jan 16;91(1). Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional activator with a central role in regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. It is also emerging as a major target for viral manipulation of the cellular environment. Under normoxic conditions, HIF is tightly suppressed by the activity of oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. Read More

    A multiplex PCR for viruses associated with exanthematic and vesicular disease in cattle.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Jan 25;239:38-41. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, building 63A, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, zip-code 97105-900, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Exanthematic and papulo-vesicular lesions in the udder and teats of milking cows are fairly common in some Brazilian dairies, especially those with poor sanitary conditions and hand milking. The orthopoxvirus Vaccinia virus (VACV) and the parapoxviruses Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and Bovine popular stomatitis virus (BPSV) have been frequently associated with such conditions. Elsewhere, Bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) has also been associated with similar clinical signs. Read More

    Detection of pseudocowpox virus in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with vesicular disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2016.
    Vet Q 2017 Dec 8;37(1):16-22. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    a Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minhas Gerais , Pedro Leopoldo , Minas Gerais , Brazil.
    Background: Parapoxviruses are zoonotic viruses that infect cattle, goats and sheep; there have also been reports of infections in camels, domestic cats and seals.

    Objective: The objective of this report was to describe a case of vesicular disease caused by pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil.

    Animals: Sixty buffalo less than 6 months old exhibited ulcers and widespread peeling of the tongue epithelium. Read More

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine papular stomatitis virus.
    J Virol Methods 2016 Dec 14;238:42-47. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Program for Nurturing Global Leaders in Tropical and Emerging Communicable Diseases, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) causes pustular cutaneous disease in cattle worldwide. This paper describes the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect BPSV which did not cross-react with other parapoxviruses. To assess analytical sensitivity of this LAMP assay, DNA was extracted from serially diluted BPSV from which the infectious titer was determined by a novel assay based on calf kidney epithelial cells. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

    Orf Virus 002 Protein Targets Ovine Protein S100A4 and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling.
    Front Microbiol 2016 13;7:1389. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Orf virus (ORFV), a member of Parapoxvirus, has evolved various strategies to modulate the immune responses of host cells. The ORFV-encoded protein ORFV002, a regulator factor, has been found to inhibit the acetylation of NF-κB-p65 by blocking phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 at Ser(276) and also to disrupt the binding of NF-κB-p65 and p300. To explore the mechanism by which ORFV002 regulates NF-κB signaling, the understanding of ORFV002 potential binding partners in host cells is critical. Read More

    Identification and function analysis of the host cell protein that interacted with Orf virus Bcl-2-like protein ORFV125.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Oct 24;108:93-7. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. Read More

    Establishment of an on-site diagnostic procedure for detection of orf virus from oral lesions of Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Jan 15;78(12):1841-1845. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.
    Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan. Currently, definitive diagnosis of infection requires time-consuming laboratory work. To diagnose rapidly on-site, we developed a field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions. Read More

    Role of autophagy in cellular response to infection with Orf virus Jilin isolate.
    Vet Microbiol 2016 Sep 4;193:22-7. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:
    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which has been described to be involved in the development of various viral diseases. However, the role of autophagy in Orf virus (ORFV) replication remains unknown. In this study, we provide the first evidence that ORFV infection triggered autophagy in primary ovine fetal turbinate cells (OFTu) based on the appearance of abundant double- and single-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescent puncta, the enhancement of LC3-I/-II conversion, and autophagic flux. Read More

    Immunogenicity of a recombinant parapoxvirus expressing the spike protein of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
    J Gen Virol 2016 Oct 24;97(10):2719-2731. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    1​Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.
    The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV), has long been recognized for its immunomodulatory properties in permissive and non-permissive animal species. Here, a new recombinant ORFV expressing the full-length spike (S) protein of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was generated and its immunogenicity and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. The PEDV S was inserted into the ORFV121 gene locus, an immunomodulatory gene that inhibits activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway and contributes to ORFV virulence in the natural host. Read More

    Orf virus interleukin-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor-E modulate gene expression in cultured equine dermal fibroblasts.
    Vet Dermatol 2016 Oct 22;27(5):434-e114. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Comparative Tissue Healing Laboratory, Département de biomédecine vétérinaire, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, C.P. 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada, J2S 7C6.
    Background: Wounds in horses often exhibit sustained inflammation and inefficient vascularization, leading to excessive fibrosis and clinical complications such as "proud flesh". Orf virus-derived proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-E and interleukin (ovIL)-10, enhance angiogenesis and control inflammation and fibrosis in skin wounds of laboratory animals.

    Hypothesis/objectives: The study aimed to determine if equine dermal cells respond to VEGF-E and ovIL-10. Read More

    Molecular detection and analysis of Sheeppox and Orf viruses isolated from sheep from Qalubia, Egypt.
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2016 Jul-Aug;129(7-8):310-7
    In this study an outbreak with Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and Orf virus (ORFV) in one sheep herd in the Qalubia province, Egypt, was investigated. Both, SPPV and ORFV caused clinically manifest infections among sheep. The affected sheep showed skin lesions around the mouth or all over the body. Read More

    Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis as inducer of immunity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).
    An Acad Bras Cienc 2016 Sep 4;88(3):1451-7. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Laboratório de Microbiologia e Imunologia Avançada, Prédio G3, Campus I, São José, BR 285, Km 292, 99052-900 Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil.
    Molecules with immune modulating activity are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their impact on aquaculture has been exploited in order to increase fish resistance to pathogens. Here, we investigated the effect of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) on blood cells and innate and acquired immune response of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). iPPVO inoculation had no effect on respiratory burst activity; however, following iPPVO inoculation, we observed a significant decrease on circulating monocytes concomitantly with an increased number of heterophilic granulocytes and thrombocytes, which are the main cells involved in innate immunity and provide connection with acquired immunity. Read More

    A 65-Year-Old Female from Connecticut with Orf Infection.
    Dermatopathology (Basel) 2016 Apr-Jun;3(2):55-60. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., USA; Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., USA.
    The virus, which causes orf and induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and goats, is transmissible to humans yet is rarely observed in North America. We present a case of a 65-year-old female farmer from Connecticut who contracted orf from her sheep. The clinical and histopathologic features, important to arrive at the correct diagnosis of this uncommon yet important infection, are described. Read More

    Unique Presentation of Orf Virus Infection in a Thermal-Burn Patient After Receiving an Autologous Skin Graft.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Oct 24;214(8):1171-4. Epub 2016 Jul 24.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch.
    We describe a burn patient who developed skin lesions on her skin-graft harvest and skin-graft recipient (burn) sites. Orf virus infection was confirmed by a combination of diagnostic assays, including molecular tests, immunohistochemical analysis, pathologic analysis, and electron microscopy. DNA sequence analysis grouped this orf virus isolate among isolates from India. Read More

    Development of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the rapid diagnosis of Orf virus infections.
    J Virol Methods 2016 Oct 2;236:10-17. Epub 2016 Jul 2.
    Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun 130062, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis and Animal Research Center, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun 130062, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    A rapid and simple lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) was developed for the specific detection of Orf virus (ORFV) using two distinct monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: 5A5 and 6F2) against the ORFV ORF011 protein. The MAb 5A5 was conjugated with colloidal gold, and the MAb 6F2 and goat anti-mouse IgG were sprayed onto a nitrocellulose membrane in strips at positions designated test (T) and control (C), respectively. The results showed that samples of ORFV complexed with colloidal gold-conjugated MAb 5A5, were captured by MAb 6F2 at the T line resulting in the appearance of a purple band. Read More

    Orf virus infection in human ecthyma contagiosum: a report of two cases in the West of Iran.
    Virusdisease 2016 Jun 25;27(2):209-10. Epub 2016 Feb 25.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Ecthyma contagiosum is caused by the orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. Humans acquire the infection from contact with infected or recently vaccinated animals in conjunction with skin trauma. In this study, we report two cases of orf infection in two women who had contact with animals. Read More

    Infection with Possible Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland, 2013.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 07;22(7):1242-5
    A horse in Finland exhibited generalized granulomatous inflammation and severe proliferative dermatitis. After euthanization, we detected poxvirus DNA from a skin lesion sample. The virus sequence grouped with parapoxviruses, closely resembling a novel poxvirus detected in humans in the United States after horse contact. Read More

    Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014.
    J Wildl Dis 2016 Jul 10;52(3):719-24. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    1 Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada;
    An adult male muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Read More

    Molecular characterization of Orf virus in goats in Gabon, Central Africa.
    Virol J 2016 May 13;13:79. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), BP769, Franceville, Gabon.
    Background: Orf or contagious ecthyma is a zoonotic viral infection with a potential serious health threat for the small ruminants industry as well as humans. It is currently emerging in new territories.

    Results: Eight suspected clinical cases of pustular dermatitis in goats occurred in the rural area of Tebe, in south-eastern Gabon, in January 2013. Read More

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