756 results match your criteria Parapoxviruses

A Comparison of Parapoxviruses in North American Pinnipeds.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:653094. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Parapoxviruses cause nodular lesions on the skin and mucosal membranes of pinnipeds and infections by these viruses have been documented worldwide. Seal parapoxvirus is currently classified as a tentative species of the genus. Tissue or swab samples were analyzed from 11 pinnipeds of different host species undergoing rehabilitation on the east and west coasts of the United States of America (USA) that were positive for parapoxvirus. Read More

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Contagious ecthyma: how serious is the disease worldwide?

Anim Health Res Rev 2021 May 21:1-16. Epub 2021 May 21.

Virology Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Contagious ecthyma (CE) is an infectious disease of small ruminants caused by a parapoxvirus of family Poxviridae subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The disease is obviously distinguished by an establishment of scabby lesions and ulcerative formation on less hairy areas including muzzle, ears, nostril, and sometimes on genitalia. The disease is endemic in sheep and goats. Read More

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The genetic identification of camel contagious ecthyma virus as the causative agent of contagious ecthyma in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Qatar.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 May 18;53(2):332. Epub 2021 May 18.

Camel Genetic Research Center, Tharb Camel Hospital, Leawaina, Qatar.

Camel contagious ecthyma is a contagious viral disease of camels caused by either Orf virus (ORFV) or camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV). It has been previously reported and shown to cause economic losses in some camel-rearing countries in Asia and Africa, but has not been detected in Qatar. The purpose of this study was to identify and genetically characterize the contagious ecthyma causative agent in Qatari dromedary camels between 2017 and 2018. Read More

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Treatment with the Immunomodulator AIC649 in Combination with Entecavir Produces Antiviral Efficacy in the Woodchuck Model of Chronic Hepatitis B.

Viruses 2021 04 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

As current interventions for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) rarely induce cure, more effective drugs are needed. Short-term treatment of woodchucks with the novel immunomodulator AIC649, a parapoxvirus-based stimulator of toll-like receptor 9 dependent and independent pathways, has been shown to reduce viral DNA and surface antigen via a unique, biphasic response pattern. The present study evaluated long-term AIC649 treatment in combination with Entecavir for potency and safety in woodchucks. Read More

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N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 17;384(16):1552. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

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Orf virus ORFV112, ORFV117 and ORFV127 contribute to ORFV IA82 virulence in sheep.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 10;257:109066. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, United States; Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, 240 Farrier Rd, Ithaca, NY, 14853, United States; Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, 97105-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) encodes several immunomodulatory proteins (IMPs) that modulate host innate and pro-inflammatory responses to infection. Using the ORFV IA82 strain as the parental virus, recombinant viruses with individual deletions in the genes encoding the IMPs chemokine binding protein (CBP; ORFV112), inhibitor of granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor and IL-2 (GIF, ORFV117) and interleukin 10 homologue (vIL-10; ORFV127) were generated and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The replication properties of the individual gene deletion viruses in cell culture was not affected comparing with the parental virus. Read More

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Development of multiplex real-time PCR assays for differential detection of capripoxvirus, parapoxvirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, NVSL, APHIS, USDA, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Orient, NY, USA.

This study reports the development of multiplex real-time PCR assays for differential detection of capripoxvirus (CaPV), parapoxvirus (PaPV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in sheep, goats and cattle. Three multiplex assays were developed, a capripox (CaP) rule-out assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of CaPV and PaPV, a FMD rule-out assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of FMDV and PaPV, and a FMD/CaP rule-out assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of CaPV, PaPV and FMDV. All multiplex assays included β-actin gene ACTB as an internal positive control to monitor PCR inhibition and accuracy of nucleic acid extractions. Read More

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Solitary Subungual Orf.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Pathology, University of Health Science, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Orf-ecthyma contagiosum-is an endemic cutaneous disease caused by parapoxvirus that is transmitted via direct contact with contagious animals. The lesions are located frequently on the hands and fingers. Subungual presentation of orf is very rare. Read More

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Identification and screening of host proteins interacting with ORFV-ORF047 protein.

Virol J 2021 01 26;18(1):27. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, China.

Background: Orf virus (ORFV) is a member of the genus Parapoxvirus and family Poxviridae. The virus has a worldwide distribution and infects sheep, goats, humans, and wild animals. However, due to the complex structure of the poxvirus, the underlying mechanism of the entry and infection by ORFV remains largely unknown. Read More

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January 2021

A case of milker's nodules in Saskatchewan, Canada.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 27;8:2050313X20984118. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK, Canada.

We present a case of milker's nodules in a 41-year-old rancher from Saskatchewan, Canada, with secondary complications consisting of papular erythema and lymphadenopathy. Read More

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December 2020

Orf (Ecthyma Contagiosum) Transmitted from a Camel to a Human: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Dec 23;21:e927579. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum, is a zoonotic disease caused by a parapox virus, which is endemic in goats and sheep but rare in camels. Orf is usually transmitted to humans who are in contact with infected animals. The clinical manifestation of the disease and a personal history of contact with an infected animal are sufficient to diagnose orf virus infection. Read More

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December 2020

Application of long-term collected data for conservation: Spatio-temporal patterns of mortality in Japanese serow.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Mar 21;83(2):349-357. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagito, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

Monitoring the mortality of wildlife provides basic demographic information to support management plan preparation. The utility of mortality records for conservation measures was investigated in the Japanese serow, focusing on temporal trends and spatial distribution. Using the mortality records of Japanese serow from 2006 to 2018 in Gifu prefecture, cause-specific mortality was categorized into five groups (disease, accident, vehicle collision, parapoxvirus infection, and unknown), and the sex ratios were examined. Read More

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Successful measures to prevent the spread of bovine papular stomatitis in a dairy farm.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Mar 11;83(2):304-308. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

Nasal papules and oral ulcers were observed in calves that were group-housed at a dairy farm. The calves were diagnosed with bovine papular stomatitis (BPS) due to parapoxvirus (PPV) infection based on virologic examinations using polymerase chain reaction to detect PPV. To prevent the spread of BPS, we isolated the affected calves, made procedural changes so that the affected herd was managed after the healthy herd, disinfected the bedding with slaked lime, disinfected the stalls and fences with invert soap, and changed the animals' feed to soft grass which does not damage the oral cavity. Read More

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Vascular endothelial growth factor encoded by Parapoxviruses can regulate metabolism and survival of triple negative breast cancer cells.

Cell Death Dis 2020 11 20;11(11):996. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, Tumor Virology Program, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Dysbiotic microbiomes are linked to many pathological outcomes including different metabolic disorders like diabetes, atherosclerosis and even cancer. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer associated death in women, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive type with major challenges for intervention. Previous reports suggested that Parapoxvirus signatures are one of the predominant dysbiotic viral signatures in TNBC. Read More

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November 2020

Viral Infections in Burn Patients: A State-Of-The-Art Review.

Viruses 2020 11 17;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Infections that are triggered by the accompanying immunosuppression in patients with burn wounds are very common regardless of age. Among burn patients, the most frequently diagnosed infections include the bacterial ones primarily caused by or , as well as fungal infections with the etiology of . or spp. Read More

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November 2020

Crystal structures of ORFV125 provide insight into orf virus-mediated inhibition of apoptosis.

Biochem J 2020 12;477(23):4527-4541

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia.

Premature apoptosis of cells is a strategy utilized by multicellular organisms to counter microbial threats. Orf virus (ORFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the poxviridae. ORFV encodes for an apoptosis inhibitory protein ORFV125 homologous to B-cell lymphoma 2 or Bcl-2 family proteins, which has been shown to inhibit host cell encoded pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Read More

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December 2020

qPCR assay for the detection of pseudocowpox virus.

Arch Virol 2021 Jan 7;166(1):243-247. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Pseudocowpox is a zoonosis caused by pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), which mainly affects cows but can be an occupational disease of humans. The aim of the study was to validate a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection of PCPV. The assay was able to detect up to 1000 copies of PCPV per µL in field samples, with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 100%. Read More

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January 2021

"FastCheck PPR-like"-A Molecular Tool for the Fast Genome Detection of PPRV and Differential Diagnostic Pathogens.

Viruses 2020 10 29;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

To assist the global eradication of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a molecular test for the rapid and reliable detection of PPRV was developed which additionally enables the detection of pathogens relevant for differential diagnostics. For this purpose, the necessary time frame of a magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction protocol was markedly shortened to 7 min and 13 s. The optimized extraction was run on a BioSprint 15 platform. Read More

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October 2020

Genomic Features and Evolution of the Parapoxvirus during the Past Two Decades.

Pathogens 2020 Oct 27;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Parapoxvirus (PPV) has been identified in some mammals and poses a great threat to both the livestock production and public health. However, the prevalence and evolution of this virus are still not fully understood. Here, we performed an in silico analysis to investigate the genomic features and evolution of PPVs. Read More

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October 2020

First detection and molecular characterisation of pseudocowpox virus in a cattle herd in Zambia.

Virol J 2020 10 9;17(1):152. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae causes pseudocowpox in cattle worldwide and presents a zoonotic concern. Most poxviruses produce diseases of similar clinical signs in affected animals, which are impossible to differentiate clinically or by serology. It is, therefore, vital to use molecular assays to rapidly identify the causative agents of poxvirus infections. Read More

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October 2020

Rescue of a Vaccinia Virus Mutant Lacking IFN Resistance Genes K1L and C7L by the Orf Virus.

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:1797. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Type 1 interferons induce the upregulation of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that combat viral replication. The orf virus (ORFV) induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and goats and can reinfect its host, however, little is known of its ability to resist IFN. Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a number of factors that modulate the IFN response including the host-range genes and . Read More

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Bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpox virus coinfection in dairy calves in Japan.

Arch Virol 2020 Nov 3;165(11):2659-2664. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

Two cases of coinfection with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) in dairy calves in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, are reported. Sequences of BPSV and PCPV were simultaneously detected in the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons, which were obtained from the DNA of two dairy calves using a pan-parapoxvirus primer set. PCR amplification using BPSV- and PCPV-specific primer sets were able to distinguish between the two viruses in coinfected clinical samples. Read More

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November 2020

Inhibition of orf virus replication in goat skin fibroblast cells by the HSPA1B protein, as demonstrated by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome analysis.

Arch Virol 2020 Nov 2;165(11):2561-2587. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, No. 1, Xujiaping, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Orf virus (ORFV) infects sheep and goat tissues, resulting in severe proliferative lesions. To analyze cellular protein expression in ORFV-infected goat skin fibroblast (GSF) cells, we used two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The proteomics approach was used along with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detect differentially expressed proteins in ORFV-infected GSF cells and mock-infected GSF cells. Read More

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November 2020

Comparative analysis, distribution, and characterization of microsatellites in Orf virus genome.

Sci Rep 2020 08 17;10(1):13852. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Discipline of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore, MP, 453 552, India.

Genome-wide in-silico identification of microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the Orf virus (ORFV), the causative agent of contagious ecthyma has been carried out to investigate the type, distribution and its potential role in the genome evolution. We have investigated eleven ORFV strains, which resulted in the presence of 1,036-1,181 microsatellites per strain. The further screening revealed the presence of 83-107 compound SSRs (cSSRs) per genome. Read More

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Selection of chromatographic methods for the purification of cell culture-derived Orf virus for its application as a vaccine or viral vector.

J Biotechnol 2020 Nov 5;323:62-72. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Institute of Bioprocess Engineering and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

In recent years, the Orf virus has become a promising tool for protective recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapy. However, suitable methods for an Orf virus production, including up- and downstream, are very limited. The presented study focuses on downstream processing, describing the evaluation of different chromatographic unit operations. Read More

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November 2020

Bovine Papillomatosis Hiding a Zoonotic Infection: Epitheliotropic Viruses in Bovine Skin Lesions.

Pathogens 2020 Jul 17;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna "Bruno Ubertini" (IZSLER), 25124 Brescia, Italy.

We describe two cases of skin co-infections with epitheliotropic viruses, detected in two cattle during lumpy skin disease (LSD) surveillance in northern Italy. A diagnostic protocol including different molecular methods as well as negative staining electron microscopy was applied to detect the most common viral agents belonging to the family , and which cause skin diseases in cattle. Two specimens were collected from cases clinically diagnosed as papillomatosis and pseudo-LSD. Read More

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A novel antiviral formulation inhibits a range of enveloped viruses.

J Gen Virol 2020 10;101(10):1090-1102

Institute of Immunity and Infection, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Some free fatty acids derived from milk and vegetable oils are known to have potent antiviral and antibacterial properties. However, therapeutic applications of short- to medium-chain fatty acids are limited by physical characteristics such as immiscibility in aqueous solutions. We evaluated a novel proprietary formulation based on an emulsion of short-chain caprylic acid, ViroSAL, for its ability to inhibit a range of viral infections and ViroSAL inhibited the enveloped viruses Epstein-Barr, measles, herpes simplex, Zika and orf parapoxvirus, together with Ebola, Lassa, vesicular stomatitis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) pseudoviruses, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Read More

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October 2020

Pseudocowpox virus infection in an American bison (Bison bison).

BMC Vet Res 2020 Jul 13;16(1):241. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Kansas State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506, USA.

Background: The present report describes a case of pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) infection in a seven-year-old female bison euthanized due to a history of declining condition and sores on the vulva and udder.

Case Presentation: External examination revealed multifocal, raised, keratinized plaques (0.5-2 cm) covering the skin of the ventral surface of the tail, perineum, caudoventral abdomen, udder, both inguinal recesses, and the medial aspects of both thighs. Read More

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-Based Vaccine Vector D1701-V Induces Strong CD8+ T Cell Response against the Transgene but Not against ORFV-Derived Epitopes.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 10;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Immunology, Interfaculty Institute for Cell Biology, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

The potency of viral vector-based vaccines depends on their ability to induce strong transgene-specific immune response without triggering anti-vector immunity. Previously, (ORFV, ) strain D1701-V was reported as a novel vector mediating protection against viral infections. The short-lived ORFV-specific immune response and the absence of virus neutralizing antibodies enables repeated immunizations and enhancement of humoral immune responses against the inserted antigens. Read More

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