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    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Giant Orf on the Nose.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    *Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gaziantep 25 Aralik State Hospital, Gaziantep †National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by parapoxvirus. Orf lesions are typically seen on the hand, but they have rarely been reported on the nose. Herein, the authors report a rare patient of an orf lesion on the nose of a 52-year-old man after the Muslim celebration of the feast of the sacrifice. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine-Binding Protein of Bovine Papular Stomatitis Virus Inhibits Neutrophil and Monocyte Infiltration in Inflammatory and Wound Models of Mouse Skin.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(12):e0168007. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a Parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in cattle and is transmissible to humans. Previous studies have shown that BPSV encodes a distinctive chemokine-binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are critically involved in the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation and infected tissue, suggesting that the CBP plays a role in immune evasion by preventing immune cells reaching sites of infection. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Ankyrin Repeat Proteins of Orf Virus Influence the Cellular Hypoxia Response Pathway.
    J Virol 2017 Jan 16;91(1). Epub 2016 Dec 16.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional activator with a central role in regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. It is also emerging as a major target for viral manipulation of the cellular environment. Under normoxic conditions, HIF is tightly suppressed by the activity of oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. Read More

    A multiplex PCR for viruses associated with exanthematic and vesicular disease in cattle.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Jan 25;239:38-41. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, building 63A, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, zip-code 97105-900, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Exanthematic and papulo-vesicular lesions in the udder and teats of milking cows are fairly common in some Brazilian dairies, especially those with poor sanitary conditions and hand milking. The orthopoxvirus Vaccinia virus (VACV) and the parapoxviruses Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and Bovine popular stomatitis virus (BPSV) have been frequently associated with such conditions. Elsewhere, Bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) has also been associated with similar clinical signs. Read More

    Detection of pseudocowpox virus in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) with vesicular disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2016.
    Vet Q 2017 Dec 8;37(1):16-22. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    a Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minhas Gerais , Pedro Leopoldo , Minas Gerais , Brazil.
    Background: Parapoxviruses are zoonotic viruses that infect cattle, goats and sheep; there have also been reports of infections in camels, domestic cats and seals.

    Objective: The objective of this report was to describe a case of vesicular disease caused by pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil.

    Animals: Sixty buffalo less than 6 months old exhibited ulcers and widespread peeling of the tongue epithelium. Read More

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of bovine papular stomatitis virus.
    J Virol Methods 2016 Dec 14;238:42-47. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Program for Nurturing Global Leaders in Tropical and Emerging Communicable Diseases, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:
    Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) causes pustular cutaneous disease in cattle worldwide. This paper describes the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect BPSV which did not cross-react with other parapoxviruses. To assess analytical sensitivity of this LAMP assay, DNA was extracted from serially diluted BPSV from which the infectious titer was determined by a novel assay based on calf kidney epithelial cells. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

    Orf Virus 002 Protein Targets Ovine Protein S100A4 and Inhibits NF-κB Signaling.
    Front Microbiol 2016 13;7:1389. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Orf virus (ORFV), a member of Parapoxvirus, has evolved various strategies to modulate the immune responses of host cells. The ORFV-encoded protein ORFV002, a regulator factor, has been found to inhibit the acetylation of NF-κB-p65 by blocking phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 at Ser(276) and also to disrupt the binding of NF-κB-p65 and p300. To explore the mechanism by which ORFV002 regulates NF-κB signaling, the understanding of ORFV002 potential binding partners in host cells is critical. Read More

    Identification and function analysis of the host cell protein that interacted with Orf virus Bcl-2-like protein ORFV125.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Oct 24;108:93-7. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. Read More

    Immunogenicity of a recombinant parapoxvirus expressing the spike protein of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
    J Gen Virol 2016 Oct 24;97(10):2719-2731. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    1​Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.
    The parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV), has long been recognized for its immunomodulatory properties in permissive and non-permissive animal species. Here, a new recombinant ORFV expressing the full-length spike (S) protein of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was generated and its immunogenicity and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. The PEDV S was inserted into the ORFV121 gene locus, an immunomodulatory gene that inhibits activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway and contributes to ORFV virulence in the natural host. Read More

    Molecular detection and analysis of Sheeppox and Orf viruses isolated from sheep from Qalubia, Egypt.
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2016 Jul-Aug;129(7-8):310-7
    In this study an outbreak with Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and Orf virus (ORFV) in one sheep herd in the Qalubia province, Egypt, was investigated. Both, SPPV and ORFV caused clinically manifest infections among sheep. The affected sheep showed skin lesions around the mouth or all over the body. Read More

    Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis as inducer of immunity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).
    An Acad Bras Cienc 2016 Sep 4;88(3):1451-7. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Laboratório de Microbiologia e Imunologia Avançada, Prédio G3, Campus I, São José, BR 285, Km 292, 99052-900 Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil.
    Molecules with immune modulating activity are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their impact on aquaculture has been exploited in order to increase fish resistance to pathogens. Here, we investigated the effect of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) on blood cells and innate and acquired immune response of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). iPPVO inoculation had no effect on respiratory burst activity; however, following iPPVO inoculation, we observed a significant decrease on circulating monocytes concomitantly with an increased number of heterophilic granulocytes and thrombocytes, which are the main cells involved in innate immunity and provide connection with acquired immunity. Read More

    A 65-Year-Old Female from Connecticut with Orf Infection.
    Dermatopathology (Basel) 2016 Apr-Jun;3(2):55-60. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., USA; Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn., USA.
    The virus, which causes orf and induces acute pustular skin lesions in sheep and goats, is transmissible to humans yet is rarely observed in North America. We present a case of a 65-year-old female farmer from Connecticut who contracted orf from her sheep. The clinical and histopathologic features, important to arrive at the correct diagnosis of this uncommon yet important infection, are described. Read More

    Unique Presentation of Orf Virus Infection in a Thermal-Burn Patient After Receiving an Autologous Skin Graft.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Oct 24;214(8):1171-4. Epub 2016 Jul 24.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch.
    We describe a burn patient who developed skin lesions on her skin-graft harvest and skin-graft recipient (burn) sites. Orf virus infection was confirmed by a combination of diagnostic assays, including molecular tests, immunohistochemical analysis, pathologic analysis, and electron microscopy. DNA sequence analysis grouped this orf virus isolate among isolates from India. Read More

    Orf virus infection in human ecthyma contagiosum: a report of two cases in the West of Iran.
    Virusdisease 2016 Jun 25;27(2):209-10. Epub 2016 Feb 25.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Ecthyma contagiosum is caused by the orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. Humans acquire the infection from contact with infected or recently vaccinated animals in conjunction with skin trauma. In this study, we report two cases of orf infection in two women who had contact with animals. Read More

    Infection with Possible Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland, 2013.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 Jul;22(7):1242-5
    A horse in Finland exhibited generalized granulomatous inflammation and severe proliferative dermatitis. After euthanization, we detected poxvirus DNA from a skin lesion sample. The virus sequence grouped with parapoxviruses, closely resembling a novel poxvirus detected in humans in the United States after horse contact. Read More

    Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014.
    J Wildl Dis 2016 Jul 10;52(3):719-24. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    1 Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada;
    An adult male muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Read More

    Molecular characterization of Orf virus in goats in Gabon, Central Africa.
    Virol J 2016 May 13;13:79. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), BP769, Franceville, Gabon.
    Background: Orf or contagious ecthyma is a zoonotic viral infection with a potential serious health threat for the small ruminants industry as well as humans. It is currently emerging in new territories.

    Results: Eight suspected clinical cases of pustular dermatitis in goats occurred in the rural area of Tebe, in south-eastern Gabon, in January 2013. Read More

    Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2016 Jul 6;28(4):377-81. Epub 2016 May 6.
    Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Laguardia-Nascimento, Sales, Gasparini, de Souza, Rivetti Júnior, Camargos, Fonseca Júnior)Instituto de Defesa Agropecuária do Estado de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil (da Silva, Souza, Carani)Agência de Defesa Agropecuária e Florestal Do Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil (Santos)
    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Read More

    Identification and Characterization of a Cleavage Site in the Proteolysis of Orf Virus 086 Protein.
    Front Microbiol 2016 20;7:538. Epub 2016 Apr 20.
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    The orf virus (ORFV) is among the parapoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family, but little is known about the proteolytic pathways of ORFV encoding proteins. By contrast, the proteolysis mechanism of the vaccinia virus (VV) has been extensively explored. Vaccinia virus core protein P4a undergoes a proteolytic process that takes place at a conserved cleavage site Ala-Gly-X (where X is any amino acid) and participates in virus assembly. Read More

    Detection and quantification of parapoxvirus DNA by use of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in calves without clinical signs of parapoxvirus infection.
    Am J Vet Res 2016 Apr;77(4):383-7
    Objective: To investigate the presence of parapoxvirus (PPV) in cattle without clinical signs of infection and in farm environments of PPV-infected cattle.

    Animals: 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection on 2 farms and 11 clinically affected calves on 6 farms.

    Procedures: 164 oral swab samples were collected at regular intervals from 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection, and 11 swab samples were collected from 11 clinically affected calves. Read More

    [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2016 21;44(2):129-34. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
    Prof. Dr. Katrin Hartmann, Medizinische Kleintierklinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Veterinärstraße 13, 80539 München, E-Mail:
    Paramunity inducers have been used to treat small animals for decades. Paramunity inducers are based on attenuated and inactivated poxviruses (avipox virus and parapox virus). Their applications include both therapeutic and prophylactic use in various diseases. Read More

    Development of an isothermoal amplification-based assay for rapid visual detection of an Orf virus.
    Virol J 2016 Mar 19;13:46. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Grazing Animal Diseases of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
    Background: Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of a severe infectious skin disease (also known as contagious ecthyma) in goats, sheep and other small ruminants. Importantly, ORFV also infect humans which causes a public health concern in the context of changing environment and increase in human populations. The rapid detection is critical in effective control of the disease and urgently needed. Read More

    Molecular characterization of orf virus from sheep and goats in Ethiopia, 2008-2013.
    Virol J 2016 Feb 29;13:34. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: Orf is a contagious disease of sheep, goats and wild ungulates caused by orf virus (ORFV) a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family. Although orf is endemic in Ethiopia, little attention has been given so far as it is not a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health. In this work, we have investigated orf outbreaks representing five different geographical locations of Ethiopia, in Amba Giorgis, Gondar zuria, Adet, Debre zeit and Adami Tulu, between 2008 and 2013. Read More

    [Rapid selection of recombinant orf virus expression vectors using green fluorescent protein].
    Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2016 Jan;36(1):67-72
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.E-mail:
    Objective: To construct a universal, highly attenuated orf virus expression vector for exogenous genes using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter gene.

    Methods: The flanking regions of the ORFV132 of orf virus DNA were amplified by PCR to construct the shuttle plasmid pSPV-132LF-EGFP-132RF. The shuttle plasmid was transfected into OFTu cells and GFP was incorporated into orf virus IA82Delta 121 by homologous recombination. Read More

    [Orf nodules and immunosuppression: a case report and review of therapeutics].
    Rev Med Brux 2015 Sep-Oct;36(5):439-43
    In immunocompromised patient, parapoxvirus infection can be extensively necrotic and recurrent evolution. We describe a case of Orf nodule in a liver transplanted woman. We will consider the therapeutic options in case of infections by parapox in immunosuppressive patients, as described in the medical literature. Read More

    Orf virus IL-10 reduces monocyte, dendritic cell and mast cell recruitment to inflamed skin.
    Virus Res 2016 Feb 28;213:230-7. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) is a zoonotic parapoxvirus that causes pustular dermatitis of sheep, and occasionally humans. Despite causing sustained infections, ORFV induces only a transient increase in pro-inflammatory signalling and the trafficking of innate immune cells within the skin seems to be impaired. An explanation for this tempered response to ORFV infection may lie in its expression of a homolog of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10. Read More

    Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rH3L) of buffalopox virus in animal models.
    Antiviral Res 2016 Feb 23;126:108-16. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
    Pox Virus Laboratory, Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Regional Campus, Mukteswar, Nainital (District) 263138, Uttarakhand (UK), India.
    Buffalopox virus, a zoonotic Indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. H3L gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant H3L protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. Read More

    Evidence of zoonotic Poxviridae coinfections in clinically diagnosed papillomas using a newly developed mini-array test.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2016 Jan 23;28(1):59-64. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
    Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Bologna, Italy (Scagliarini, Casà, Gallina, Savini)Acobiom, Biopôle Euromédecine II, Montpellier Cedex 4, France (Trentin, Morent, Piquemal)Department of Virology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna "Bruno Ubertini", Brescia, Italy (Lavazza)Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia, Palermo, Italy (Puleio, Buttaci, Cannella, Purpari, Di Marco, Guercio).
    Our study describes a newly developed mini-array test for the rapid detection of poxviruses in animals and humans. The method is based on detection that combines target nucleic acid amplification by polymerase chain reaction and specific hybridization, using enzyme-linked antibodies, allowing identification of zoonotic orthopoxviruses and parapoxviruses in animal and human biological samples. With 100% specificity, the test rules out the possibility of cross-reactions with viral agents causing look-alike diseases. Read More

    Histopathological study and F1L gene sequence analysis of contagious ecthyma in small ruminants of Shiraz suburb, Iran.
    Trop Biomed 2015 Jun;32(2):335-43
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Contagious ecthyma, also known as Orf, is a common viral skin disease of sheep and goats caused by a Parapoxvirus. This research was conducted with the aims of histopathological study and genetic analysis of Orf virus with PCR technique based on F1L gene in 50 sheep and goats suspicious of contagious ecthyma in affected areas of Shiraz suburb. All 50 contagious ecthyma-like tissue samples were maintained in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, sectioned into 5μm slices and dyed with hematoxylin-eosine. Read More

    AIC649 Induces a Bi-Phasic Treatment Response in the Woodchuck Model of Chronic Hepatitis B.
    PLoS One 2015 14;10(12):e0144383. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States of America.
    AIC649 has been shown to directly address the antigen presenting cell arm of the host immune defense leading to a regulated cytokine release and activation of T cell responses. In the present study we analyzed the antiviral efficacy of AIC649 as well as its potential to induce functional cure in animal models for chronic hepatitis B. Hepatitis B virus transgenic mice and chronically woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infected woodchucks were treated with AIC649, respectively. Read More

    Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of caprine Orf virus in Malaysia.
    Virusdisease 2015 Dec 21;26(4):255-9. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
    Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor DE Malaysia.
    Orf virus is a DNA virus that causes contiguous ecthyma in goat and sheep. Infection of animals with this virus cause high mortality in young animals resulting in huge economic losses. In this study, we investigated an outbreak of Orf in a goat farm in Malaysia. Read More

    Development of a fluorescent probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Orf virus.
    Virol J 2015 Dec 2;12:206. Epub 2015 Dec 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, China.
    Background: Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of Orf (also known as contagious ecthyma or contagious papular dermatitis), a severe infectious skin disease in goats, sheep and other ruminants. The rapid detection of ORFV is of great importance in disease control and highly needed. A isothermal molecular diagnostic approach, termed recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), is considered as an novel and rapid alternative techonology to PCR assay. Read More

    Genome analysis of orf virus isolates from goats in the Fujian Province of southern China.
    Front Microbiol 2015 23;6:1135. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
    College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou, China.
    Orf virus (ORFV), a species of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes non-systemic, highly contagious, and eruptive disease in sheep, goat, and other wild and domestic ruminants. Our previous work shows orf to be ubiquitous in the Fujian Province of China, a region where there is considerable heterogeneity among ORFVs. In this study, we sequenced full genomes of four Fujian goat ORFV strains (OV-GO, OV-YX, OV-NP, and OV-SJ1). Read More

    Identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of poxvirus in skin lesions of southern right whale.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2015 Oct;116(2):157-63
    Laboratorio de Ecofisiología Aplicada al Manejo y Conservación, Centro Nacional Patagónico, CONICET, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina.
    Poxvirus skin disease has been reported in several species of cetaceans, principally in odontocetes, and a single report in mysticetes. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis in Peninsula Valdes, Argentina, show a variety of skin lesions of unknown etiology, and the number of these lesions has increased in recent years. Samples from dead whales were taken in order to establish the etiology of these lesions. Read More

    Generation and Selection of Orf Virus (ORFV) Recombinants.
    Methods Mol Biol 2016 ;1349:177-200
    Institute of Immunology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Südufer 10, Island of Riems, Greifswald, Germany.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is an epitheliotropic poxvirus, which belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus. Among them the highly attenuated, apathogenic strain D1701-V is regarded as a promising candidate for novel virus vector vaccines. Our recent work demonstrated that those ORFV-based recombinants were able to induce protective, long-lasting immunity in various hosts that are non-permissive for ORFV. Read More

    Effect of ORF119 gene deletion on the replication and virulence of orf virus.
    Acta Virol 2015 Sep;59(3):257-64
    Orf is a severe infectious disease of sheep and goats caused by orf virus (ORFV). To investigate the role of ORF119 gene of ORFV, we constructed ORFV with deleted ORF119 gene and LacZ as reporter gene (ORFV-Δ119-LacZ) via homologous recombination. The results showed that wild-type ORF-SHZ1 and ORFV-Δ119-LacZ deletion viruses replicated in Vero cells to similar titers. Read More

    Phylogenetic analysis of B2L gene of Egyptian orf virus from naturally infected sheep.
    Virusdisease 2015 Sep 12;26(3):147-50. Epub 2015 Jul 12.
    Veterinary Medicine Directorate-El Beheira, Ministry of Agriculture, Damanhour, Egypt.
    Orf is a viral disease caused by a parapoxvirus, affecting primarily sheep and goats and causes severe economic losses. In this study, a total of 500 sheep from a farm in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt were examined during spring, 2014. Out of them, 30 sheep showed clinical signs of orf virus infection. Read More

    Regulation of PACT-Mediated Protein Kinase Activation by the OV20.0 Protein of Orf Virus.
    J Virol 2015 Nov 9;89(22):11619-29. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
    Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Public Health, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR), a major component of the cellular antiviral system, is activated by the binding of either dsRNA or the cellular PKR activator, the PACT protein. The suppression of PKR activation is one of the main strategies that viruses employ to circumvent interferon signaling. Orf virus (ORFV), a parapoxvirus from the Poxviridae family, causes contagious pustular dermatitis in small ruminants. Read More

    Rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in Jilin Province China.
    J Vet Med Sci 2016 Jan 6;78(1):125-8. Epub 2015 Sep 6.
    College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Xincheng Street No.2888, Changchun 130118, P.R. China.
    The aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in Jilin Province, China, using the assay. A LAMP assay targeting a highly conserved region of the F1L gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (CEV). Three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of Jilin Province, China, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the LAMP assay. Read More

    Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.
    Vet Microbiol 2015 Dec 12;181(1-2):178-82. Epub 2015 Aug 12.
    Veterinary Faculty, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. Read More

    Phylogenetic analysis of three orf virus strains isolated from different districts in Shandong Province, East China.
    J Vet Med Sci 2016 Jan 27;77(12):1639-45. Epub 2015 Aug 27.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People's Republic of China.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, which is a zoonotic disease that affects sheep, goats, wild small ruminants and humans. Shandong Province in East China is one of the main producing areas in China for sheep and goats. Here, we conducted epidemiological surveys in different areas in this Province, isolated three orf virus strains, SDLC, SDTA and SDJN, from goat flocks and then analyzed the genetic evolution of these strains. Read More

    Isolation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Virion Core Protein of Orf Virus Strain NA1/11 As Potential Diagnostic Tool for Orf Viruses.
    Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother 2015 Aug;34(4):233-45
    Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou, People's Republic of China .
    Orf is caused by the orf virus (ORFV) and is a non-systemic, widespread disease afflicting sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recent outbreaks in sheep and goats in Jilin and other northern Chinese provinces raise concerns about orf control in China. Thirty-five hybridoma clones were constructed from splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with natural orf virus protein. Read More

    A case of human to human transmission of orf between mother and child.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2016 Jan 24;41(1):60-3. Epub 2015 Aug 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Burnley General Hospital, Burnley, Lancashire, UK.
    Orf is caused by a parapoxvirus. In adults, it is commonly associated with specific occupations, whereas cases in children tend to be associated with household or recreational exposure. Spontaneous recovery usually occurs within 6 weeks. Read More

    A Case of Orf Disease Complicated with Erythema Multiforme and Bullous Pemphigoid-Like Eruptions.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2015 29;2015:105484. Epub 2015 Jul 29.
    Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Department of Infectious Diseases, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
    Parapoxvirus infection in sheep and goats is usually referred to as contagious pustular dermatitis/ecthyma, or orf, and the corresponding human infection is referred to as orf. In humans, after a brief incubation period of 3 to 5 days, lesions begin as pruritic erythematous macules and then rise to form papules, often with a target appearance. Lesions become nodular or vesicular, and orf lesions often ulcerate after 14 to 21 days. Read More

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