21,404 results match your criteria Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis

A Case Report of Subclinical Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Castleman's Disease.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 11;22:e930948. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Castleman's disease is defined as a benign lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain origin. It is most commonly found in the area of mediastinum. Castleman's disease is classified based on pathological features into hyaline-vascular, plasma cell, and mixed variants, which the hyaline-vascular variant is the commonest in association with Myasthenia Gravis. Read More

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Chemotherapy-induced autoimmune-mediated encephalitis during germinoma treatment.

Brain Dev 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22 Miyakojima-hondori, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka 534-0021, Japan.

Background: Autoimmune mediated encephalitis (AME), which includes autoantibody-associated encephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, is a common cause of encephalitis as well as infectious encephalitis in children. AME may be triggered by autoimmune responses to paraneoplastic syndromes and infections. Infectious encephalitis associated with an immunocompromised status caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy is well recognized; however, there have been few reports on the relationship between AME and chemotherapy. Read More

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Idiopathic acute transverse myelitis in a middle-aged woman with progression to nadir in less than one hour.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 4;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Neurology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.

We report a case of a middle-aged woman, normally fit and well, presenting with acute onset neurological deficit with progression to nadir in <1 hour. Initial MRI spine showed no significant abnormality, although second MRI spine showed abnormal signal in three to four segments with no compressive lesion. CT aortic angiography excluded vascular or ischaemic abnormality. Read More

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Intrathecal drug delivery to treat intractable neuropathic pain following Sjögren's syndrome-induced transverse myelitis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26141

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Rationale: Transverse myelitis (TM) is a spinal cord inflammatory myelopathy that causes motor/sensory loss and urinary retention below the level of the affected spinal cord. Although a few case reports have described the control of neuropathic pain in patients with TM via spinal cord stimulation, no documented case regarding the control of severe allodynia following TM via intrathecal pump has been described.

Patient Concerns: A 37-year-old woman was referred to a pain clinic for severe intractable pain below the T5 level followed by Sjögren's syndrome-induced TM. Read More

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[Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes].

Rev Med Liege 2021 May;76(5-6):413-418

Professeur émérite, Université de Liège, Belgique.

Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes are non-metastatic complications of systemic cancers, often resulting from an immune response triggered by the crossed expression of neuronal antigens by tumour cells. Several neurological syndromes such as cerebellar degeneration, sensory neuronopathy, limbic encephalitis, encephalomyelitis or the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are most often paraneoplastic and require prompt cancer screening, particularly if the patient shows risk factors for cancer. Although there are many exceptions to this rule, a given syndrome is often associated with a particular antibody and the corresponding tumour. Read More

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Durvalumab-induced myocarditis, myositis, and myasthenia gravis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 31;15(1):278. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Scripps Clinic/Scripps Green Hospital, 10666 N Torrey Pines Rd 403C, La Jolla, CA, 92037-1027, USA.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective therapies for a wide range of malignancies. Their increased use has led to a wide range of immune-related adverse effects including skin, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, endocrine, cardiac, and neurologic complications.

Case Presentation: We present the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with non-small cell lung cancer who was admitted for dyspnea after two cycles of durvalumab. Read More

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78-year-old woman with opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome secondary to COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 05 28;14(5). Epub 2021 May 28.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, USA.

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Nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies associated with paraneoplastic disease in a neuropsychiatric patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 27;14(5). Epub 2021 May 27.

Psychiatry, Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies (alpha-3-AChR Ab) are associated with paraneoplastic syndromes when present in low elevations. These antibodies can be tested for as part of an autoimmune encephalopathy panel in neuropsychiatric patients; a mildly elevated titre of alpha-3-AChR Ab that may start as an incidental finding can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected cancer. While alpha-3-AChR Ab are most typically associated with thymomas and small cell lung cancer, the presence of these antibodies can suggest a diverse range of other cancers. Read More

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Tonifying spleen and replenishing kidney method of traditional Chinese medicine for myasthenia gravis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e25966

Chengdu Eighth People's Hospital (Geriatric Hospital of Chengdu Medical College).

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated disorder caused by dysfunction at the neuromuscular junction spreads. The main clinical features of this disease are fluctuating fatigue, and weakness of the skeletal muscles of the eyes and limbs. At present, the tonifying the spleen and replenishing the kidney method in traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used for MG. Read More

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Myasthenia gravis and prostatic neoplasia: a rare association.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 21;14(5). Epub 2021 May 21.

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Portugal

An 88-year-old male patient presented with left ptosis, diplopia, muscle weakness of the lower limbs, dysphagia for solids, dysphonia and constipation. On investigation, he was found to have myasthenia gravis (MG). Further evaluation for the possible cause of MG, with CT scan, revealed that the patient had concomitant prostatic cancer. Read More

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Macrophage Activation Syndrome in a Case of Myasthenia Gravis with Concurrent Cytomegalovirus Infection.

Acta Neurol Taiwan 2020 Dec;29(4):114-118

Department of Neurology, Shin Kong Wu Ho- Su Memorial Hospital.

Objective: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or reactive hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) refers to a set of clinical symptoms caused by the excessive activation and proliferation of macrophages. It was linked with autoimmune disease such as systemic-onset juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatomyositis, etc. Herein we report a case of myasthenia gravis (MG) with concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection developed MAS. Read More

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December 2020

Spinal cord stimulator for neuropathic pain in a patient with severe disability due to transverse myelitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 19;14(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Medical Department, Fundacion Cambiando Vidas, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.

Transverse myelitis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that disrupts nerve signals' conduction. The illness is characterised by weakness in the lower limbs accompanied by paresthesia and urinary and bowel incontinence. The most disabling sequel is the onset of chronic neuropathic pain, which can severely limit the patient's independence and negatively affect her quality of life. Read More

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Risk of subsequent atrial fibrillation in patients with myasthenia gravis: A population-based cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(20):e26008

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between myasthenia gravis (MG) and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in an Asian population. The risk was analyzed in a cohort of 5528 patients with history of MG and 5528 individuals without MG using a hospitalization claim dataset. Both groups were matched by age, sex, index year and baseline comorbidities as an original analysis. Read More

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[Paraneoplastic Disorders of the Central Nervous System].

Akio Kimura

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):620-630

Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are neurological disorders that occur as indirect immune-mediated responses to malignancies. The increased number of patients with PNS correlates with the discovery of an increasing number of novel autoantibodies associated with PNS. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have expanded the range of cancers strongly associated with PNS has likely increased the frequency of PNS diagnoses. Read More

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[Anti-VGKC Complex Antibodies and Limbic Encephalitis].

Keiko Tanaka

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):605-610

Department of Animal Model Development, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies are now understood to be antibodies against associated proteins leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and are detected using a cell-based assay. Anti-LGI1 or anti-CASPR2 antibody-positive patients present characteristics of limbic encephalitis, which is usually seen in middle-aged men and women who present with mainly amnesia and seizures. Faciobrachial dystonic seizures are seen specifically in LGI1 antibody-positive patients, and neuromyotonia is predominantly seen in CASPR2 antibody-positive patients. Read More

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[Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis].

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):595-604

Department of Neurology, Kitasato University.

Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against the extracellular conformational epitope of the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR (GluN1 antibodies). A series of autoantibodies directed against neuronal surface (NS) or synaptic proteins play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of post-herpes simplex encephalitis (post-HSE), overlapping autoimmune encephalitis and demyelinating syndrome, epileptic seizures, psychosis, involuntary movements (orofacial and limb dyskinesias, catatonia, dystonia, chorea, myoclonus, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and faciobrachial dystonic seizures), postpartum psychosis, stiff-person spectrum disorder (including progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus [PERM]), cerebellar ataxia, and sleep behavior disorders. These NS antibodies are identified with cell-based assays and immunohistochemistry using nonperfused paraformaldehyde-fixed rodent brain tissue. Read More

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[Therapeutic Apheresis in Neurological Disorders].

Yuji Nakatsuji

Brain Nerve 2021 May;73(5):425-430

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama.

Therapeutic apheresis is a valuable therapeutic option for various immune-mediated human disorders. Its therapeutic rationale is based on the removal of pathogenic autoantibodies and inflammatory molecules, such as complements, cytokines, and chemokines, that accelerate the disease activity. At the same time, other mechanisms of immune-modulatory effects have also been suggested. Read More

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Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis with Serum Anti-Thyroid Antibodies: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Case Rep 2021 May 17;22:e931104. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University Hospital of Bari, Bari, Italy.

BACKGROUND Anti-N methyl D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDArE) is a disorder in which triggers such as infectious agents or neoplastic disease can lead to an autoimmune response against the nervous system, although this disorder is usually idiopathic. Some patients with anti-NMDArE have evidence of other autoimmune alterations. Here, we present a case of non-paraneoplastic anti-NMDArE with elevation of serum anti-thyroid antibodies and a literature review of this association. Read More

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Expression and Clinical Significance of miR-146a and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) in Myasthenia Gravis Patient Serum.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:5573469. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of General Medicine, Foshan First People's Hospital, Foshan City, Guangdong Province, 528000, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of miR-146a and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in myasthenia gravis (MG) patient serum.

Methods: The serum of 52 patients with MG and 60 healthy individuals was collected in our hospital. The expression of miR-146a and TRAF6 in serum was measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Read More

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Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: a rare case report and literature review.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211014784

Unit of Otorhinolaryngology, University Luigi Vanvitelli, Napoli, Italy.

This current report describes a rare clinical case of neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the larynx with associated Lambert-Eaton myasthenic paraneoplastic syndrome (LEMS). A 68-year-old male patient presented with severe dysphonia and dysphagia. He underwent a total laryngectomy and the excised lesion was extremely large. Read More

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Acute Transverse Myelitis (ATM):Clinical Review of 43 Patients With COVID-19-Associated ATM and 3 Post-Vaccination ATM Serious Adverse Events With the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine (AZD1222).

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:653786. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Neurosurgery Service, Complejo Hospitalario Metropolitano, CSS, Panama City, Panama.

Introduction: Although acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition (1.34-4.6 cases per million/year) COVID-19-associated ATM cases have occurred during the pandemic. Read More

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[Stanford Type A Acute Aortic Dissection with Myasthenia Gravis:Report of a Case].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Feb;74(2):139-141

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Otakanomori Hospital, Kashiwa, Japan.

The patient was a 76-year-old man with myasthenia gravis (MG). He suffered from a sudden back pain, and was diagnosed with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection. We performed emergency graft replacement of the ascending aorta under cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic circulatory arrest. Read More

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February 2021

Anti-Ma paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 11;14(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

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Encephalomyelitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):91-97

Department of Neurology, Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, Warsaw, Poland.

Encephalitis/encephalomyelitis in the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a matter of debate. We present a case of a patient with encephalomyelitis associated with RA confirmed with post-mortem neuropathological examination. A 68-year-old woman with a long-standing, seropositive history of RA presented progressive disturbances of consciousness. Read More

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January 2021

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes.

Franz Blaes

Expert Rev Neurother 2021 Jun 27;21(6):675-686. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurology, KKH Gummersbach, Gummersbach, Germany.

: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are a rare heterogeneous group of neurological diseases associated with tumors. These syndromes are the result of a cross-reactive immune response against antigens shared by the tumor and the nervous system. The discovery of an increasing number of autoantigens and the identification of tumoral factors leading to a substantial antitumoral immune response makes this topic highly innovative. Read More

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[A Case of Detrusor Hyperactivity with Impaired Contractility (DHIC) after Transverse Myelitis].

Hinyokika Kiyo 2021 Mar;67(3):109-112

The Department of Urology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine.

A 44-year-old man was carried to the hospital in an ambulance because of dyspnea, paralysis and dysuria after signs of the flu. Acute encephalomyelitis was diagnosed by examination of magnetic resonance imaging. Antimicrobial treatment and respirator management was carried out with indwelling of urethral catheter for urinary retention. Read More

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A case report of COVID-19 in refractory myasthenia: Outcome with remdesivir and dexamethasone.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25701

Department of Neurology, University of Missouri Health Care, Missouri.

Rationale: Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and its complications due to chronic immunosuppression. COVID-19 infection can also increase the risk of myasthenia exacerbation.

Patient Concerns: The patient presented with respiratory distress, fever and chills and was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as a paraneoplastic syndrome: a rare and challenging diagnosis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 4;14(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

Neurology Department, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an uncommon antibody-mediated disease of the central nervous system, often associated with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). NMOSD may present as a subacute myelopathy, progressing over days with MRI revealing a contiguous inflammatory lesion of the spinal cord, ≥3 vertebral segments, a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. We describe an unusual paraneoplastic form of AQP4-Ab NMOSD that developed in a patient with an advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Read More

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