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    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease With Unilateral Symptoms in the Setting of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    Neurologist 2017 Jul;22(4):131-133
    Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
    Introduction: Although it is not rare for magnetic resonance imaging findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to be asymmetric, unilateral clinical syndromes are uncommonly reported and may confound diagnosis. In addition, neurological paraneoplastic syndromes are not common in renal cell carcinoma, though there are cases reported, often without an offending antibody isolated.

    Case Report: A 66-year-old man was admitted with 1 month of left-sided numbness and "loss of control" of the left arm. Read More

    Inclusion Body Myositis: A Case Presenting with Respiratory Failure and Autopsy Findings Leading to the Hypothesis of a Paraneoplastic Cause.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Jun 23;18:700-706. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.
    BACKGROUND Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common acquired myopathy seen in adults aged over 50 years, with a prevalence estimated at between 1 and 70 per million. Weakness of the diaphragm with loss of vital capacity is almost universal in IBM. This is almost always asymptomatic. Read More

    Nailfold Capillaroscopy Within and Beyond the Scope of Connective Tissue Diseases.
    Curr Rheumatol Rev 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Justus-Liebig University Gießen, Kerckhoff Clinic, Bad Nauheim. Germany.
    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a noninvasive instrumental method for morphological analysis of the nutritive capillaries in the nailfold area. In rheumatology, it is a method of choice among instrumental modalities for differentiation of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in rheumatic diseases. RP is a common diagnostic problem in rheumatology. Read More

    Sclerosing Mesenteritis Causing Chylous Ascites and Small Bowel Perforation.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Jun 22;18:696-699. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY, USA.
    BACKGROUND Sclerosing mesenteritis (SM) is a rare idiopathic inflammation and fibrosis of the mesentery. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. It has been linked to abdominal trauma related to peritoneal dialysis, recent abdominal surgery, idiopathic inflammatory disorder, paraneoplastic syndrome, ischemia/infection, and autoimmunity. Read More

    Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation: Case report and literature review.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Eye Pathology Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare paraneoplastic intraocular disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients driven by an IgG factor associated with an underlying malignancy. Characteristic ocular findings include exudative retinal detachment, rapid cataract formation and uveal melanocytic tumours. The awareness and documentation of BDUMP has increased during the past decade, and the increasing amount of data collected demonstrates the effect of treatment with plasmapheresis and the value of diagnostic tools in BDUMP such as genetic and immunologic investigations. Read More

    AUTOIMMUNE LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS (CASE REPORTS).
    Georgian Med News 2017 May(266):69-74
    1Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Hospital Medicine; 2Division of Neurology Atlanta, USA.
    Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune or paraneoplastic disease that affects the medial temporal lobes. The patient will usually present with cognitive impairment, psychiatric changes, and seizures. Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE) is a challenging diagnosis as it is not always included in the typical paraneoplastic/autoimmune panels. Read More

    Pure small cell recurrent prostate cancer developing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
    Tumori 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan - Italy.
    Purpose: Pure small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is a rare entity characterized by a poor prognosis due to early metastatic spread as well as resistance to treatment. Considering its increasing occurrence, clinicians should be aware of its aggressive behavior, the relevance of an early diagnosis, and proper management.

    Methods: A 71-year-old man treated with brachytherapy for localized low-risk prostate cancer developed widespread disease 7 years later with a prostate-specific antigen-negative neuroendocrine small cell phenotype. Read More

    The Utility of FDG-PET/CT in Clinically Suspected Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome: A Literature Review and Retrospective Case Series.
    Front Neurol 2017 1;8:238. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Neurology, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) describes a spectrum of rare, heterogeneous neurological conditions associated with an underlying malignancy. Diagnosis of PNS is inherently difficult, with frequent misdiagnosis and delay. The literature suggests an underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology, and patients are usually tested for the presence of onconeural antibodies. Read More

    Stauffer's Syndrome in Pancreatic Cancer: First Case Report.
    Cureus 2017 May 8;9(5):e1230. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Hematology/Oncology, Tufts Medical Center.
    Stauffer's syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome classically associated with renal cell carcinoma. It presents as abnormal hepatic panel in the absence of hepatic disease, which improves with treatment of the cancer and worsens with recurrence. Here, we describe a case of hepatic panel abnormalities in a patient with pancreatic cancer with no evidence of metastatic disease to the liver, primary hepatobiliary etiology, or clear offending medications. Read More

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS): a rare autoimmune presynaptic disorder often associated with cancer.
    J Neurol 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico, Via Giovanni Celoria, 11, 20133, Milan, Italy.
    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder that is related to the loss of functional P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) on presynaptic nerve terminals. Up to 60% of cases occur as a paraneoplastic disorder (SCLC-LEMS), most commonly in association with small cell lung cancer. The remaining cases have an idiopathic non-tumor etiology but are associated with underlying autoimmune disease (NT-LEMS). Read More

    Aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with esophageal cancer.
    J Neuroimmunol 2017 Aug 17;309:38-40. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Neurology, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan. Electronic address:
    Autoimmune diseases are sometimes associated with neoplasms. A 70-year-old Japanese woman with myelitis, seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody, was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD); thereafter an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was identified. Immunohistochemically, her cancer was anti-AQP4 antibody negative. Read More

    Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017 May;27(5):313-315
    Department of Pediatrics, Lahore General Hospital/PGMI, Lahore.
    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Read More

    Synchronous Adie's syndrome and type 1 antineuronal nuclear antibody (anti-Hu)-related paraneoplastic neurological syndromes as predictors of complete response in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer: A case report.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2017 Jun 8;6(6):921-924. Epub 2017 May 8.
    School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Adie's syndrome (AS) and paraneoplastic sensorimotor neuropathy with cerebellar ataxia (PSN CA) are extremely rare, rapidly progressive, autoimmune diseases associated with the development of antibodies against neuronal-specific Hu proteins that are abnormally expressed in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We herein present the unique case of a 55-year-old obese woman, previous heavy smoker, who, during treatment with standard cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited-stage SCLC, developed simultaneous AS and worsening symptoms consistent with PSN CA that led to significant neurological disability and severe axonal electrophysiological pattern on nerve conduction studies. Serology confirmed the presence of low-titre type 1 antineuronal nuclear antibodies (ANNA-1), previously referred to as anti-Hu antibodies. Read More

    Neurologic Complications of Lymphoma, Leukemia, and Paraproteinemias.
    Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 Jun;23(3, Neurology of Systemic Disease):669-690
    Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the spectrum of neurologic complications associated with lymphoma, leukemia, and paraproteinemic disorders. While leptomeningeal metastasis is the most common complication of lymphoma and leukemia and peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of paraproteinemic disorders, clinicians need to be familiar with the diverse neurologic complications of these disorders.

    Recent Findings: Lymphomatous nervous system involvement can be difficult to diagnose, especially when it is the presenting symptom. Read More

    Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System.
    Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 Jun;23(3, Neurology of Systemic Disease):627-653
    Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making.

    Recent Findings: The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets. Many commercial laboratories can now test for these antibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers of diverse neurologic disorders that occur on an autoimmune basis. Read More

    Paraneoplastic Hypocalcemia Developed in Gastric Cancer Accompanied by Osteoblastic Metastasis.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(11):1345-1349. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Oncology, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan.
    Paraneoplastic syndromes are generally defined as clinical disorders associated with malignant diseases, and hypocalcemia associated with cancer is a rare condition. A woman in her 60s was referred to our hospital for the further examination of massive ascites due to carcinoma of unknown primary origin. She complained of numbness around her lips, and marked hypocalcemia of 5. Read More

    Case Report: Encephalitis, with Brainstem Involvement, Following Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma.
    Oncologist 2017 Jun 30;22(6):749-753. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other cancers. With the use of such therapies, autoimmune-mediated adverse events in the central and peripheral nervous system are likely to occur more frequently. We report a unique case of brainstem encephalitis with a sudden lethal outcome following ipilimumab and pembrolizumab therapy in a patient with malignant melanoma. Read More

    Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies.
    Case Rep Neurol 2017 Jan-Apr;9(1):54-61. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Medicine, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY, USA.
    Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Read More

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of malignancy in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2017 May 27. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Purpose: The detection of occult cancer in patients suspected of having a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) poses a diagnostic challenge. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of FDG PET for the detection of occult malignant disease responsible for PNS.

    Methods: A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and DARE) was undertaken to identify studies published in any language. Read More

    Autoimmune Encephalopathy for Psychiatrists: When to Suspect Autoimmunity and What to Do Next.
    Psychosomatics 2017 May - Jun;58(3):228-244. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:
    Objective: To provide a critical review of autoimmune encephalopathy-broadly defined as neuropsychiatric features directly related to an autoimmune process-relevant for psychiatric practice.

    Methods: We consulted rheumatology textbooks to define the scope of autoimmune conditions and identified recent reviews of rheumatic conditions, autoimmune vasculitis, and autoimmune encephalitis. We integrated these with primary reports to provide a clinically relevant overview of autoimmune encephalopathy. Read More

    Evolution, immunity and the emergence of brain superautoantigens.
    F1000Res 2017 21;6:171. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Bank of Tissues and Cells, Lyon University Hospital (Hospices Civils de Lyon), CarMeN Laboratory, INSERM 1060, INRA 1397, INSA Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Lyon, F-69000, France.
    While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Read More

    [Small cell lung cancer associated with multiple paraneoplastic syndromes].
    Biomedica 2017 Jan 24;37(1):8-10. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic AZ, Scottsdale, United States of America.
    We report the case of a patient presenting with multiple severe electrolyte disturbances who was subsequently found to have small cell lung cancer. Upon further evaluation, she demonstrated three distinct paraneoplastic processes, including the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, Fanconi syndrome, and an inappropriate elevation in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). The patient underwent one round of chemotherapy, but she was found to have progressive disease. Read More

    Subacute Noninfective Inflammatory Encephalopathy: Our Experience and Diagnostic Problems.
    Indian J Psychol Med 2017 Mar-Apr;39(2):183-187
    Department of Neuromicrobiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Introduction: Immune dysregulation associated encephalopathies present with significant psychiatric manifestations and only a few soft neurological and general systemic features. They are generally resistant to treatment with psychiatric medications. Generalized orthostatic myoclonus and faciobrachial dystonic seizures are mistaken as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Read More

    Autoimmune Voltage-Gated Potassium Channelopathy Presenting With Catecholamine Excess.
    Pediatr Neurol 2017 Jul 8;72:86-89. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, Maine Medical Center's Barbara Bush Children's Hospital, Portland, Maine.
    Background: Autoimmune voltage-gated potassium channelopathies have been associated with a range of neurological presenting symptoms, including central, peripheral, and autonomic dysfunction.

    Patient Description: We describe a 12-year-old boy who presented with nine months of pain, anxiety, and 30-pound weight loss. He was admitted for failure to thrive, then noted to be persistently hypertensive and tachycardic. Read More

    Video-assisted extirpation of cranial mediastinal masses in dogs: 18 cases (2009-2014).
    J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017 Jun;250(11):1283-1290
    OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes in dogs undergoing extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and establish preliminary guidelines for case selection when considering VATS for thymectomy in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs that underwent extirpation of a cranial mediastinal mass by means of VATS at 5 academic referral hospitals from 2009 through 2014. Read More

    Demographic characteristics, aetiology, and assessment of treatment options in leukocytoclastic vasculitis.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Apr 13;34(2):104-109. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Dermatovenereology, Medical Faculty, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Introduction: Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of the blood vessel walls. Etiological factors include infections, drugs, connective tissue diseases, and malignancies.

    Aim: To examine the demographic characteristics, etiological factors, and treatment options in 75 patients with leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Read More

    Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Appearing as a New-Onset Psychosis: Disease Course in Children and Adolescents Within the California Encephalitis Project.
    Pediatr Neurol 2017 Jul 4;72:25-30. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Department of Psychiatry, UCSF-Fresno, Fresno, California.
    Background: Given that psychiatric symptoms are common, not only during the course of the illness but also on presentation, in children and adolescents with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, it is important that practitioners possess an adequate understanding of the clinical features and potential treatment of this disease. We describe the clinical characteristics of 24 patients who presented to the California Encephalitis Project.

    Methods: Patients were referred by physicians, and standardized forms were used to gather demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Read More

    Impact of Autoantibodies against Glycolytic Enzymes on Pathogenicity of Autoimmune Retinopathy and Other Autoimmune Disorders.
    Front Immunol 2017 28;8:505. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    School of Medicine, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    Autoantibodies (AAbs) against glycolytic enzymes: aldolase, α-enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase are prevalent in sera of patients with blinding retinal diseases, such as paraneoplastic [cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR)] and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathies, as well as in many other autoimmune diseases. CAR is a degenerative disease of the retina characterized by sudden vision loss in patients with cancer and serum anti-retinal AAbs. In this review, we discuss the widespread serum presence of anti-glycolytic enzyme AAbs and their significance in autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma under immune checkpoint blockade.
    BMC Cancer 2017 May 12;17(1):327. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Dermatology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Gudrunstr. 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany.
    Background: Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome (PAVS) is a rare phenomenon which is observed in patients with adenocarcinomas and other malignancies. Various potential pathogenic mechanisms such as tumour invasion of sympathetic nerves, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, vasoactive tumour-secreted substances, and immunological mechanisms have been suggested.

    Case Presentation: We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male attended our hospital with a bulky lymph node mass in the right axilla. Read More

    Pemphigus.
    Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017 May 11;3:17026. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Dermatology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
    Pemphigus is a group of IgG-mediated autoimmune diseases of stratified squamous epithelia, such as the skin and oral mucosa, in which acantholysis (the loss of cell adhesion) causes blisters and erosions. Pemphigus has three major subtypes: pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus and paraneoplastic pemphigus. IgG autoantibodies are characteristically raised against desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3, which are cell-cell adhesion molecules found in desmosomes. Read More

    Diagnosing neuroleukemiosis: Is there a role for (18)F-FDG-PET/CT?
    Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    PET Unit, Department of Nuclear Medicine - IDI, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
    An imaging case is presented on a patient referred to our department for an (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, as a paraneoplastic syndrome was suspected due to his clinical situation. He had a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated two years earlier, with sustained complete remission to date. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT findings revealed hypermetabolism in almost all nerve roots, suggesting meningeal spread, consistent with the subsequent MRI findings. Read More

    Juvenile dermatomyositis/polymyositis and lymphoma.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Jun 27;377:19-24. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medicine/New York Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065-4885, USA. Electronic address:
    In patients with juvenile dermatomyositis/polymyositis (JDM/PM), malignancy is a rare phenomenon. An extensive workup for neoplastic disease is not routinely indicated, but should be considered if unusual physical findings are noted at JDM/PM diagnosis or during follow-up period. The objective of this literature review was to assess for any association between, and disease profile of, JDM/PM and lymphoma in childhood. Read More

    Atypical thymic carcinoid manifesting with nephrotic-range proteinuria in a 7-year-old boy.
    Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Aug 5;32(8):1465-1468. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Nephrology and Hypertension, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 27/33 Szpitalna Str, 60-572, Poznan, Poland.
    Background: Nephrotic-range proteinuria as a paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) is an exceptional presentation, especially in children. It is usually associated with hematologic malignancies. Solid tumors are very rare causes of proteinuria. Read More

    Managing Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated Paraneoplastic Syndrome with Nephron-sparing Surgery in a Patient with von Hippel-Lindau.
    Urol Case Rep 2017 Jul 27;13:101-103. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bldg. 10, Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Rm 2 W-3952 10 Center Drive MSC 1210, 20892-1210, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    A patient with germline von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene alteration and history of multiple tumors present with classical paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). She underwent open nephron sparing surgery with resolution of symptoms. She remained without recurrence of RCC for the initial 2 years of her follow-up. Read More

    A Case of Sweet's Syndrome Secondary to Myelodysplastic Syndrome - Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges.
    Maedica (Buchar) 2016 Jun;11(2):154-157
    Department of Onco-hematology, "Maria Sklodowska Curie" Children's Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.
    Sweet's Syndrome also knows as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a rare skin's condition, that can occur either idiopathic or secondary. In the case of the latter, the syndrome can develop after certain malignancies (paraneoplastic syndrome), because of exposure to some medication or post infectious. It is more frequent in women aged between 30 and 50 years, but concerning children, the disorder is extremely rare (8% of the total number of cases), having equal sex ratio distribution. Read More

    Octreotide Is Ineffective in Treating Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia: Results of a Short-Term Therapy.
    J Bone Miner Res 2017 Apr 29. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Skeletal Clinical Studies Unit, Craniofacial and Skeletal Disease Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome in which unregulated hypersecretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) by phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMT) causes renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and osteomalacia. The resulting mineral homeostasis abnormalities and skeletal manifestations can be reversed with surgical resection of the tumor. Unfortunately, PMTs are often difficult to locate, and medical treatment with oral phosphate and vitamin D analogues is either insufficient to manage the disease or not tolerated. Read More

    Cochlear Impairment and Autoimmune Ear Disorder in a Patient with Breast Cancer.
    Audiol Res 2017 Feb 13;7(1):165. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Tinnitus Center, European Hospital, Rome.
    The purpose of this study was to consider the possible role of autoimmune diseases and paraneoplastic syndrome in the genesis of tinnitus. The incidence of autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of hearing impairment and dizziness. In presence of auditory and vestibular deficit in oncological patients, a paraneoplastic syndrome with cochleovestibulopathy should be considered. Read More

    [Polyneuropathy in the elderly].
    Z Gerontol Geriatr 2017 Jun 28;50(4):347-361. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Universitätsklinik für Geriatrie, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Salzburg, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität, Ignaz-Harrer-Str. 79, 5020, Salzburg, Österreich.
    The peripheral nervous system is subject to changes during the ageing process, e. g. deep tendon reflexes decrease, as does proprioception. Read More

    βhCG-secreting osteosarcoma.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Apr 28;2017. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    A 35-year-old woman presented to our institution with tender, right knee swelling. Radiological and pathological work-up revealed metastatic osteosarcoma. Prior to the initiation of chemotherapy, she underwent a routine urine pregnancy test and was surprised with a positive result. Read More

    Motor neuropathies and lower motor neuron syndromes.
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 2017 May 20;173(5):320-325. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Reference Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases and ALS, University Hospital La Timone, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France. Electronic address:
    Motor or motor-predominant neuropathies may arise from disease processes affecting the motor axon and/or its surrounding myelin. Lower motor neuron syndrome (LMNS) arises from a disease process affecting the spinal motor neuron itself. The term LMNS is more generally used, rather than motor neuronopathy, although both entities are clinically similar. Read More

    The role of tumor board conferences in neuro-oncology: a nationwide provider survey.
    J Neurooncol 2017 Apr 18. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W Grand Blvd, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.
    The tumor board or multidisciplinary cancer meeting (MCM) is the foundation of high value multidisciplinary oncology care, coordinating teams of specialists. Little is known on how these meetings are implemented in Neuro-oncology. Benefits of MCMs include coordination, direction for complicated cases, education, and a forum for communication, emerging technology, and clinical trials. Read More

    Biotherapy in Inflammatory Diseases of the CNS: Current Knowledge and Applications.
    Curr Treat Options Neurol 2017 May;19(5):19
    Département de Neurologie, CHU de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Opinion Statement: Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Read More

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in a patient with extensive disease small-cell lung cancer.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2017 Apr 10;6(4):575-578. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Oncology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Krakow, Poland.
    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare disorder infrequently accompanying malignancy, coexisting in ~50% of the cases with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The pathomechanism of PLE is considered to be immune-mediated, with production of specific anti-Hu antibodies and activation of T-cells directed against onconeural antigens present on both tumor cells and neurons. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old male patient who, prior to being diagnosed with SCLC, presented with typical symptoms of PLE (seizures, subacute cognitive dysfunction with severe memory impairment, anxiety and hallucinations). Read More

    Cancer is a propagandist.
    Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 2017 Jun 11;63:28-31. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:
    Communication among cells (also known as cross-talk) plays a prominent role in the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of cancer and of cancer-associated conditions such as paraneoplastic syndromes and cachexia that are responsible for much of cancer's morbidity and mortality. Yet, biomedical scientists lack an explicit unifying frame that places this exchange of molecular information at the core of their understanding of cancer as a systemic disease. Propaganda is a type of information that aims at misleading, a form of communication intended primarily to serve the messenger. Read More

    An Unfortunate Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, Monoclonal Gammopathy, and Skin Change (POEMS).
    Cureus 2017 Mar 8;9(3):e1086. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine.
    POEMS syndrome is an acronym for polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin changes, which is a rare paraneoplastic disease of monoclonal plasma cells. A mandatory criterion to diagnose POEMS syndrome is the presence of a monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia in which plasma cell leukemia is the most aggressive form. Early identification of the features of the POEMS syndrome is critical for patients to identify an underlying plasma cell dyscrasias and to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease by providing early therapy. Read More

    Is tocilizumab a potential therapeutic option for refractory unicentric Castleman disease?
    Hematol Oncol 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Haematology, University Hospitals of Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK.
    Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder with 2 distinctly defined clinical forms. While multicentric Castleman disease (UCD) poses a potential therapeutic challenge, unicentric variant has historically been considered curable with surgical resection. Hence, little is known to guide management of patients with UCD, refractory to surgical resection and combination chemotherapy. Read More

    DRUG-INDUCED ORAL ULCERATIONS: CASE REPORT.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 Jun;55(2):334-7
    A 70-year-old patient was admitted to the Department of Oral Medicine for multiple oral ulcerations on the left buccal mucosa, around 0.5 cm in diameter, as well as on the gingiva. Otherwise, the patient suffered from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, chronic renal insufficiency, with complete afunction of the right kidney, asthma, hypertension, gastritis and prostate hyperplasia. Read More

    Paraneoplastic Pemphigus Associated with a Malignant Thymoma: A Case of Persistent and Refractory Oral Ulcerations Following Thymectomy.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Apr 24;29(2):219-222. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Cutaneous Biology Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a rare, life-threatening autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering disease associated with underlying neoplasia, commonly lymphoproliferative tumors. Herein we report a case of paraneoplastic pemphigus with a unique autoantibody profile associated with a malignant thymoma. A 56-year-old female patient presented with relapsing oral ulcerations accompanied by erythematous papules and patches on her extremities for 2 months. Read More

    Adaptive Immunity Is the Key to the Understanding of Autoimmune and Paraneoplastic Inflammatory Central Nervous System Disorders.
    Front Immunol 2017 23;8:336. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Department of Neurology, Neuroimmunology, University of Regensburg , Regensburg , Germany.
    There are common aspects and mechanisms between different types of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as well as paraneoplastic inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. To our present knowledge, depending on the disease, T and B cells as well as antibodies contribute to various aspects of the pathogenesis. Possibly the events leading to the breaking of tolerance between the different diseases are of great similarity and so far, only partially understood. Read More

    Paraneoplastic Glomerulopathy in a Case of Collecting Duct Renal Cell Carcinoma.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Feb 1;11(2):OD03-OD04. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Nephrology, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University , Manipal, Karnataka, India .
    Paraneoplastic glomerulopathy has been described in established cases of the solid tumors of lung, gastrointestinal system, breast, etc., and rarely in patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). Studies on secondary glomerular diseases have described a higher incidence of IgA nephropathy in patients with RCC compared to membranous glomerulopathy, which are commonly reported in malignancies of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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