7,812 results match your criteria Paraneoplastic Diseases

Not a Statin-Induced Myopathy: Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Presenting As Paraneoplastic Myositis.

Cureus 2022 May 15;14(5):e25016. Epub 2022 May 15.

Internal Medicine, Saint Francis Hospital, Hartford, USA.

Polymyositis is an inflammatory disease that causes bilateral proximal muscle weakness; unlike dermatomyositis, it is not usually associated with malignancy. However, there are a handful of case reports documenting polymyositis in patients with lymphoma, breast, lung, and bladder cancer. Here we report a case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma disguised by presenting as polymyositis. Read More

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Paraneoplastic encephalitis: clinically based approach on diagnosis and management.

Postgrad Med J 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Neuro-oncology, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 Villeurbanne, Lyon, France

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) comprise a subset of immune-mediated nervous system diseases triggered by an underlying malignancy. Each syndrome usually shows a distinct clinical presentation and outcome according to the associated neural antibodies. PNSs generally have a subacute onset with rapid progression and severe neurological disability. Read More

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Challenging case of tumour-induced osteomalacia.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 19;15(5). Epub 2022 May 19.

Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is an uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome which poses a diagnostic challenge. The hallmark feature is severe acquired hypophosphataemic osteomalacia due to renal phosphate wasting because of increased secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). A man in his 30s, presented with a 4-year history of severe muscle aches, bone pain and proximal muscle weakness, was referred for evaluation. Read More

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Guillain-Barré syndrome as an early manifestation of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 19;15(5). Epub 2022 May 19.

Division of Haematology, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare condition caused by autoimmune damage of peripheral nerves. We describe a case where a man in his 80s presented with subacute, progressive fatigue and weakness. He had received an outpatient work-up for possible haematological malignancy, but eventually presented to the emergency department for worsening weakness. Read More

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Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia Is a Late and Fatal Complication of Gastric Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Case-Control Study.

Oncologist 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that has been reported in patients with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Clinical and prognostic features of MAHA in this setting have been poorly described.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a systematic review in 8 databases of gastric SRCC complicated by MAHA and performed a case-control study assessing factors associated with survival in patients with gastric SRCC and MAHA in our pooled cohort compared with age-, sex-, and stage-matched cases of gastric SRCC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Read More

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Pathogenic mechanisms in neuronal surface autoantibody-mediated encephalitis.

J Neuroimmunol 2022 May 2;368:577867. Epub 2022 May 2.

Johns Hopkins Encephalitis Center, Division of Neuroimmunology and Neuroinfectious Diseases, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore 21287, MD, United States. Electronic address:

In recent years, autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface proteins has become a well-recognized phenomenon. Here, we describe clinical features and diagnosis of these conditions before turning to the mechanisms by which autoantibodies are generated and cause disease. The clinical syndrome typically evolves in a subacute fashion and is quite variable, although short-term memory loss, behavioral changes, and seizures are common. Read More

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Raynaud's phenomenon and positive antinuclear antibodies as first manifestation of POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes): a case report.

BMC Rheumatol 2022 May 19;6(1):26. Epub 2022 May 19.

Internal Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by plasma cell disorder almost always lambda restricted. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon is an overlooked skin manifestation of the disease even though it is present in twenty percent of patients. On POEMS syndrome have not been described positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and this could lead to a misdiagnosis of autoimmune disease, mainly systemic sclerosis. Read More

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βIV-Spectrin Autoantibodies in 2 Individuals With Neuropathy of Possible Paraneoplastic Origin: A Case Series.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2022 Jul 17;9(4). Epub 2022 May 17.

From the Weill Institute for Neurosciences (C.M.B., T.T.N., B.D.A., M.R.W., S.J. Pleasure), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (C.M.B., T.T.N.), Department of Neurology (B.D.A., M.R.W., S.J. Pleasure), UCSF School of Medicine (A.F.K.), University of California, San Francisco; Department of Neuroscience (L.H.T., M.N.R.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of California, Irvine; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub (J.L.D.), San Francisco, CA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (J.L.D.), University of California, San Francisco; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (S.J. Pittock, D.D.), Department of Neurology (S.J. Pittock, D.D.), andCenter MS and Autoimmune Neurology (S.J. Pittock, D.D.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: To identify the autoantigen in 2 individuals with possible seronegative paraneoplastic neuropathy.

Methods: Serum and CSF were screened by tissue-based assay and panned for candidate autoantibodies by phage display immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq). The candidate antigen was validated by immunostaining knockout tissue and HEK 293T cell-based assay. Read More

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Onco-immuno-endocrinology: An emerging concept that links tumor, autoimmunity, and endocrine disease.

Yutaka Takahashi

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 9:101666. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijou-cho, Kashiihara, Nara, 634-8521, Japan. Electronic address:

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Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation: A systematic review of the literature analyzing the epidemiologic, clinical, and pathologic features of 45 cases.

Int J Lab Hematol 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

An indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP) is a rare benign disorder characterized by an abnormal expansion of immature T-cells, which morphologically can mimic malignancy. Since the first case was described in 1999, dozens more have been reported in the literature. However, the epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and biologic features of this disease have not been well described. Read More

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A Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Pleura.

Cureus 2022 Apr 12;14(4):e24062. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre, Basildon & Thurrock University Hospital, Mid and South Essex NHS Foundation Trust, Basildon, GBR.

A solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura (SFTP) is a rare pathology, frequently benign in nature, and is usually diagnosed incidentally on imaging. We herein describe the case of a previously fit and well, 35-year-old Caucasian lady, who presented to us with a history of progressively worsening shortness of breath. Her chest X-ray showed a near-complete opacification of the right hemithorax, with displacement of the mediastinum towards the left. Read More

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Immunotherapy for Management of Thymic Epithelial Tumors: A Double-Edged Sword.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Apr 20;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare thoracic cancers that are broadly classified as thymomas and thymic carcinomas. Surgery is the cornerstone of management for early-stage disease. There are a limited number of effective treatment options for patients with advanced or recurrent disease. Read More

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Recent advances in the diagnosis of immune mediated demyelinating neuropathies.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 May;65(Supplement):S310-S317

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Inflammatory neuropathies are a group of acquired neuropathies which could be due to autoimmune, infectious, paraneoplastic, or paraproteinemic etiology. The etiological diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathy is not simple, and often requires combination of clinical, electrophysiological, and histopathological findings to arrive at a precise diagnosis which is important for management of the disorder. Whereas there are comprehensive and sensitive panel of serological tests available for diagnosis of the infectious, paraneoplastic, paraproteinemic neuropathies, the diagnosis of immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathies remain a considerable challenge as there is both clinical and pathological overlap. Read More

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PNMA5 accelerated cellular proliferation, invasion and migration in colorectal cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(4):2231-2243. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, PR China.

Objectives: Paraneoplastic antigen Ma family (PNMA) is dysregulated in the pathological development of various cancers. However, the actions of PNMA member 5 (PNMA5) in cancers are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the biological actions of PNMA5 and its implication in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Read More

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Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers in Patients With Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney Based on mTORC1 Signaling Pathway-Related Genes.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 26;9:843234. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Urology, Kunming Children's Hospital, Kunming, China.

Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) is an infrequent malignant tumor in childhood, accounting for approximately 2% of all childhood kidney tumors. Although the development of current treatments, the overall survival (OS) rate of MRTK patients is only 25%. The aim of this research was to explore the prognostic value of genes associated with the mTORC1 signaling pathway in MRTK. Read More

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Paraneoplastic cast nephropathy associated with malignant prolactinoma: A case report and literature review.

Clin Nephrol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Malignant prolactinomas are very rare and are diagnosed when a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma has metastasized. We report on a 54-year-old man with a history of macroprolactinoma transforming into a pituitary carcinoma secreting both prolactin and growth hormone with metastases to the stomach, bone, lungs, retroperitoneum, and kidney. Reviewing the literature, this case is the first reporting of a pituitary carcinoma with biopsy-proven paraneoplastic cast nephropathy. Read More

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The novel concept of "Onco-Immuno-Endocrinology" led to the discovery of new clinical entity "paraneoplastic autoimmune hypophysitis".

Yutaka Takahashi

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Apr 26:101663. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Nara Medical University, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Japan. Electronic address:

Recent advances in tumor immunology have enabled to develop immune checkpoint inhibitors and to save many patients with advanced cancer. Various endocrine diseases are caused by autoimmune mechanisms; it is important to understand that many endocrine organs are targeted by autoimmunity. In addition, some of malignant tumors ectopically produce hormones and lead to a clinically relevant ectopic hormone syndrome as an endocrine paraneoplastic syndrome. Read More

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Severe Hypercalcemia as an Initial Presentation of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report.

Cancer Manag Res 2022 28;14:1577-1580. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Radiology Department, Mogadishu Somali Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Training and Research Hospital, Mogadishu, Somalia.

Background: It is extremely rare for hypercalcemia to appear as the first symptom of hepatocellular carcinoma. Instead, it occurs primarily as a paraneoplastic manifestation after the disease is already diagnosed.

Methods: In this report, we describe a 55-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of acute severe hypercalcemia and was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies. Read More

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Plasma lncRNA LOC338963 and mRNA AP3B2 are upregulated in paraneoplastic Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome.

Muscle Nerve 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Neurology, the First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Introduction/aims: Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) can regulate the expression of mRNA and is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, but few genetic studies are available. This study aimed to explore the lncRNA and mRNA changes of LEMS. Read More

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Aquaporin-4 protein antibody-associated optic neuritis related to neuroendocrine tumor after receiving an inactive COVID-19 vaccine.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 05;70(5):1828-1831

Department of Ophthalmology, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease, is a rare, autoimmune, and recurrent demyelinating disorder that primarily affects the spinal cord and optic nerve. We report a case with recurrent optic neuritis caused by the paraneoplastic NMO spectrum disorder in the setting of a gastric neuroendocrine tumor 2 weeks after receiving an inactive COVID-19 vaccine. Read More

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[A patient with erythroderma and pruritus: Sézary syndrome].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2022 02 16;166. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Maasstad Ziekenhuis, afd. Interne Geneeskunde, Rotterdam.

Background: Erythroderma could be the first sign of a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), such as Sézary syndrome. Causes of erythroderma include inflammatory dermatosis, toxicoderma, paraneoplastic erytroderma, and CTCL. Hence, diagnosing Sézary syndrome can be difficult. Read More

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February 2022

Reactive granulomatous dermatitis associated with ovarian cancer and a review of its role as a harbinger for malignancy.

Dermatol Online J 2021 Dec 15;27(12). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Reactive granulomatous dermatitis (RGD) is a rare dermatosis with a variety of cutaneous manifestations unified by a dermal granulomatous infiltrate on histology. Rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disease are classic associations, but an increasing number of cases have been attributed to covert malignancy. Only 41 cases of paraneoplastic RGD have been documented to our knowledge and we present an additional case that manifested eight months prior to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer and clinically mimicked morphea. Read More

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December 2021

A Novel Case of Idiopathic MGluR1 Encephalitis in a Pediatric Patient.

Child Neurol Open 2022 Jan-Dec;9:2329048X221095695. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

University of Louisville, Louisville, USA.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 (mGluR1) encephalitis is a rare encephalitis characterized by ataxia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, dysarthria and cognitive impairment. This disease process has been described in several adult patients and has been associated with paraneoplastic syndrome in Hodgkin's lymphoma and other cancers as well as parainfectious and underlying autoimmune etiologies. However, only two cases of anti-mGluR1 encephalitis in children have been reported in the literature. Read More

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Adenopathy and extensive skin patch overlying plasmacytoma syndrome-the clue to early diagnosis of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes: A case series and literature review.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2022 25;10:2050313X221091602. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital Montreal, QC, Canada.

Importance: Adenopathy and extensive skin patch overlying plasmacytoma syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by a cutaneous vascular patch overlying a plasmacytoma and systemic manifestations. It is thought to be an early stage of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes syndrome, which is a rare, but potentially fatal multisystemic disease that is associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. Thus, a high index of suspicion is required to identify patients with adenopathy and extensive skin patch overlying plasmacytoma as they may present with early polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes, which is curable if detected early. Read More

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[Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia accompanied by metachronous double primary cancer].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2022 ;63(4):254-259

Department of Hematology, Sasebo City General Hospital.

In about half of the cases, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is secondary to an underlying disease, often due to paraneoplastic syndromes. Recently, the number of patients developing metachronous multiple primary malignant tumors (MPMTs) has been increasing due to the aging of the population and the longer survival times of those with malignant tumors. A 78-year-old woman was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer in May 2017 and with warm AIHA in October 2017. Read More

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Clostridium septicum foot gangrene associated with colorectal cancer.


Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2022 Apr 1;43(1). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Introduction: Since the second half of the 20th century, an association between the occurrence of Clostridium septicum and Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in patients with colorectal cancer has been described in specialist literature. Infections are manifested by bacteremia, septic embolism, cellulitis, myonecrosis, and gas gangrene of the limbs.

Material And Methods: The authors present a case of a rare association between lower limb gangrene caused by the septic embolization of a Clostridium septicum infection and malignancy of colon ascendens in a polymorbid patient. Read More

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Pearls & Oy-sters: Gait Instability, Jaw Dystonia, and Horizontal Diplopia in a Woman With Anti-Ri Antibodies and Breast Cancer.

Neurology 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, London Health Sciences Centre, Schulich Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

A 40-year-old woman was admitted for six months of progressive gait disturbance, lower limb-predominant weakness, stiffness, falls, jaw dystonia, horizontal diplopia, and weight loss. Neurological examination revealed horizontal gaze paresis, limited jaw opening with palpable masseter hypertrophy, and spastic paraparesis with sustained clonus and upgoing plantar responses. MRI revealed T2-hyperintense signal abnormalities in dorsal pons, medulla and upper cervical cord central grey matter extending to C3, without gadolinium enhancement. Read More

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Update on the POEMS syndrome.

Yu Ri Kim

Blood Res 2022 Apr;57(S1):27-31

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

POEMS syndrome is an acronym for polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes. It is a rare paraneoplastic disorder related to plasma cell neoplasm. However, its pathophysiology has not yet been clearly elucidated. Read More

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Acute flaccid paralysis of a new surfer: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Apr 22;101(16):e29188. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba Queensland, Australia.

Rationale: Surfer's myelopathy is a rare atraumatic spinal cord injury most frequently experienced by novice surfers. Patients often experience back pain, followed by motor, sensory, bowel, and bladder involvement. Here, we report a case of surfer's myelopathy. Read More

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Gastric cancer complicated by paraneoplastic neurological syndrome which presented with extremity numbness: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2022 Apr 28;8(1):78. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery 1, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N-15, W-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

Background: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes refer to a group of neurological disorders, which occur as distant effects of malignant tumors and are not caused by metastasis, nutritional disorders, or side effects of antitumor drugs.

Case Presentation: A 70-year-old woman complained of a 1-month history of extremity numbness. Upon presentation to our hospital, she had worsening numbness, and experienced staggering and falling. Read More

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