30,082 results match your criteria Parainfluenza Virus


Virome of respiratory secretion from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease revealed recombinant human parechovirus and other significant viruses.

Virol J 2021 Jun 9;18(1):122. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Xuzhou Central Hospital, 199 Jiefangnan Road, Xuzhou, 221009, Jiangsu, China.

Using viral metagenomics, viral nucleic acid in 30 respiratory secretion samples collected from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease were investigated. Sequences showing similarity to human parainfluenza virus 1, anellovirus, bocavirus, coxsackievirus A4, human parechovirus (HPeV), and alphaflexivirus were recovered from these samples. Complete genomes of one anellovirus, one coxsackievirus A4, three parechoviruses were determined from these libraries. Read More

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Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 N protein promotes viral replication via inducing apoptosis.

Vet Microbiol 2021 May 24;259:109129. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Diagnosis, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, 210014, China; Institute of Life Sciences, School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens of goat. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that apoptosis is a cellular mechanism for the host response to pathogens, and it participates in regulating viral replication. However, there is little study on CPIV3-induced host cells apoptosis. Read More

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Human Coronavirus NL63 Among Other Respiratory Viruses in Clinical Specimens of Egyptian Children and Raw Sewage Samples.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Pediatric Department, Centre of Medical Excellence, Medical Research Division, NRC, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

The objective of this study was to investigate human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) prevalence among the other respiratory viruses such as parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and non-enteric adenoviruses in clinical specimens of Egyptian children and raw sewage samples. One hundred clinical specimens were collected from Egyptian children suffering from upper and lower respiratory viral infections in the years 2005-2006 to detect HCoV-NL63 genome using RT-PCR. All the specimens were negative for the virus. Read More

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COVID-19 public health measures and respiratory viruses in children in Melbourne.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Microbiology, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Aim: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in children before and during the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the relationship to public health measures instituted by the Victorian government.

Methods: Retrospective audit of respiratory viruses at a tertiary paediatric hospital in Melbourne from January 2015 up to week 47, 2020 in children under 18 years of age. The proportion of positive cases in weeks 1-47 in 2015-2019 (period 1) were compared to weeks 1-47, 2020 (period 2), and reviewed in the context of public health restrictions in Victoria. Read More

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Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPIV3) Enters HeLa Cells via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in a Cholesterol- and Dynamin-Dependent Manner.

Viruses 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Ruminant Diseases Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China.

Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV3) is a crucial causative agent of respiratory disease in young and adult cattle. No specific therapies are available for BPIV3 infection. Understanding the internalization pathway of the virus will provide a new strategy for the development of antiviral therapy. Read More

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Sendai Virus-Vectored Vaccines That Express Envelope Glycoproteins of Respiratory Viruses.

Viruses 2021 May 29;13(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678, USA.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are leading causes of respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and individuals of all ages with immunosuppression. Vaccination strategies against these pneumoviruses and paramyxoviruses are vast in number, yet no licensed vaccines are available. Here, we review development of Sendai virus (SeV), a versatile pediatric vaccine that can (a) serve as a Jennerian vaccine against HPIV1, (b) serve as a recombinant vaccine against HRSV, HPIV2, HPIV3, and HMPV, (c) accommodate foreign genes for viral glycoproteins in multiple intergenic positions, (d) induce durable, mucosal, B-cell, and T-cell immune responses without enhanced immunopathology, (e) protect cotton rats, African green monkeys, and chimpanzees from infection, and (f) be formulated into a vaccine cocktail. Read More

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Rapid disappearance of influenza following the implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures in Hamilton, Ontario.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2021 May 7;47(4):202-209. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.

Background: Public health measures, such as physical distancing and closure of schools and non-essential services, were rapidly implemented in Canada to interrupt the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to investigate the impact of mitigation measures during the spring wave of COVID-19 on the incidence of other laboratory-confirmed respiratory viruses in Hamilton, Ontario.

Methods: All nasopharyngeal swab specimens (n=57,503) submitted for routine respiratory virus testing at a regional laboratory serving all acute-care hospitals in Hamilton between January 2010 and June 2020 were reviewed. Read More

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A serosurvey for bovine respirovirus 3 in Turkish domestic ruminants: The first comparison study of A and C genotypes.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Veterinary Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey.

Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV-3), also known as bovine respirovirus 3, causes serious respiratory infection in ungulates, often involving other pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria and mycoplasmas. In this study, we evaluated antibody titers against virus genotypes A (BPIV-3a) and C (BPIV-3c). We conducted a serological survey and comparison analysis of archived serum samples from small and large ruminants reared in four Turkish provinces. Read More

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[Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Spectrum Study of 376 Pneumoconiosis Inpatients in Chengdu].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 May;52(3):467-471

Department of Public Health Laboratory Sciences, West China School of Public Health and West China Forth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate the status of infections caused by respiratory pathogens and the patterns of infections caused by pathogens in different seasons, age groups and stages of pneumoconiosis so as to explore the pathogen spectrum of respiratory tract infections in pneumoconiosis patients.

Methods: The sputum samples of 376 pneumoconiosis patients admitted to an occupational disease hospital in Chengdu between January, 2017 and October, 2019 were collected. Clinical information of the patients was collected and lab tests were conducted to check for 23 kinds of common respiratory viruses, bacteria and fungi in the sputum. Read More

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USP18 positively regulates innate antiviral immunity by promoting K63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS.

Nat Commun 2021 05 20;12(1):2970. Epub 2021 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province & Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, P. R. China.

Activation of MAVS, an adaptor molecule in Rig-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling, is indispensable for antiviral immunity, yet the molecular mechanisms modulating MAVS activation are not completely understood. Ubiquitination has a central function in regulating the activity of MAVS. Here, we demonstrate that a mitochondria-localized deubiquitinase USP18 specifically interacts with MAVS, promotes K63-linked polyubiquitination and subsequent aggregation of MAVS. Read More

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The effect of seasonal influenza vaccine on medically-attended influenza and non-influenza respiratory viruses infections at primary care level, Hong Kong SAR, 2017/18 to 2019/20.

Vaccine 2021 06 18;39(25):3372-3378. Epub 2021 May 18.

Communicable Disease Branch, Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV) varies with the degree of matching with the vaccine and circulating viruses. We continued our SIV effectiveness against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) under the Department of Health Hong Kong's sentinel private medical practitioners (PMP) network, using the test-negative case-control design, for the 2018/19 and 2019/20 season. In addition, we studied the potential interference between SIV and ILI caused by non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRV) based on data collated from 2017/18 to 2019/20 seasons. Read More

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Rapid disappearance of influenza following the implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures in Hamilton, Ontario.

medRxiv 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Background: Public health measures, such as social distancing and closure of schools and non-essential services, were rapidly implemented in Canada to interrupt the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: We sought to investigate the impact of mitigation measures during the spring wave of COVID-19 on the incidence of other laboratory-confirmed respiratory viruses in Hamilton, Ontario.

Methods: All nasopharyngeal swab specimens (n = 57,503) submitted for routine respiratory virus testing at a regional laboratory serving all acute-care hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario between January 2010 and June 2020 were reviewed. Read More

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December 2020

Seasonality of coronaviruses and other respiratory viruses in Canada: Implications for COVID-19.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2021 Mar 31;47(3):132-138. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.

Background: Like endemic coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to have emerged in humans from a zoonotic source and may ultimately develop a seasonal pattern. A seasonal pattern, particularly if combined with other seasonal outbreaks of respiratory virus infections, may have significant impacts on the healthcare system. We evaluated the seasonal pattern of existing endemic coronaviruses and several other common respiratory viruses to determine the potential impacts of added burden of respiratory disease should SARS-CoV-2 establish seasonality. Read More

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Shifting patterns of respiratory virus activity following social distancing measures for COVID-19 in South Korea.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: We hypothesized that nationwide social distancing and other preventive measures for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were associated with reduced detection of other respiratory viruses in South Korea.

Methods: We analyzed national surveillance data to compare incidence of respiratory viruses during 2016-2019 vs. 2020. Read More

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Respiratory Viral Pathogens Among U.S. Military Personnel at a Medical Treatment Facility in Hawaii From 2014 to 2019.

Mil Med 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859, USA.

Introduction: Acute respiratory diseases account for a substantial number of outpatient visits and hospitalizations among U.S. military personnel, significantly affecting mission readiness and military operations. Read More

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Incidence and Prognostic Factors of Respiratory Viral Infections in Severe Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 7;16:1265-1273. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pulmonology and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University and Regional Center for Respiratory Diseases, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea.

Purpose: Severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) that require hospitalization and emergency department visits are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Respiratory viral infection is an important cause of severe AECOPD. We evaluated the incidence and prognostic factors of viral infection in severe AECOPD. Read More

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Preventing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in children.

Authors:
Ruth A Karron

Science 2021 05;372(6543):686-687

Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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Microbial co-infections in COVID-19: Associated microbiota and underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jul 4;156:104941. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh; Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, 7408, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together, and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Read More

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Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus disease secondary to measles in an immunocompetent infant: A case report.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(15):1655-1663

Department of Pathology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen 518036, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs commonly in immunocompromised/immunodeficient patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, neoplasm, solid organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or treatment with immunosuppressants, but is rarely reported in association with measles infection.

Case Summary: We describe a case of extensive gastrointestinal CMV disease secondary to measles infection in a 9-mo-old boy who presented with persistent fever and bloody diarrhea. His condition was improved after ganciclovir treatment. Read More

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Epidemiology and factors associated with the severity of viral acute lower respiratory infection in children hospitalized in Manaus, Amazonas, in 2017-2018: An observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25799

Department of Pediatrics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract: To investigate the epidemiology and factors associated with the severity of viral acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children hospitalized in Manaus, Amazonas, in 2017 to 2018.Retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized at the Hospital and Emergency Room Delphina Rinaldi Abdel Aziz, in Manaus, from April 01, 2017 to August 31, 2018, with a clinical diagnosis of ALRI and nasopharyngeal aspirates positive for at least 1 respiratory virus.One hundred forty-six children aged 0. Read More

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Evaluation of Small Molecule Combinations against Respiratory Syncytial Virus In Vitro.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Microbial Technology Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen that causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised worldwide. At present no approved specific drugs or vaccines are available to treat this pathogen. Recently, several promising candidates targeting RSV entry and multiplication steps are under investigation. Read More

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Na/K-ATPase as a Target of Cardiac Glycosides for the Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Front Pharmacol 2021 15;12:624704. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal Do Estado Do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identified for the first time in Wuhan, China, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which moved from epidemic status to becoming a pandemic. Since its discovery in December 2019, there have been countless cases of mortality and morbidity due to this virus. Several compounds such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir-ritonavir, and remdesivir have been tested as potential therapies; however, no effective treatment is currently recommended by regulatory agencies. Read More

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Socioeconomic costs of children <5 years hospitalised with acute respiratory infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Vaccine 2021 05 28;39(22):2983-2988. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysian children < 5 years. Knowledge of associated economic costs is important for policymakers to determine cost-effectiveness of interventions, such as pneumococcal or influenza vaccines, which are underused in Malaysia.

Methods: Children < 5 years admitted with ARI to a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur were prospectively recruited between July 2013 and July 2015. Read More

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Effect of early measles vaccination on long-term protection: A systematic review.

Vaccine 2021 05 27;39(22):2929-2937. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: In North America, the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) is administered at ≥12 months of age. However, MCV1 may be given to infants <12 months living in highly endemic areas or traveling to these areas. Although an early dose of MCV1 leads to immediate protection, it remains unclear how this impacts long-term immunity. Read More

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Evaluation of Chitosan Derivatives Modified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Delivery Carrier.

Molecules 2021 Apr 24;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China.

Chitosan is a non-toxic biological material, but chitosan is insoluble in water, which hinders the development and utilization of chitosan. Chitosan derivatives -2-Hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (-2-HACC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with good water solubility were synthesized by our laboratory. In this study, we synthesized mesoporous SiO nanoparticles by the emulsion, and then the mesoporous SiO nanoparticles were modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to synthesize aminated mesoporous SiO nanoparticles; CMCS and -2-HACC was used to cross-link the aminated mesoporous SiO nanoparticles to construct [email protected] nanoparticles. Read More

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Passive Immunoprophylaxis against Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children: Where Are We Now?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 2;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Pediatric Emergency Unit, Scientific Institute for Research and Healthcare (IRCCS), Sant'Orsola Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represents the main cause of acute respiratory tract infections in children worldwide and is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants. RSV infection is a self-limiting condition and does not require antibiotics. However hospitalized infants with clinical bronchiolitis often receive antibiotics for fear of bacteria coinfection, especially when chest radiography is performed due to similar radiographic appearance of infiltrate and atelectasis. Read More

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Changes in Seasonal Respiratory Illnesses in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Health Informatics and Surveillance, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Background: Respiratory tract infections are common, often seasonal, and caused by multiple pathogens. We assessed whether seasonal respiratory illness patterns changed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We categorized emergency department (ED) visits reported to the National Syndromic Surveillance Program according to chief complaints and diagnosis codes, excluding visits with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. Read More

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Time Distributions of Common Respiratory Pathogens Under the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Among Children in Xiamen, China.

Front Pediatr 2021 12;9:584874. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Xiamen Key Laboratory of Neonatal Diseases, Xiamen Children's Hospital (Children's Hospital of Fudan University Xiamen Branch), Xiamen, China.

The aim of this study was to observe the effect of COVID-19 prevention and control measures on the transmission of common respiratory viruses in a pediatric population. This was a retrospective observational study. The study population was selected from children with respiratory diseases who attended Xiamen Children's Hospital from January 1, 2018 to January 31, 2021. Read More

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Respiratory syncytial virus in severe lower respiratory infections in previously healthy young Ethiopian infants.

BMC Pediatr 2021 04 28;21(1):201. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Pediatric Pulmonology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in infants. However, the burden of RSV is unknown in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the prevalence, seasonality and predictors of RSV infection in young infants with ALRI for the first time in Ethiopia. Read More

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Prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenoviruses in East Africa Community partner states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2007-2020).

PLoS One 2021 27;16(4):e0249992. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory-syncytial-virus, and adenoviruses are among the leading cause of ARTIs. Epidemiological evidence of those respiratory viruses is limited in the East Africa Community (EAC) region. Read More

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