31,613 results match your criteria Parainfluenza Virus

Uvulitis caused by parainfluenza virus.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jun 27;15(6). Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, Asahi, Chiba, Japan.

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Morbidity burden, seasonality and factors associated with the human respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, and human adenovirus infections in Kenya.

IJID Reg 2021 Dec 9;1:72-78. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), and human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a substantial morbidity burden globally.

Objective: We sought to estimate morbidity burden, assess seasonality, and determine factors associated with these respiratory viruses in Kenya.

Methods: The data were obtained from Kenyan sites included in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. Read More

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December 2021

Development of a three-panel multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of nine canine respiratory pathogens.

J Microbiol Methods 2022 Jun 23:106528. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States. Electronic address:

Infectious respiratory disease is one of the most common diseases in dogs worldwide. Several bacterial and viral pathogens can serve as causative agents of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), including Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2), canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine influenza virus (CIA) and canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV). Since these organisms cause similar clinical symptoms, disease diagnosis based on symptoms alone can be difficult. Read More

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Exploring the Mumps Virus Glycoproteins: A Review.

Viruses 2022 Jun 18;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.

The resurgence of mumps in vaccinated adult populations has raised concerns about possible waning vaccine immunity or a potential lack of protection to the circulating strain. A number of individual studies have investigated if there are amino acid variations between the circulating wild-type strains and vaccine strains. In these studies, the HN and F mumps surface glycoproteins have been of interest, because of their role in viral infection, and because the HN protein is the target of neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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Research Progress on Emerging Viral Pathogens of Small Ruminants in China during the Last Decade.

Viruses 2022 Jun 13;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory for Veterinary Bio-Product Engineering, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing 210014, China.

China is the country with the largest number of domestic small ruminants in the world. Recently, the intensive and large-scale sheep/goat raising industry has developed rapidly, especially in nonpastoral regions. Frequent trading, allocation, and transportation result in the introduction and prevalence of new pathogens. Read More

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Repurposing an In Vitro Measles Virus Dissemination Assay for Screening of Antiviral Compounds.

Viruses 2022 May 29;14(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Measles virus (MV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus responsible for outbreaks associated with significant morbidity and mortality among children and young adults. Although safe and effective measles vaccines are available, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in vaccination coverage gaps that may lead to the resurgence of measles when restrictions are lifted. This puts individuals who cannot be vaccinated, such as young infants and immunocompromised individuals, at risk. Read More

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Novel Vaccines and Drugs That Target the Surface Glycoproteins of Influenza Viruses, RSV, Parainfluenza Viruses, and SARS-CoV-2.

Viruses 2022 May 27;14(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678, USA.

 Newly emerging and seasonal respiratory viruses have a great impact on public health[... Read More

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Execution and Design of an Anti HPIV-1 Vaccine with Multiple Epitopes Triggering Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses: An Immunoinformatic Approach.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 29;10(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Malaysia.

Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) Type-1, which is an anti-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus belonging to the paramyxoviridae family, induces upper and lower respiratory tract infections. The infections caused by the HPIV Type-1 virus are usually confined to northwestern regions of America. HPIV-1 causes infections through the virulence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which plays a key role in the attachment of the viral particle with the host's receptor cells. Read More

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Elicitation of pneumovirus-specific B cell responses by a prefusion-stabilized respiratory syncytial virus F subunit vaccine.

Sci Transl Med 2022 Jun 22;14(650):eabo5032. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality globally. A candidate RSV prefusion (pre-F)-stabilized subunit vaccine, DS-Cav1, has previously been shown to elicit potent and durable neutralizing activity in a phase 1 clinical trial in healthy adults. Here, we used fluorescently labeled probes and flow cytometry to evaluate the antigen specificity and phenotype of RSV F-specific B cells longitudinally after DS-Cav1 immunization. Read More

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A Challenge to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Illness in Adults.

Marie R Griffin

N Engl J Med 2022 06;386(25):2427-2428

From the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville.

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Vaccine Efficacy in Adults in a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Challenge Study.

N Engl J Med 2022 06;386(25):2377-2386

From Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer Pharma, Berlin (B.S.-T.); Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Collegeville, PA (A.M.Z., Q.J., D.A.S.); Vaccine Research and Development, Pfizer, Pearl River, NY (M.S.M., A.C.G., K.U.J., W.C.G., P.R.D., K.A.S.); and hVIVO, London (R.D., A.M., K.E., J.F.-S., G.K., A.C.).

Background: Although human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of illness and death in older adults, no RSV vaccine has been licensed.

Methods: In a phase 2a study, we randomly assigned healthy adults (18 to 50 years of age), in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a single intramuscular injection of either bivalent prefusion F (RSVpreF) vaccine or placebo. Approximately 28 days after injection, participants were inoculated intranasally with the RSV A Memphis 37b challenge virus and observed for 12 days. Read More

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Nipah Virus Detection at Bat Roosts after Spillover Events, Bangladesh, 2012-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jul;28(7):1384-1392

Knowledge of the dynamics and genetic diversity of Nipah virus circulating in bats and at the human-animal interface is limited by current sampling efforts, which produce few detections of viral RNA. We report a series of investigations at Pteropus medius bat roosts identified near the locations of human Nipah cases in Bangladesh during 2012-2019. Pooled bat urine was collected from 23 roosts; 7 roosts (30%) had >1 sample in which Nipah RNA was detected from the first visit. Read More

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Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 infection in unvaccinated hospitalized children: Comparison to influenza and parainfluenza infections.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Jun 22:1-29. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

There has been a rapid surge of hospitalization due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variants globally. The severity of Omicron BA.2 in unexposed, unvaccinated, hospitalized children is unknown. Read More

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Target capture sequencing reveals a monoclonal outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus B infections among adult hematologic patients.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2022 Jun 21;11(1):88. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes community-acquired respiratory tract infections during winter. However, outbreaks in hospitals also occur repeatedly. In particular, patients with hematologic malignancies are at an increased risk for a severe and potentially fatal course of RSV infection. Read More

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[Analysis of relationship between distribution of pathogenic microorganisms in olfactory cleft and olfactory disorders among patients with upper respiratory inflammation during the prevention and control of COVID-19].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jun;57(6):683-691

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China.

To explore the relationship between pathogens in the olfactory cleft area and olfactory disorders in patients with upper respiratory inflammation (URI) during the prevention and control of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A total of 234 URI patients including acute upper respiratory infection, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR) were continuously selected from September 2020 to March 2021 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital and 98 healthy adults were enrolled as controls. The secretions from the olfactory cleft of all subjects were collected with nasal swabs under nasal endoscopy. Read More

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Phylogenetic analysis of human parainfluenza type 3 virus strains responsible for the outbreak during the COVID-19 pandemic in Seoul, South Korea.

J Clin Virol 2022 Jun 7;153:105213. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV3) is a major respiratory pathogen that causes acute respiratory infections in infants and children. Since September 2021, an out-of-season HPIV3 rebound has been noted in Korea. The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular characteristics of the HPIV3 strains responsible for the outbreak in Seoul, South Korea. Read More

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Changes in Critical Bronchiolitis After COVID-19 Lockdown.

Cureus 2022 May 17;14(5):e25064. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Introduction In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, state and local governments implemented mitigation strategies, including lockdowns, thereby averting the typical fall/winter 2020 bronchiolitis season and reducing the incidence of respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Florida implemented a strict lockdown from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. The removal of lockdown precautions on September 25, 2020, was followed by an atypical out-of-season surge of bronchiolitis in April 2021. Read More

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Leveraging a national biorepository in Zambia to assess measles and rubella immunity gaps across age and space.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10217. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 415 N Washington Street, 5th floor, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

High-quality, representative serological surveys allow direct estimates of immunity profiles to inform vaccination strategies but can be costly and logistically challenging. Leveraging residual serum samples is one way to increase their feasibility. We subsampled 9854 residual sera from a 2016 national HIV survey in Zambia and tested these specimens for anti-measles and anti-rubella virus IgG antibodies using indirect enzyme immunoassays. Read More

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Low prevalence of community-acquired influenza coinfections among COVID-19 patients in Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia: A retrospective cohort study.

J Infect Public Health 2022 Jun 11;15(7):752-756. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Medical Laboratories Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al- Madinah Al-Munwarah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Coinfections with respiratory viruses among SARS CoV-2 patients have been reported by several studies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Most of these studies designated these coinfections as being hospital-acquired infections; however, there is inadequate knowledge about community-acquired respiratory coinfections among SARS CoV-2 patients.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated the seroprevalence of influenza A, influenza B, and parainfluenza-2 among newly hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 infections (n = 163). Read More

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Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Exhibits Cell-Dependent Interferon Active Response.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 31;12:874936. Epub 2022 May 31.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute and highly pathogenic infectious disease caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), which can infect goats and sheep and poses a major threat to the small ruminants industry. The innate immune response plays an important role as a line of defense against the virus. The effect of PPRV on the active innate immune response has been described in several studies, with different conclusions. Read More

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Bta-miR-677 contribute to interferon pathway affecting the proliferation of caprine parainfluenza virus type 3.

Microb Pathog 2022 Jun 13;169:105642. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

College of Animal Science, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China. Electronic address:

Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3), a new strain of virus, was isolated from the goats in 2014 in China. Studies have shown that viral infection can induce changes in the expression profile of host miRNAs, which modulate natural immune responses and viral infection. In this study, we report that bta-miR-677 suppressed CPIV3 replication in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells and guinea pigs. Read More

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Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in poultry in Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2022 Jun 15;54(4):214. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Global Health and Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tengeru, Tanzania.

The present study intended to determine the prevalence of Newcastle disease in unvaccinated backyard poultry in Africa. Using the PRISMA approach, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 107 epidemiological studies was conducted. The meta-analysis identified significant variation of both seroprevalence (I = 99. Read More

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Small-molecule metabolome identifies potential therapeutic targets against COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 15;12(1):10029. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Unit (GIDRU), Kingston Health Sciences Centre, 76 Stuart St., Kingston, ON, K7L 2V7, Canada.

Respiratory viruses are transmitted and acquired via the nasal mucosa, and thereby may influence the nasal metabolome composed of biochemical products produced by both host cells and microbes. Studies of the nasal metabolome demonstrate virus-specific changes that sometimes correlate with viral load and disease severity. Here, we evaluate the nasopharyngeal metabolome of COVID-19 infected individuals and report several small molecules that may be used as potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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Efficacy of Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored Intranasal COVID-19 Vaccine as a Single Dose Vaccine and as a Booster against SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

bioRxiv 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has greatly reduced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths and hospitalizations, but waning immunity and the emergence of variants capable of immune escape indicate the need for novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. An intranasal parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine CVXGA1 has been proven efficacious in animal models and blocks contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. CVXGA1 vaccine is currently in human clinical trials in the United States. Read More

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Application of MRT-qPCR for pathogen detection of lower respiratory tract infection.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(5):3311-3318. Epub 2022 May 15.

Biotecnovo (Langfang) Medical Lab Co, Ltd Langfang 065000, Hebei, P. R. China.

Objective: To analyze and clarify the application value of multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MRT-PCR) assay in detecting pathogens involved in lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), so as to realize accurate and rapid detection of respiratory pathogens.

Methods: Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens from 186 patients with LRTI collected in the Cangzhou Central Hospital from June 2020 to September 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Pathogen detection was performed by both MRT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and the results of different inspection methods were compared. Read More

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[International multi-center evaluation of a rapid antigen test based on gold immunochromatographic assay for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jun 13;102:1-6. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Beijing Key Laboratory of POCT for Bioemergency and Clinic (BZ0329), Beijing 100071, China.

The gold immunochromatographic assay for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen was evaluated by international multi-center clinical trial. A total of 1 855 clinical parallel samples with valid test results (for nucleic acid and antigen tests, respectively) were collected from nine countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, France, India, Thailand, Malaysia, the United States of America and Brazil, with sampling period from January 3, 2021 to September 22, 2021. These samples were detected by SARS-CoV-2 antigen test kit (colloidal gold immunochromatography assay) and nucleic acid detection kit (real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Read More

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Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Alternative Splicing Changes in the Immune-Related Genes of the Giant Panda (), in Response to the Canine Distemper Vaccine.

Zoolog Sci 2022 Jun;39(3):275-285

Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China,

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly fatal virus to the giant panda (). Although vaccination is a key preventative measure in captive giant pandas, the immune response of giant pandas after vaccination remains unclear. Therefore, this study focuses on differential alternative splicing (DAS) events of giant pandas before and after vaccination to investigate the role of alternative splicing in the immune response of giant pandas after CDV vaccination. Read More

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In Vitro Potential Virucidal Effect Evaluation of Xibornol on Human Adenovirus Type 5, Human Rhinovirus Type 13, Human Coronavirus 229E, Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1, and Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Virology, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

The availability of virucidal compounds to reduce the impact of respiratory viruses is a relevant topic for public health, especially during the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Antimicrobial properties of Xibornol are known since the 1970s, but its activity on viruses is currently little explored. In this study, Xibornol activity at a fixed concentration of 0. Read More

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Structural basis for ultrapotent antibody-mediated neutralization of human metapneumovirus.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jun 13;119(25):e2203326119. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Center for Vaccines and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children worldwide, however, no vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for hMPV disease prevention and treatment. The hMPV fusion (F) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies. To map the immunodominant epitopes on the hMPV F protein, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and the mAbs were assessed for binding avidity, neutralization potency, and epitope specificity. Read More

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