27,686 results match your criteria Parainfluenza Virus


Respiratory virus infection amongst hospitalized adult patients with or without clinically-apparent respiratory infection: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China; Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to determine the viral epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with and those without clinically-apparent respiratory tract infection.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted during the 2018 winter influenza season. Adult patients with fever/respiratory symptoms (fever/RS group) were age- and sex-matched with patients without fever/respiratory symptoms (non-fever/RS group) in a 1:1 ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Rapid generation of multivirus-specific T lymphocytes for the prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections.

Haematologica 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Respiratory tract infections due to community-acquired respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza, parainfluenza virus 3 and human metapneumovirus are detected in up to 40% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients in whom they cause severe symptoms including pneumonia and bronchiolitis and can be fatal. Given the lack of effective antivirals and the data from our group demonstrating that adoptively transferred ex vivo-expanded virus-specific T cells can be clinically beneficial for the treatment of both latent (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, BK virus, human herpesvirus 6) and lytic (adenovirus) viruses, we investigated the potential for extending this immunotherapeutic approach to respiratory viruses. We now describe a system that rapidly generates a single preparation of polyclonal (CD4+ and CD8+) virus-specific T cells reactive against 12 antigens derived from 4 viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza, parainfluenza virus 3 and human metapneumovirus) that commonly cause post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.206896DOI Listing

Respiratory tract virus infections in the elderly with pneumonia.

BMC Geriatr 2019 Apr 16;19(1):111. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: In children suffering from severe lower airway illnesses, respiratory virus detection has given good prognostic information, but such reports in the elderly are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to study whether the detection of nasopharyngeal viral pathogens and conventional inflammatory markers in the frail elderly correlate to the presence, signs and symptoms or prognosis of radiographically-verified pneumonia.

Methods: Consecutive episodes of hospital care of patients 65 years and older with respiratory symptoms (N = 382) were prospectively studied as a cohort. Read More

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https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1125-zDOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Henipavirus Infection of the Central Nervous System.

Pathog Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. These viruses were first identified as the causative agents of severe respiratory and encephalitic disease in the 1990s across Australia and Southern Asia with mortality rates reaching up to 75%. While outbreaks of Nipah and Hendra virus infections remain rare and sporadic, there is concern that Nipah virus has pandemic potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftz023DOI Listing

Henipaviruses at the Interface Between Bats, Livestock and Human Population in Africa: A Review.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

5 Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases (INNT), Friedrich-Loeffler Institut (FLI), Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are closely related members within the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, for which fruit bats serve as the reservoir. The initial emergence of NiV infections in pigs and humans in Malaysia, and HeV infections in horses and humans in Australia, posed severe impacts on human and animal health, and continues threatening lives of humans and livestock within Southeast Asia and Australia. Recently, henipavirus-specific antibodies have also been detected in fruit bats in a number of sub-Saharan African countries and in Brazil, thereby considerably increasing the known geographic distribution of henipaviruses. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vbz.2018.2365
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2365DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI): results from the Egyptian surveillance study 2010-2014.

Multidiscip Respir Med 2019 1;14:11. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansura University, Mansura, Egypt.

Background: Respiratory viral and atypical bacterial infections data in Egyptian patients are sparse. This study describes the clinical features and outcomes of patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in hospitalized patients in Egypt.

Methods: SARI surveillance was implemented at Cairo University Hospital (CUH) during the period 2010-2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40248-019-0174-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442424PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Complete Genome Characterization of Eight Human Parainfluenza Viruses from the Netherlands.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Apr 11;8(15). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

We report the complete genome sequences of eight human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) belonging to (HPIV-1), (HPIV-3), (HPIV-2), and (HPIV-4). The genome sequences were generated using random-primed next-generation sequencing and represent the first HPIV full-genome sequences from the Netherlands. Read More

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http://genomea.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/MRA.00125-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00125-19DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Development of a nanoparticle-assisted PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Apr 11;15(1):110. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institute of Special Animal and Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, 130112, China.

Background: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a common pathogen causing respiratory disease in cattle and a significant contributor to the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. BRSV is widely distributed around the world, causing severe economic losses. This study we established a new molecular detection method of BRSV pathogen NanoPCR attributed to the combination of nano-particles in traditional PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1858-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458741PMC
April 2019
1 Read

New antiviral approaches for human parainfluenza: Inhibiting the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase.

Antiviral Res 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Gold Coast, Queensland 4222, Australia. Electronic address:

Human parainfluenza viruses cause acute respiratory tract infections and disease predominantly in young children and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent hPIV infections, nor licensed anti-hPIV drugs. There is therefore a need for specific antiviral therapies to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with hPIV diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Emerging views of mitophagy in immunity and autoimmune diseases.

Autophagy 2019 Apr 5:1-15. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

a Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health , Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Center , Shanghai , China.

Mitophagy is a vital form of autophagy for selective removal of dysfunctional or redundant mitochondria. Accumulating evidence implicates elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria as a powerful means employed by autophagy to keep the immune system in check. The process of mitophagy may restrict inflammatory cytokine secretion and directly regulate mitochondrial antigen presentation and immune cell homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1603547DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

High Prevalence of Viral Infections Among Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients in Equatorial Sarawak, Malaysia.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 13;6(3):ofz074. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Although pneumonia is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in Sarawak, Malaysia, the etiology and epidemiology of pneumonia are not well described in this equatorial region. Routine clinical diagnostics for pneumonia etiology at government hospitals in Sarawak had historically involved only bacterial diagnostics. Viral diagnostics were only obtained through outside consultations. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/doi/10.1093/ofid/ofz07
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440682PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Bronchiolitis Hospitalization in Southern Brazil from 2002 to 2012: A Count Time-series Approach.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Mar 28;52:e20180329. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioestatística, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Introduction: Because the antibody neutralizing respiratory syncytial virus (anti-RSV) has a short period of immunization and high cost, the identification of regions and months of highest occurrence of bronchiolitis is very important.

Methods: An Autoregressive Conditional Poisson model was constructed for count data and compared to the standard time-series Poisson regression model.

Results: The metropolitan area of Paraná presented the highest average occurrence from May to July. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0329-2018DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Novel avian paramyxovirus-based vaccine vectors expressing the Ebola virus glycoprotein elicit mucosal and humoral immune responses in guinea pigs.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 2;9(1):5520. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States.

Paramyxovirus vaccine vectors based on human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been previously evaluated against Ebola virus (EBOV) challenge. Although both the viral vectored vaccines efficiently induce protective immunity, some concerns remain to be solved. Since HPIV-3 is a common human pathogen, the human population has pre-existing immunity to HPIV-3, which may restrict the replication of the vaccine vector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42004-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445115PMC
April 2019
1 Read
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Respiratory Virus Infections of the Stem Cell Transplant Recipient and the Hematologic Malignancy Patient.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Jun 30;33(2):523-544. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Mail Code L457, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

Respiratory virus infections in hematologic stem cell transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies are increasingly recognized as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The often overlapping clinical presentation makes molecular diagnostic strategies imperative for rapid diagnosis and to inform understanding of the changing epidemiology of each of the respiratory viruses. Most respiratory virus infections are managed with supportive therapy, although there is effective antiviral therapy for influenza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.02.004DOI Listing
June 2019
5 Reads

Community-acquired respiratory viruses.

Authors:
Jens Gottlieb

Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, German Center of Lung Research (DZL), Hannover, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Incidence of community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) after lung transplantation (LTx) is 10-68 cases per 100 patient-years. Infected patients may develop graft failure and there seems to be an association between CARV infection and development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). This review summarizes the impact of CARV infection after LTx and potential treatment strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOT.0000000000000633DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

[Effects of respiratory syncytial virus infection on epidermal growth factor receptor, tight junction association proteins and mucin in airway epithelial cells].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Mar;21(3):294-299

Department of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310052, China.

Objective: To study the effects of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tight junction association proteins and mucin in the human airway epithelial cells.

Methods: Human airway epithelial cells NCI-H292 were randomly treated by ultraviolet light-inactivated RSV (control group) or thawed RSV (RSV infection group). After 48 hours of treatment, the protein levels of occludin, E-cadherin, phosphorylated EGFR and EGFR in NCI-H292 cells were measured by Western blot. Read More

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Incidence and seasonality of respiratory viruses causing acute respiratory infections in the Northern United Arab Emirates.

J Med Virol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

Background: The data on the seasonality of respiratory viruses helps to ensure the optimal vaccination period and to monitor the possible outbreaks of variant type.

Objectives: This study was designed to describe the molecular epidemiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infection (ARI)-related respiratory viruses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Methods: Both upper and lower respiratory specimens were collected for the analysis from all the patients who visited the Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital (SKSH) with ARI for over 2 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25464DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Complete Genome Sequence of Parainfluenza Virus 5 (PIV5) from a Sunda Pangolin ( Manis javanica) in China.

J Wildl Dis 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

3 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260, Republic of China.

We report here the complete genome sequence of the parainfluenza virus PIV5-GD18 strain, isolated from a wild Sunda pangolin ( Manis javanica) in China in 2017. It was 15,246 nucleotides with four nucleotides substitutions, which resulted in four changes of amino acid that were found only in PIV5-GD18, which further broadens the PIV5 infection host spectrum and will aid in our understanding of the complete genome sequence of PIV5 in different hosts. Read More

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March 2019
1 Read

Molecular characterisation of the emerging measles virus from Roraima state, Brazil, 2018.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 Mar 18;114:e180545. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Manaus, AM, Brasil.

Measles is a human infectious disease of global concern that is caused by the measles virus. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of one measles virus isolate, genotype D8, that was obtained directly from a urine sample in Boa Vista city, the capital of Roraima state in Brazil. Phylogenetic reconstruction grouped the genome described in this study with that of samples from Australia, South Korea, and Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760180545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423661PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Population-based Incidence of Childhood Pneumonia Associated With Viral Infections in Bangladesh.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Apr;38(4):344-350

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: The contribution of respiratory viruses to childhood pneumonia in tropical low- and middle-income countries is poorly understood. We used population-based respiratory illness surveillance in children 5 years of age or younger in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to characterize these illnesses.

Methods: We conducted weekly home visits to children who were referred to clinic for fever or respiratory symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002155DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Simultaneous outbreaks of respiratory disease in wild chimpanzees caused by distinct viruses of human origin.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2019 ;8(1):139-149

e University of Wisconsin-Madison , Madison , WI , USA.

Respiratory viruses of human origin infect wild apes across Africa, sometimes lethally. Here we report simultaneous outbreaks of two distinct human respiratory viruses, human metapneumovirus (MPV; Pneumoviridae: Metapneumovirus) and human respirovirus 3 (HRV3; Paramyxoviridae; Respirovirus, formerly known as parainfluenza virus 3), in two chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) communities in the same forest in Uganda in December 2016 and January 2017. The viruses were absent before the outbreaks, but each was present in ill chimpanzees from one community during the outbreak period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2018.1563456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455141PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

A 28-year study of human parainfluenza in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

J Med Virol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre-UFCSPA, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Problem: Human parainfluenza virus (hPIV) is an important pathogen in respiratory infections, however the health burden of hPIV is underestimated. This study describes the infections by hPIV1-3 in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1990 to 2017, providing data of the frequency and seasonality of cases and associated clinical symptoms.

Method Of Study: Nasopharyngeal samples of patients with respiratory infection were collected, clinical data were analyzed, and immunofluorescence was used to detect hPIV. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25459
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25459DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

From known to the unknown: investigating an unusual outbreak of viral exanthema in a secondary school in Abeokuta, Nigeria, 2015.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 16;30(Suppl 1). Epub 2018 May 16.

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

Investigating an outbreak of disease requires mastery of a set of skills and collaboration among different cadres of health workers. Although you want to focus on a specific disease, you need to keep your mind open to possibilities. This case study is based on investigation of an outbreak of rashes suspected to be measles but which proved to be otherwise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2018.30.1.15264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379549PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Claudin-1 inhibits human parainfluenza virus type 2 dissemination.

Virology 2019 Mar 6;531:93-99. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan. Electronic address:

Tight junctions enable epithelial cells to form physical barriers that act as an innate immune defense against respiratory infection. However, the involvement of tight junction molecules in paramyxovirus infections, which include various respiratory pathogens, has not been examined in detail. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) infects airway epithelial cells and causes respiratory illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.031DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Peste des petits ruminants virus circulating in small ruminants in eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Mar 8;15(1):84. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of clinical studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

Background: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe, highly infectious and fatal viral disease of small ruminants. Four lineages of PPR virus have been identified globally based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and fusion (F) gene. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize recently circulating PPR virus in small ruminants in the eastern Amhara region in Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1828-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408798PMC
March 2019
1 Read

The Etiological Role of Common Respiratory Viruses in Acute Respiratory Infections in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Infect Dis 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh.

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) constitute a substantial disease burden in adults and elderly individuals. We aimed to identify all case-control studies investigating the potential role of respiratory viruses in the etiology of ARI in older adults aged ≥65 years. We conducted a systematic literature review (across 7 databases) of case-control studies published from 1996 to 2017 that investigated the viral profile of older adults with and those without ARI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy662DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Immunogenicity and safety of the combined vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella isolated or combined with the varicella component administered at 3-month intervals: randomised study.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 Mar 7;114:e180517. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto de Tecnologia em Imunobiológicos, Bio-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Background: Field testing required to license the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine must take into account the current recommendation of the vaccine in Brazil: first dose at 12 months and second dose at 15 months of age in combination with a varicella vaccine.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity of three batches of MMR vaccine prepared with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz (MMR-Bio), and compare it to a vaccine (MMR produced by GlaxoSmithKline) with different API.

Methods: This was a phase III, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority study of the MMR-Bio administered in infants immunised at health care units in Pará, Brazil, from February 2015 to January 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760180517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404515PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Pneumonia severity index in viral community acquired pneumonia in adults.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(3):e0210102. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Pneumonia severity index (PSI) is an important scoring system that can assess the severity of community acquired pneumonia and determine admission status. However, there is a lack of research on whether this scoring system can be applied to viral community acquired pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PSI in viral community acquired pneumonia. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210102PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402623PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Simulation of four respiratory viruses and inference of epidemiological parameters.

Infect Dis Model 2018 19;3:23-34. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

While influenza has been simulated extensively to better understand its behavior and predict future outbreaks, most other respiratory viruses have seldom been simulated. In this study, we provide an overview of four common respiratory viral infections: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), respiratory adenovirus, rhinovirus and parainfluenza, present specimen data collected 2004-2014, and simulate outbreaks in 19 overlapping regions in the United States. Pairing a compartmental model and data assimilation methods, we infer key epidemiological parameters governing transmission: the basic reproductive number and length of infection . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2018.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326234PMC
March 2018
1 Read

A spatial assessment of Nipah virus transmission in Thailand pig farms using multi-criteria decision analysis.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Mar 4;15(1):73. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Spatial epidemiology Lab. (SpELL), University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Thailand's Central Plain is identified as a contact zone between pigs and flying foxes, representing a potential zoonotic risk. Nipah virus (NiV) has been reported in flying foxes in Thailand, but it has never been found in pigs or humans. An assessment of the suitability of NiV transmission at the spatial and farm level would be useful for disease surveillance and prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1815-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399983PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Multiplex PCR methods for detection of several viruses associated with canine respiratory and enteric diseases.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(3):e0213295. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Viral respiratory and intestinal infections are the most common causes of canine viral illness. Infection with multiple pathogens occurs in many cases. Rapid diagnosis of these multiple infections is important for providing timely and effective treatment. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213295PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398926PMC

Early respiratory viral infections in infants with cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Background: Viral infections contribute to morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF), but the impact of respiratory viruses on the development of airway disease is poorly understood.

Methods: Infants with CF identified by newborn screening were enrolled prior to 4 months of age to participate in a prospective observational study at 4 centers. Clinical data were collected at clinic visits and weekly phone calls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Comparative Evaluation of the Immune Responses in Cattle Mammary Tissues Naturally Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 and Bovine Alphaherpesvirus-1.

Pathogens 2019 Feb 25;8(1). Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Atatürk University, Yakutiye 25240, Erzurum, Turkey.

Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) and Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) lead to severe diseases in domesticated animals, such as Bovine, sheep, and goats. One of these diseases is mastitis, whose signs may not be observable in cases of viral infection due to the dominance of other clinical symptoms. This may lead to failure to predict viral agents in subclinical Bovine cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010026DOI Listing
February 2019

Killing two birds with one stone: How the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase initiates transcription and replication.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 28;15(2):e1007548. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394897PMC
February 2019

RNA respiratory viral infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.

Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28:e13511. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of RNA respiratory viral infections in the pre- and post-transplant period. Viruses reviewed include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and coronavirus. Diagnosis is by nucleic acid testing due to improved sensitivity, specificity, broad range of detection of viral pathogens, automatization, and turnaround time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13511DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Respiratory Enterovirus (like Parainfluenza Virus) Can Cause Chronic Lung Disease if Protection by Airway Epithelial STAT1 Is Lost.

J Immunol 2019 Apr 25;202(8):2332-2347. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110

Epithelial barrier cells are proposed to be critical for host defense, and airway epithelial cell capacity for IFN signal transduction is presumed to protect against respiratory viral infection. However, it has been difficult to fully test these concepts given the absence of tools to analyze IFN signaling specific to airway epithelial cells in vivo. To address these issues, we generated a new line of transgenic mice with -driver genes ( and ) for a floxed- allele (designated mice) to target the master IFN signal regulator STAT1 in airway epithelial cells and tested these mice for control of infection because of mouse parainfluenza (Sendai) virus and human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456410PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Viral pathogens associated with acute respiratory illness in hospitalized adults and elderly from Zagreb, Croatia, 2016 to 2018.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Dr Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia.

Aims: To investigate the viral etiology of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in hospitalized adults and elderly patients in Croatia, compare the prevalence of detected viruses, and to determine clinical characteristics and seasonal occurrence of investigated infections.

Methods: From January 2016 to June 2018, a total of 182 adult patients presented with symptoms of ARI and admitted to the hospital were tested for 15 respiratory viruses by multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were collected by retrospective analysis of the patient's chart. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25437
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25437DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Involvement of Actin-Regulating Factor Cofilin in the Inclusion Body Formation and RNA Synthesis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 via Interaction With the Nucleoprotein.

Front Microbiol 2019 1;10:95. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Pathogen Biology and Immunology Laboratory, and Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Experimental Teaching and Management Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is one of the primary pathogens that causing severe respiratory tract diseases in newborns and infants. It could induce inclusion bodies (IBs) in infected cells. Comprised of viral nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P), as well as some cellular factors, HPIV3 IBs are unique platform for efficient viral synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367235PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Multiplex one-step real-time PCR assay for rapid simultaneous detection of velogenic and mesogenic Newcastle disease virus and H5-subtype avian influenza virus.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr 21;164(4):1111-1119. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 48 East Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.

H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (v-NDV) are pathogens listed in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code and are considered key pathogens to be eliminated in poultry production. Molecular techniques for rapid detection of H5 AIV and v-NDV are required to investigate their transmission characteristics and to guide prevention. Traditional virus isolation, using embryonated chicken eggs, is time-consuming and cannot be used as a rapid diagnostic technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04180-6DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Virus and Atypical Pathogens Detected in Community-Acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Infants and Children of Sfax Region, Tunisia].

Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2018 ;111(2):90-98

Laboratoire de microbiologie, faculté de médecine de Sfax, université de Sfax, Tunisie.

Little is known about viral and atypical bacteria pathogen spectra of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection in children in Tunisia. Thus, a prospective study was carried out between January 2009 and March 2010 in Sfax. Nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from 368 patients (78 with pneumonia and 290 with acute bronchiolitis) were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR to detect influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, human rhinovirus, human enterovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus, (Mpn) and (Cpn). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3166/bspe-2018-0024DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Inhibiting Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection by Preactivating the Cell Entry Mechanism.

MBio 2019 02 19;10(1). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA

Paramyxoviruses, specifically, the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, are internalized into host cells following fusion between the viral and target cell membranes. The receptor binding protein, hemagglutinin (HA)-neuraminidase (HN), and the fusion protein (F) facilitate viral fusion and entry into the cell through a coordinated process involving HN activation by receptor binding, which triggers conformational changes in the F protein to activate it to reach its fusion-competent state. Interfering with this process through premature activation of the F protein has been shown to be an effective antiviral strategy Conformational changes in the F protein leading to adoption of the postfusion form of the protein-prior to receptor engagement of HN at the host cell membrane-render the virus noninfectious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02900-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381285PMC
February 2019

Comparison of the new fully automated extraction platform eMAG to the MagNA PURE 96 and the well-established easyMAG for detection of common human respiratory viruses.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(2):e0211079. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Central Virology Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Respiratory viral infections constitute the majority of samples tested in the clinical virology laboratory during the winter season, and are mainly diagnosed using molecular assays, namely real-time PCR (qPCR). Therefore, a high-quality extraction process is critical for successful, reliable and sensitive qPCR results. Here we aimed to evaluate the performance of the newly launched eMAG compared to the fully automated MagNA PURE 96 (Roche, Germany) and to the semi-automated easyMAG (bioMerieux, France) extraction platforms. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211079PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380621PMC
February 2019
2 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

High Detection Rates of Human Bocavirus in Infants and Small Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection from Croatia.

Clin Lab 2019 Jan;65(1)

Background: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is known to cause lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children and may result in substantial morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine HBoV prevalence among hospitalized infants and small children with acute LRTI in Zagreb, Croatia, as well as to evaluate HBoV DNA quantity in samples in relation to the patients' age and co-infection with other respiratory viruses.

Methods: During winter season 2016/2017, a total of 295 children younger than three years of age who were admitted to hospitals with LRTI were tested for the presence of HBoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1 to 3, and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180702DOI Listing
January 2019

Epidemiological investigation and phylogenetic analysis of caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 in sheep of China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, China Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is a new member of the Respirovirus genus in the Paramyxivirudae family, mainly causing respiratory disease. Up to now, accumulating evidence has focused on CPIV3 infection in goats, with little understood about its epidemiology in sheep. To that end, we collected 1,163 sheep sera samples from nine provinces/autonomous regions in 2012 and 1,863 samples from six provinces/autonomous regions during 2016-2017, with serological prevalence of 50. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tbed.13149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13149DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Cyclical adaptation of measles virus quasispecies to epithelial and lymphocytic cells: To V, or not to V.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 15;15(2):e1007605. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America.

Measles virus (MeV) is dual-tropic: it replicates first in lymphatic tissues and then in epithelial cells. This switch in tropism raises the question of whether, and how, intra-host evolution occurs. Towards addressing this question, we adapted MeV either to lymphocytic (Granta-519) or epithelial (H358) cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395005PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Prevalence and characteristics of acute respiratory virus infections in patients pediatric cancer.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Patients with pediatric cancer have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality because of respiratory viral infections than other patient populations.

Objectives: To investigate the causative viruses of respiratory infections and their burden among patients with pediatric cancer in Lebanon.

Study Design: Nasopharyngeal swabs along with clinical and demographic data were collected from patients with pediatric cancer presenting febrile episodes with upper respiratory tract symptoms. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25432
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25432DOI Listing
February 2019
32 Reads

Effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection and its treatment on antibody responses to measles catch-up immunisation in pre-school children: A randomised trial.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 14;13(2):e0007157. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

Background: Schistosoma infection is associated with immune modulation that can influence responses to non-schistosome antigens. Vaccine responses may be impaired in S. mansoni-infected individuals. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007157
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6392333PMC
February 2019
10 Reads

The switch between acute and persistent paramyxovirus infection caused by single amino acid substitutions in the RNA polymerase P subunit.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 11;15(2):e1007561. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Biology, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, BMS Building, North Haugh, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom.

Paramyxoviruses can establish persistent infections both in vitro and in vivo, some of which lead to chronic disease. However, little is known about the molecular events that contribute to the establishment of persistent infections by RNA viruses. Using parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5) as a model we show that phosphorylation of the P protein, which is a key component of the viral RNA polymerase complex, determines whether or not viral transcription and replication becomes repressed at late times after infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386407PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Viruses.

Front Immunol 2019 24;10:22. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Département des Sciences Biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The respiratory mucosa is the primary portal of entry for numerous viruses such as the respiratory syncytial virus, the influenza virus and the parainfluenza virus. These pathogens initially infect the upper respiratory tract and then reach the lower respiratory tract, leading to diseases. Vaccination is an affordable way to control the pathogenicity of viruses and constitutes the strategy of choice to fight against infections, including those leading to pulmonary diseases. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00022
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353795PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Th17 serum cytokines in relation to laboratory-confirmed respiratory viral infection: A pilot study.

J Med Virol 2019 Jun 4;91(6):963-971. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

4th Department of Internal Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.

Background: Th17 cytokines are associated with modulation of inflammation and may be beneficial in clearing influenza infection in experimental models. The Th17 cytokine profile was evaluated in a pilot study of respiratory virus infections.

Methods: Consecutive patients with symptoms of respiratory tract infection visiting the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital during the winter influenza season of 2014 to 2015 were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25406DOI Listing
June 2019
5 Reads
2.347 Impact Factor