J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 16;356:577578. Epub 2021 Apr 16.
Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
The emergence of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the worldwide spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have led to social regulations that caused substantial changes in manners of daily life. The subsequent loneliness and concerns of the pandemic during social distancing, quarantine, and lockdown are psychosocial stressors that negatively affect the immune system. These effects occur through mechanisms controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis that alter immune regulation, namely the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), which promotes inflammation and diminishes antiviral responses, leading to inadequate protection against viral disease. Read More