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    Neuroimaging diagnostic and monitoring approaches in ophthalmology.
    Curr Opin Neurol 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    aMassachusetts General Hospital bBrigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School cNeuro-ophthalmology Service, Massachusetts Eye & Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA).

    Recent Findings: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Read More

    Neuro-Ophthalmology at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in India.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Strabismus and Neuro-ophthalmology Services, Dr. R. P. Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders.

    Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Read More

    Use of A-scan Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography to Differentiate Papilledema From Pseudopapilledema.
    Optom Vis Sci 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    1College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 2Department of Ophthalmology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas
    Significance: Differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema reflecting tilted/crowded optic discs or disc drusen is critical but can be challenging. Our study suggests that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retrobulbar optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by A-scan ultrasound provide useful information when differentiating the two conditions.

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of A-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in differentiating papilledema associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension from pseudopapilledema. Read More

    Association of ocular findings and outcome in cerebral venous thrombosis.
    Oman J Ophthalmol 2017 Sep-Dec;10(3):173-176
    Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a potentially life-threatening underdiagnosed disease. Headache is a common but nonspecific finding in CVT. Other features such as ocular finding can assist to correct diagnosis, but their frequency in CVT has not been previously evaluated. Read More

    Internal jugular vein stenosis induced intracranial hypertension can be resolved by stenting.
    Eur J Neurol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Ophthalmology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, 100053, China.
    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by abnormally elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) without identifiable etiology. Recently, however, a subset of patients with presumed IIH have been found with isolated internal jugular vein (IJV) stenosis in the absence of intracranial abnormalities.

    Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients were screened from 46 patients suspected as IIH and were finally confirmed as isolated IJV stenosis. Read More

    Surgical management of craniosynostosis in the setting of a ventricular shunt: a case series and treatment algorithm.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, USA.
    Purpose: Cerebrospinal fluid diversion via ventricular shunt is a common treatment for hydrocephalus. Change in cranial morphology associated with a sutural fusion has been termed shunt-related or induced craniosynostosis (SRC) or craniocerebral disproportion (CCD). We present a series of patients with SRC who underwent cranial vault remodeling (CVR) and our treatment algorithm. Read More

    Diseases of the retina and the optic nerve associated with obstructive sleep apnea.
    Sleep Med Rev 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Grenoble Alpes University, HP2 Laboratory, INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. Electronic address:
    Many associations between ocular disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been studied, such as nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, papilledema, retinal vein occlusion, eyelid hyperlaxity, lower-eyelid ectropion and recurrent corneal erosions. The objective of this review is to synthetize the possible vascular disorders of the retina and the optic nerve associated with sleep apnea patients and to discuss the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. Main mechanisms involved in the ocular complications of OSA are related to intermittent hypoxia, sympathetic system activation, oxidant stress, and deleterious effects of endothelin 1. Read More

    Ophthalmic findings in Frank-ter Haar syndrome: report of a sibling pair.
    J AAPOS 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, Florida.
    Frank-ter Haar syndrome (FTHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormalities that affect the development of bone, heart, and eyes. We report a sibling pair with FTHS caused by a homozygous, novel mutation pLys133Glnfs*13 in the SH3PXD2B gene: one sibling had bilateral ocular hypertension and unilateral colobomas of iris, choroid and retina; the other, unilateral myelinated nerve fiber layer of the optic disk and papilledema due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Both children had refractive amblyopia and megalocornea. Read More

    Secondary Intracranial Hypertension in Pediatric Patients With Leukemia.
    Pediatr Neurol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Section, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: We investigated the clinical characteristics of a pediatric population with hemato-oncological disease and intracranial hypertension, analyze the therapeutic response and outcome, and compare its characteristics with respect to a control group with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with hemato-oncological disease and secondary intracranial hypertension in our center during the past five years. We compared these individuals with a historical cohort with idiopathic intracranial hypertension from our institution (control group). Read More

    A Window to the Brain: Neuro-Ophthalmology for the Primary Care Practitioner.
    Am J Med 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Visual symptoms can be the presenting feature of a wide range of important neurological disease, including acute monocular visual loss, papilledema, visual field deficits, anisocoria, limitations of eye movements, and nystagmus. It is important for primary care clinicians to be to be able to direct appropriate initial diagnostic assessment, treatment, and referral for further evaluation of these conditions. Read More

    Radiculopathy as unusual presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A case report.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Dec 24;163:81-83. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Tanta University, Neurology department, Tanta, Egypt.
    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of young obese females and characterized by headache, papilledema with raised intracranial pressure in the absence of known pathological cause. However, ophthalmoplegia is common presentation of IIH, limb weakness is rare and may led to misdiagnosis and poor outcome.

    Case: We report female patient presented with acute onset of quadriparesis, headache and ophthalmoplegia, the fundus examination showed papilledema, the MRI brain showed no detectable abnormal finding. Read More

    Management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in an infant with bilateral congenital cataract and associated comitant sensory esotropia.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct;65(10):1053-1055
    Department of Paediatric Neurology, Mazumdar Shaw Multispeciality Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    In this report, we describe the management of a child with bilateral cataract, nystagmus, and comitant sensory esotropia. Routine ultrasonography done before cataract surgery revealed bilateral disc edema confirmed as idiopathic intracranial hypertension by a pediatric neurologist. The primary intervention for cataract surgery was followed by nonresolving papilledema, despite maximum medical therapy. Read More

    Minimally Invasive, spring-assisted correction of sagittal suture synostosis. Technique, outcome and complications in 83 cases.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dutch Craniofacial Center, The Netherlands 4 Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.
    Background: This series describes the results of minimally invasive strip craniotomy with additional spring distraction.

    Methods: Included are the first 83 consecutive patients who underwent this procedure (Jan 1, 2010-Jan 1, 2014). Outcome parameters were collected prospectively and included surgical parameters and complications, the occurrence of papilledema, skull growth, cephalic index and photographic scores RESULTS:: Duration of surgery was 63 min: 19% required blood transfusion and complications were minor. Read More

    Accuracy of crescent sign on ocular ultrasound in diagnosing papilledema.
    World J Methodol 2017 Sep 26;7(3):108-111. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Retina and Vitreous, Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Coimbatore 641014, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aim: To study the usefulness of orbital ultrasonography in the diagnosis of papilledema.

    Methods: Fifty patients who were referred to the neurophthalmology clinic and clinically suspected to have papilledema were selected. Thorough, clinical examination with slitlamp biomicroscopy and visual acuity assessment was done. Read More

    Fourth ventricle neurocysticercosis: Rigid endoscopic management. Description of direct transcerebellar approach.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 26;8:232. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Neurosurgery Department, Centro Médico "Lic. Adolfo López Mateos", Instituto de Salud del Estado de México, Av. Nicolas San Juan s/n Ex Hacienda La Magdalena, Estado de México, México.
    Background: Endoscopy has gained a crucial role in high specialty neurosurgery during the last decades. At present, there are well-defined flexible neuroendoscopic procedures to treat ventricular and subarachnoid space pathologies. Neurocysticercosis is recognized as a common cause of neurologic disease in developing countries and the United States. Read More

    The diagnostic challenge of evaluating papilledema in the pediatric patient.
    Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;7(1):15-21
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Pseudopapilledema is a fairly common finding in ophthalmic practice, and in many cases, the diagnosis is straightforward. However, an accurate diagnosis can challenge the most seasoned clinicians, and missing true papilledema can result in life-threatening or vision-threatening consequences. In this review, we describe the clinical findings and a diagnostic algorithm to distinguish pseudopapilledema and papilledema in the pediatric patients. Read More

    Chiari Type 1 Malformation-induced Intracranial Hypertension with Diffuse Brain Edema Treated with Foramen Magnum Decompression: A Case Report.
    NMC Case Rep J 2017 Oct 12;4(4):115-120. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1) rarely causes papilloedema, which is indicative of high intracranial pressure with or without ventricular dilatation. Furthermore, concomitant brain parenchymal abnormalities have not been reported to date. In this paper, the authors report on a young woman of CM1-induced intracranial hypertension (ICH) with diffuse brain edema with a focus on venous sinus assessment, and discuss the surgical strategy. Read More

    Superficial Siderosis Associated with a Pineal Cavernous Malformation.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1 Nishi-cho, Yonago, Tottori, 683-8504 Japan.
    Background: Cavernous malformations in the pineal region are very rare and are difficult to anticipate from preoperative evaluation in patients with pineal apoplexy. We herein report the first case of a pineal cavernous malformation with superficial siderosis. Radiological findings were helpful in identifying the presence of the cavernous malformation. Read More

    Severe cerebellar hemorrhage following transverse sinus stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
    Interv Neuroradiol 2017 Jan 1:1591019917734389. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Research Center of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire 36896 (CHU) de Québec , Axe Neurosciences (Neurosciences Unit), Department of Neurological Sciences, 36896 (CHU) de Québec (Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus), Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
    We report a severe adverse event occurring in the course of a cohort study (ISRCTN13784335) aimed at measuring the efficacy and safety of venous stenting in the treatment of patients with medically refractory idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The patient was a 41-year-old woman who was not overweight, who presented with severe headache, grade 1 bilateral papilledema and transient tinnitus, refractory to medical treatment. Right transverse sinus stenting was successfully performed. Read More

    Five-Year-Old Boy With Behavioral Changes and Papilledema.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Departments of Ophthalmology (RR, VSS), Radiology (JYJ), and Pathology (CAM), Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.
    A 5-year-old boy had initial symptoms of behavioral changes, nausea, vomiting, headache, weight loss, and progressive vision failure. Brain MRI revealed abnormal signal intensity in both optic nerves, the optic chiasm, the right medial temporal lobe, and tissues surrounding the right supraclinoid internal carotid artery with associated leptomeningeal and spinal cord enhancement. After nondiagnostic dural and spinal arachnoid biopsies, a temporal lobe biopsy was diagnostic for a rare malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Read More

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: 120-day clinical, radiological, and manometric outcomes after stent insertion into the dural venous sinus.
    J Neurosurg 2017 Oct 6:1-9. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom.
    OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is commonly associated with venous sinus stenosis. In recent years, transvenous dural venous sinus stent (DVSS) insertion has emerged as a potential therapy for resistant cases. However, there remains considerable uncertainty over the safety and efficacy of this procedure, in particular the incidence of intraprocedural and delayed complications and in the longevity of sinus patency, pressure gradient obliteration, and therapeutic clinical outcome. Read More

    Cerebral Thrombosis: A Neurogenetic Approach.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;987:13-21
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a severe multifactorial condition with various clinical manifestations that may include headache, papilledema, seizures, focal deficits, coma and death. The mortality rate of untreated CVT is up to 50%, but it drops to 10% when CVT is properly treated. Prevention of CVT is feasible through healthy lifestyle, genetic counseling, molecular genetic analysis for common thrombophilia-related mutations, and prophylactic anticoagulative medication. Read More

    Randomised controlled trial of bariatric surgery versus a community weight loss programme for the sustained treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Weight Trial (IIH:WT) protocol.
    BMJ Open 2017 Sep 27;7(9):e017426. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Introduction: Effective treatments are lacking for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a condition characterised by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and papilloedema, and found primarily in obese women. Weight loss and lowering body mass index (BMI) have been shown to lower ICP and improve symptoms in IIH; however, weight loss is typically not maintained, meaning IIH symptoms return. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Weight Trial (IIH:WT) will assess whether bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment for patients with IIH with a BMI over 35 kg/m(2). Read More

    Emerging Applications of Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Optic Neuropathies.
    Semin Pediatr Neurol 2017 May 10;24(2):135-142. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    (‡)Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. Electronic address:
    Limited cooperation and attention span often lead to poorly reliable assessments of visual acuity and visual fields in children, making diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric optic neuropathies challenging. As a noninvasive imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) could offer particular utility in this patient population. OCT provides high-resolution characterization of the optic nerve head, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and cellular layers of the macula, all of which can be used to assess the severity of optic nerve disease qualitatively and quantitatively. Read More

    Unilateral Papilledema in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.
    J Neurosci Rural Pract 2017 Aug;8(Suppl 1):S106-S110
    Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    In the majority of patients with raised intracranial pressure, the papilledema is bilateral. Unilateral papilledema is rare in conditions causing intracranial hypertension, and it has been described in Foster-Kennedy syndrome and in some cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. It has never been reported in cerebral venous thrombosis. Read More

    Vascular hypoperfusion in acute optic neuritis is a potentially new neurovascular model for demyelinating diseases.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(9):e0184927. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Purpose: Optic neuritis is highly correlated with multiple sclerosis and is a major cause of acute visual loss and long-term neuronal degeneration. Primary cerebral hypoperfusion has been reported in brain demyelinating diseases. This study investigated whether peripapillary perfusion is changed in patients with acute optic neuritis (AON). Read More

    Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of an 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitor (AZD4017) in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Drug Trial, IIH:DT: Clinical Methods and Design for a Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial.
    JMIR Res Protoc 2017 Sep 18;6(9):e181. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Neurometabolism, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition with few effective management options. So far, there have been no randomized controlled trials evaluating new treatments in IIH.

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to outline the trial design for the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Drug Trial (IIH:DT), assessing an innovative medical treatment in IIH and the rationale for the chosen trial methodology. Read More

    J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 Sep;48(3):897-901
    A 3-yr-old Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), weighing 68 kg, underwent a laparoscopic-assisted placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Rescued as a young cub with a notably domed head, the bear's condition had deteriorated with age, but euthanasia was not a viable option because of cultural issues. Surgery was attempted as a palliative measure. Read More

    [Indications and technique for transconjunctival optic nerve sheath fenestration : Video article].
    Ophthalmologe 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Freiburg, Killianstr. 5, 79106, Freiburg, Deutschland.
    Background: Placement of a ventricular shunt is the primary surgical procedure for lowering intracranial pressure in pseudotumor cerebri syndrome; however, if ophthalmological symptoms prevail over neurological symptoms or if there are no neurological symptoms at all, optic nerve sheath fenestration may be a valuable option for relief of pressure on the retrobulbar optic nerve when papilledema caused by pseudotumor cerebri syndrome threatens vision despite previous conservative measures.

    Methods: This review covers the indications, technique and results of optic nerve sheath fenestration compared to competing procedures based on a systematic literature search, analysis of own cases and a documentation of the surgical technique.

    Surgical Technique: After performing a medial transconjunctival orbitotomy the medial rectus muscle tendon is temporarily detached and the eye abducted by traction sutures. Read More

    Complete Resolution of Papilledema in Syndromic Craniosynostosis with Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):199-202
    Department of Neurosurgery/Pediatric Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.
    We report a case of surgical management of Crouzon syndrome with multisuture craniosynostosis presenting with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) manifesting with chronic papilledema without ventriculomegaly. A 12-month-old boy had complete resolution of papilledema after posterior cranial vault distraction followed by staged fronto-orbital advancement. Expansion of the cranial vault with posterior distraction osteogenesis posed an elegant treatment, obviating ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion. Read More

    Outcome Predictors in Pediatric Head Trauma: A Study of Clinicoradiological Factors.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2017 Apr-Jun;12(2):149-153
    Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: Traumatic injuries are the leading cause of death and a major cause of disability among children. About 70%-80% of the accidental deaths in pediatric age group result directly from central nervous system lesions.

    Methods: The purpose of our study was to study all the patients of ≤18 years of age with head or spinal injury admitted in neurointensive care unit at our center, an apex trauma center in a developing country, between June 2009 and September 2011. Read More

    Ocular abnormalities associated with hypovitaminosis A in Hanwoo calves: a report of two cases.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Oct 8;79(10):1753-1756. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.
    This study reports on two Hanwoo (a native Korean breed of cattle) calves, a 3- and 6-month-old presenting with diarrhea, anorexia and blindness. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral papilledema in both calves. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus and coronavirus were all negative. Read More

    Child with Vomiting.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    Vomiting is a common problem in children for which parents seek health care consultation. It has a varied etiology encompassing many organ systems, ranging from a benign physiological behavior to a life-threatening systemic disease. Most often, it is benign and self-limiting. Read More

    Usefulness of platelet to lymphocyte and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios in predicting the presence of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and in-hospital major adverse cerebral events.
    J Neurol Sci 2017 Sep 26;380:226-229. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Yildirim Beyazit University Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as recently emerging thrombo-inflammatory indicators were significantly associated with both major cerebrovascular/cardiovascular adverse events (MACE) and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effects of combinations of PLR and NLR in predicting the presence of CVST and in-hospital MACE.

    Methods: A total of 277 participants comprising 80 patients with evidence of CVST and 197 controls with similar baseline characteristics were included in this retrospective study. Read More

    Tumor cerebri: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma with dural venous sinus compression leading to intracranial hypertension; a case report.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 9;8:175. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Institute for Orthopaedics and Neurosciences, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, Virginia, USA.
    Background: Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is a condition associated with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of radiographic findings such as mass lesions or cerebral edema.

    Case Description: We describe a case of progressive headache and visual disturbances attributed to PTC that resulted from subacute superior sagittal sinus (SSS) stenosis by a metastatic tumor.

    Conclusions: Venous outflow obstruction often presents with an acute symptomatology including infarcts, hemorrhages, and seizures, but only rarely does it cause the progressive development of raised ICP. Read More

    Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Induced Retinal Folds and Deformations.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Aug;58(10):4286-4291
    New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States.
    Purpose: We hypothesized that the edema/swelling in the retina due to acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) can induce retinal folds (RF). We determined the pattern and frequency of folds in NAION at presentation and in follow-up, and the relationship between folds and a number of functional and structural parameters over time.

    Methods: We prospectively studied eyes with acute NAION by spectral-domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Read More

    Pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension - Is the fixed threshold value of elevated LP opening pressure set too high?
    Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2017 Nov 12;21(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in children is a rare condition of unknown etiology and various clinical presentations. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate if our pediatric IIH study group fulfilled the revised diagnostic criteria for IIH published in 2013, particularly with regard to clinical presentation and threshold value of an elevated lumbar puncture opening pressure. Additionally we investigated the potential utilization of MR-based and fundoscopic methods of estimating intracranial pressure for improved diagnosis. Read More

    Optical Coherence Tomography to Differentiate Papilledema from Pseudopapilledema.
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2017 Aug 17;17(10):74. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS), Carretera de Colmenar Viejo Km 9.100, 28034, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose Of Review: Mild papilledema may be difficult to distinguish by clinical observation from pseudopapilledema. An accurate diagnosis is critical to avoid invasive workup and unwarranted treatment. In this review, we focus on the development and subsequent role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting and differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) from papilledema and other causes of acquired swelling of the optic disc. Read More

    Headache in patients with chronic subdural hematoma: analysis in 1080 patients.
    Neurosurg Rev 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Teikyo University Hospital, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8606, Japan.
    Headache is a major symptom in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) patients. However, some CSDH patients do not complain headache although the hematoma is thick with definite midline shift. This clinical study was performed to identify the mechanism of headache in CSDH patients. Read More

    Pediatric Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2017 Sep;37 Suppl 1:S33-S40
    Department of Ophthalmology (PHP), Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Jones Eye Institute, Little Rock, Arkansas; and Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences (CAS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, otherwise known as primary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), most frequently occurs in obese women of childbearing age. However, children may be affected as well. This review will address recent findings regarding demographics, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric PTCS. Read More

    The use of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;28(6):552-557
    aHong Kong Eye Hospital bDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Purpose Of Review: In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions.

    Recent Findings: Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss; monitoring neurodegenerative diseases or multiple sclerosis; and predicting visual loss in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Read More

    Noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 Aug 7;50(9):e6392. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Braincare Health Technology, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.
    Mortality and adverse neurologic sequelae from HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (HIV-CM) remains high due to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) complications. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) high opening pressure occurs in more than 50% of HIV-CM patients. Repeated lumbar puncture with CSF drainage and external lumbar drainage might be required in the management of these patients. Read More

    The protective effect of fish oil against cisplatin induced eye damage in rats.
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2017 Aug 25:1-6. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    d Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy , University of Inonu , Malatya , Turkey.
    Ocular toxicity induced by anticancer chemotherapy is not uncommon, but underestimated and under-reported. Visual changes have been attributed to a number of chemotherapeutic agents in humans. Cisplatin (CP), a heavy metal compound, is used in the treatment of many types of tumours. Read More

    Treatment Response in Pediatric Patients With Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2017 Dec;37(4):393-397
    Pediatrics Department (ET, SR, AO) and Pediatric Neurology Unit (AM, AFV), Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is a disorder defined by increased intracranial pressure in the absence of an intracranial space-occupying lesion. This retrospective study aimed to examine the outcomes in children with PTCS.

    Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from the charts of consecutive pediatric patients treated for PTCS at our hospital between 2000 and 2007 (60 patients; 36 females, 24 males). Read More

    Unexpected papilledema in a young male with Type 1 diabetes.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Aug 4;5(8):1333-1338. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Maimonides Institute of Biomedical Research (IMIBIC)CórdobaSpain.
    In young patients with T1D, neurological manifestations of cerebral hypertension should suggest the possibility of a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). In these patients an inherited prothrombotic risk factor, including factor V Leiden G1691A gene mutation, should be considered during an event of thrombosis. Improving the glycemic control is the first factor that should be controlled in a patient who carries a genetic prothrombotic risk factor. Read More

    DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Primary empty sella: a comprehensive review.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Dec 5;177(6):R275-R285. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Pituitary UnitDepartment of Endocrinology
    Primary empty sella (PES) is characterized by the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella, which is often associated with variable degrees of flattening of the pituitary gland in patients without previous pituitary pathologies. PES pathogenetic mechanisms are not well known but seem to be due to a sellar diaphragm incompetence, associated to the occurrence of upper sellar or pituitary factors, as intracranial hypertension and change of pituitary volume. As PES represents in a majority of cases, a neuroradiological findings without any clinical implication, the occurrence of endocrine, neurological and opthalmological symptoms, due to the above describes anatomical alteration, which delineates from the so called PES syndrome. Read More

    The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial: A Review of the Outcomes.
    Headache 2017 Sep 30;57(8):1303-1310. Epub 2017 Jul 30.
    Department of Neurology, and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objective: The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) was the first large, randomized study on the use of acetazolamide and weight loss for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension-associated vision loss. The multicenter trial also examined a number of secondary outcomes. This review summarizes all available results of the study published in the literature since 2014. Read More

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