J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Apr 13;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.
The sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary pacemaker of the heart, consists of a heterogeneous population of specialized cardiac myocytes that can spontaneously produce action potentials, generating the rhythm of the heart and coordinating heart contractions. Spontaneous beating can be observed from very early embryonic stage and under a series of genetic programing, the complex heterogeneous SAN cells are formed with specific biomarker proteins and generate robust automaticity. The SAN is capable to adjust its pacemaking rate in response to environmental and autonomic changes to regulate the heart's performance and maintain physiological needs of the body. Read More