242,582 results match your criteria PLoS Pathogens [Journal]
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007353. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006758. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
Background: Regular preventive chemotherapy (PCT) targeting high-risk populations is an effective way to control STH in the short term, but sustainable long-term STH control is expected to require improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, experimental studies have not been able to conclusively demonstrate the benefit of WASH in preventing STH (re-)infections. We investigated the impact of WASH on STH infections during and after PCT using mathematical modelling. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007409. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208525. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of International Health and Collaboration, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, Japan.
Objective: To examine the possibility of diagnosing the double burden of malnutrition using estimated deviation values in low- and lower-middle-income countries.
Methods: A modified version of the Japanese Diagnostic Tool was used. Data on 194 countries were analyzed, including data from the United Nations International Children's Fund, World Health Organization and World Bank. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007464. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Unit F100, Heidelberg, Germany.
The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is etiologically linked to the development of several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. EBV has a multifaceted life cycle that comprises virus lytic replication and latency programs. Considering EBV infection holistically, we rationalized that prophylactic EBV vaccines should ideally prime the immune system against lytic and latent proteins. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208763. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Division of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
Clinicians commonly recommend increased hydration to patients with voice disorders. However, effects on clinical voice outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hydration-induced change within different layers of vocal fold tissue is currently unknown. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Evolutionary and Computational Virology, Leuven, Belgium.
Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 2015, we reconstruct the demographic and dispersal history of domestic dog rabies virus (RABV) as well as the dynamics of dog-to-dog and dog-to-human transmission. Phylogeographic analyses reveal a lower diffusion coefficient than previously estimated for dog RABV dissemination in northern Africa. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208729. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
Background: In Ethiopia, the uptake of antenatal care services has been low. Moreover, there is less frequent and late attendance of antenatal care among women who attend. Using the Anderson-Newman model of health care utilization, this study identified factors that either facilitate or impede antenatal care utilization in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208824. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Objectives: To quantify changes in anticoagulant use in Australia since the introduction of Non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (NOACs) and to estimate government expenditure.
Design: Interrupted-time-series analysis quantifying anticoagulant dispensing, before and after first Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) NOAC listing in August 2009 for venous thromboembolism prevention; and expanded listing for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in August 2013, up to June 2016. Estimated government expenditure on PBS-listed anticoagulants. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208916. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil.
The aim of this study was to identify the levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCA) compared to healthy individuals. A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was performed at a reference center for the treatment of patients with hemoglobinopathies in northeastern Brazil. Patients were recruited between October 2015 and January 2017. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208702. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
IPEM, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
The use of music and specifically tempo-matched music has been shown to affect running performance. But can we maximize the synchronization of movements to music and does maximum synchronization influence kinematics and motivation? In this study, we explore the effect of different types of music-to-movement alignment strategies on phase coherence, cadence and motivation. These strategies were compared to a control condition where the music tempo was deliberately not aligned to the running cadence. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208460. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.
The surgical standard of care for lumbar discectomy leaves the annulus fibrosus (AF) defect unrepaired, despite considerable risk for a recurrent herniation. Identification of a viable defect repair strategy has until now been elusive. The scope of this ex vivo biomechanical study was to evaluate crosslinking hydrogels as potentially promising AF defect sealants, and provide a baseline for their use in combination with collagen scaffolds that restore disc volume. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Recent research suggests that affluent individuals adopt agentic self-concepts, striving to stand out from others and to master the environment on their own. The present study provides a road test of this idea, showing that this theorizing can be utilized to increase charitable giving among the affluent, when individuals do not realize that their behavior is being studied. In a naturalistic field experiment conducted as part of an annual fundraising campaign (N = 12,316), we randomly assigned individuals from an affluent sample to view messages focused on agency (vs. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208546. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
Background: Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have recently been linked to immunosenescence, a key mechanism in carcinogenesis, as well as many aging-related chronic diseases. Since feces are the main excretion route of POPs, the large intestine is a potential target organ for these pollutants. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether exposure to low-dose POPs is related to the risk of colorectal polyps and cancer. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208518. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Infectious Diseases Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes serious antibiotic-resistant infections. Its population structure is marked by the appearance and dissemination of successful lineages across different settings. To begin understanding the population structure of S. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007432. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Viral Pathogenesis Unit, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization states. We interrogated the significance of the CCR5 structural diversity on HIV-1 infection. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208690. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.
Self-care is important for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients' disease prognosis, but there is a common phenomenon of self-regulation failure in T2DMs. In order to figure this problem out, the current study explored the interaction between self-regulation resource depletion and diabetes self-care based on the limited resource model of self-regulation. 104 patients were surveyed using the Self-Regulatory Fatigue Scale (SRF-S) and the Diabetes Self-care Scale (DSCS) in study 1. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208649. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
NWC is an uncharacterised protein containing three strongly conserved domains not found in any other known protein. Previously, we reported that the NWC protein is detected in cells in the germinal layer in murine testes (strain: C57BL/6), and its knockout results in no obvious phenotype. We determined the NWC expression pattern during spermatogenesis, and found this protein in spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in epididymal sperm. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208591. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.
The response of trees to a changing climate can be affected by transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, i.e. phenotypic variation that is conserved and transferred to the offspring. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208468. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand.
Conjugation is a type of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) that serves as the primary mechanism responsible for accelerating the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the conjugation-mediated gene transfer from the extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) and New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii (NDM-AB) to environmental isolates of Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to ticarcillin and kanamycin could be transferred from four donors to two sodium azide-resistant A. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208551. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, P.R. China.
Inbred lines are important germplasm in cauliflower breeding programs. To understand the genetic diversity and relationships of cauliflower inbred lines, the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers will be of great value for parental line selection and breeding strategy design. In this study, the genetic diversity and relationships of 165 cauliflower inbred lines primarily derived from southeast China were assessed using SSR markers. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208576. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Reproductive Medicine & Fertility Preservation, Hôpital Jean Verdier, Bondy, France.
In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes retrieved at germinal vesicle or Metaphase I stage, followed by vitrification of Metaphase II (MII) oocytes, has recently emerged as an option for urgent fertility preservation (FP). Priming is usually achieved with an injection of hCG, 10,000 IU, 36 hours before retrieval. This study aimed to assess a new method of priming, using GnRH agonists, and compare it to hCG, in cancer patients undergoing urgent FP. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208571. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Haaglanden Medical Center, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Aim: Increasing evidence exists with respect to the relation between stressful life events and functional constipation (FC). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of FC in Palestinian refugee preschool children and to determine if stress and trauma exposure are risk factors of FC in these children.
Methods: From November 2013 until May 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in West Bank, Gaza and Jordan. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208519. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Climate Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Lakes are a key geographical feature in Canada and have an impact on the regional climate. In the winter, they are important for recreational activities such as snowmobiling and ice fishing and act as part of an important supply route for northern communities. The ability to accurately report lake ice characteristics such as thickness is vital, however, it is underreported in Canada and there is a lack of lake ice thickness records for temperate latitude areas such as Central Ontario. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208575. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
Background: A key mechanism thought to underlie Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is enhanced emotional memory consolidation. Recent evidence in healthy controls revealed that women have greater negative memory consolidation following stress relative to men. This study examined emotional memory consolidation in women and men with PTSD, and in trauma-exposed and non-trauma controls to test the hypothesis that emotionally negative memory consolidation would be greater in women with PTSD. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208532. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil.
Despite significant and successful efforts in Brazil regarding snakebites in the areas of research, antivenom manufacture and quality control, training of health professionals in the diagnosis and clinical management of bites, little is known about determinants of snakebites incidence in order to further plan interventions to reduce the impact of this medical condition. Understanding the complexity of ecological interactions in a geographical region is important for prediction, prevention and control measures of snakebites. This investigation aims to describe spatial distribution and identify environmental determinants of human envenoming by lancehead pit vipers (Bothrops genus), in the Brazilian Amazon. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208473. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Psychology, School of Sociology and Psychology, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing, China.
We were interested in how specific cultural value and adolescent social behavior would influence each other over time. Thus the present study explored the longitudinal and bidirectional relations between adolescents' power distance value and prosocial behavior toward powerful people over a year. A sample of 434 Chinese adolescents participated in the investigation (initial mean age = 11. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208495. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
Background: Re-biopsy by bronchoscopy is an important part of treatment for patients with relapsed lung cancer; however, some patients refuse to undergo a re-examination due to discomfort during their first bronchoscopy. The aim of the present study was to determine factors causing discomfort during bronchoscopy and to identify the factors that affect patients' reluctance to undergo repeat examinations via a questionnaire administered immediately after the initial bronchoscopy.
Methods And Findings: We evaluated 283 patients who underwent bronchoscopy at Chiba University Hospital between September 2015 and March 2017. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208485. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common micronutrient deficiency worldwide, and an important health problem especially in women of reproductive age. This study aimed to determine the relationship between IDA and sexual satisfaction and function among reproductive-aged Iranian women. In this study, 129 women (52 with IDA and 77 non-IDA) with age 18-45 in Mahshahr, Iran were recruited. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208508. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Research and Development, CFGenome Omaha NE, United States of America.
This study was undertaken to evaluate a novel method for stabilizing and preserving the original proportion of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood for extended periods of time without using crosslinking agents, such as formaldehyde, which compromise DNA integrity and extraction efficiency. Blood was drawn from pregnant donors into K3EDTA and Blood Exo DNA ProTeck® (ProTeck) tubes. Blood drawn into both tubes were aliquoted and stored at three different temperatures. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208588. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
Purpose: Modern non-invasive evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) requires non-contrast low dose Computed Tomography (CT) imaging for determination of Calcium Scoring (CACS) and contrast-enhanced imaging for evaluation of vascular stenosis. Several methods for calculation of CACS from contrast-enhanced images have been proposed before. The main principle for that is generation of virtual non-contrast images by iodine subtraction from a contrast-enhanced spectral CT dataset. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208494. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
School of Computer and Information Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.
Since multi-view data are available in many real-world clustering problems, multi-view clustering has received considerable attention in recent years. Most existing multi-view clustering methods learn consensus clustering results but do not make full use of the distinct knowledge in each view so that they cannot well guarantee the complementarity across different views. In this paper, we propose a Distinction based Consensus Spectral Clustering (DCSC), which not only learns a consensus result of clustering, but also explicitly captures the distinct variance of each view. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208620. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Background: Anterior temporal lobe hyperintensities detected by brain MRI are a recognized imaging hallmark of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Because similar findings may be present in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the brain MRI in these two diseases is often misinterpreted. We compared the MRI findings between the two entities to examine whether they display distinctive characteristics. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208585. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CRESA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is one of the most widespread viral infections of swine, causing a remarkable economic impact because of direct losses and indirect costs for its control. As other ssDNA viruses, PCV-2 is characterized by a high evolutionary rate, leading to the emergence of a plethora of variants with different biological and epidemiological features. Over time, several attempts have been made to organize PCV-2 genetic heterogeneity in recognized genotypes. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208647. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is an important pest of maize in the Americas and has recently been introduced into Africa. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208558. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models bridge the gap between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. Physiologically relevant, 3D culture models have significantly advanced basic cell science and provide unique insights into host-pathogen interactions intrinsically linked to cell morphology. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intravacuolar parasite that chronically infects a large portion of the global human population. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208343. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
Successful T-dependent humoral responses require the production of antibody-secreting plasmablasts, as well as the formation of germinal centers which eventually form high-affinity B cell memory. The ability of B cells to differentiate into germinal center and plasma cells, as well as the ability to tailor responses to different pathogens, is driven by transcription factors. In T cells, the T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) regulate effector and memory T cell differentiation, respectively. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208556. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Dun-Duk Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam, Korea.
Cornus kousa the Korean dogwood has been traditionally used in East Asia as therapeutic traditional medicine however biological activities of Cornus kousa have not been investigated previously. The aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-obesity activities coupled with anti-angiogenic activities of anthocyanins rich fraction of ethanolic leaf extract of Cornus kousa (ELECk) in HUVECs and 3T3- L1 cells. Dried plants leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol and anthocyanin fraction (AnT Fr) was obtained by eluting the ethanolic extract through non-polar macroporous resin and further purification by HPLC. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208549. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is an oil-bearing plant used for biodiesel production. Construction of its standard karyotype and identification of the euchromatin/heterochromatin distribution associated with gene expression and meiotic recombination are essential to fully characterize its genome. Here, we developed a J. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207826. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, The Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden.
Serine proteases constitute the major protein content of mast cell secretory granules. Here we present the extended cleavage specificity of two such proteases from the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Analysis by phage display technique showed that one of them (HAM1) is a classical chymase with a specificity similar to the human mast cell chymase. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208402. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
Background: Malaysia has a comprehensive, publicly-funded immunization program for hepatitis B (HepB) among infants, but adults must pay for the vaccine. The number of HepB carriers among adults is expected to increase in the future; therefore, we examined the impact of five constructs (cues to action, perceived barriers, perceived benefit, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility) on adults' willingness to pay (WTP) for HepB vaccine; secondarily, we examined the association between perceived barriers and perceived benefits.
Methods: Adults were selected through a stratified, two-stage cluster community sample in Selangor, Malaysia. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208278. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Area de Microbiología, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
The biosynthesis of the antifungal filipin in Streptomyces filipinensis is very sensitive to phosphate regulation. Concentrations as low as 2.5 mM block filipin production. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208637. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Oncology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.
Background: In this study, we assessed the association of SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) dose and volume with radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk in lung tumor.
Methods: Relevant articles were identified up to April 2018, using following databases; Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The pooled OR (odds ratio) with 95% CI (confidence interval) data [mean ± SD (standard deviation)] obtained from different studies was analyzed by statistical analysis using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model when appropriate. Read More
PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208316. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, Brazil.
β-thalassemia is a worldwide distributed monogenic red cell disorder, characterized by an absent or reduced beta globin chain synthesis. The unbalance of alpha-gamma chain and the presence of pathological free iron promote severe oxidative damage, playing crucial a role in erythrocyte hemolysis, exacerbating ineffective erythropoiesis and decreasing the lifespan of red blood cells (RBC). Catalase, glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxins act together to protect RBCs from hydrogen peroxide insult. Read More