212,640 results match your criteria PLoS ONE [Journal]


Pregnancy intention and contraceptive use among HIV-positive Malawian women at 4-26 weeks post-partum: A nested cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215947. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Background: Avoiding unintended pregnancies through family planning is a WHO strategy for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and maternal morbidity/mortality. We investigated factors associated with unintended index pregnancy, unmet contraceptive need, future pregnancy intention and current contraceptive use among Malawian women living with HIV in the Option B+ era.

Methods: Women who tested HIV positive at 4-26 weeks postpartum were enrolled into a cross-sectional study at high-volume Under-5 clinics. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215947PLOS
April 2019
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In vivo functional analysis of a class A β-lactamase-related protein essential for clavulanic acid biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215960. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada.

In Streptomyces clavuligerus, the gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of the clinically used β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid contains a gene (orf12 or cpe) encoding a protein with a C-terminal class A β-lactamase-like domain. The cpe gene is essential for clavulanic acid production, and the recent crystal structure of its product (Cpe) was shown to also contain an N-terminal isomerase/cyclase-like domain, but the function of the protein remains unknown. In the current study, we show that Cpe is a cytoplasmic protein and that both its N- and C-terminal domains are required for in vivo clavulanic acid production in S. Read More

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The value of cytoreductive nephrectomy on the survival of metastatic renal carcinoma patients based on the number of site-specific metastases.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215861. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: There has been significant uncertainty in the selection of candidates for cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This report investigates the influence of site-specific metastases (bone, brain, liver, and lung) on the survival benefit of CN.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2010-2014), 1113 mRCC patients treated with CN (n = 618) or no surgery (NS, n = 495) met the selection criteria. Read More

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April 2019
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Comparison of the microbiome, metabolome, and lipidome of obese and non-obese horses.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215918. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States of America.

Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans have been linked to alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and metabolome. Knowledge of these associations has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases and guided development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic interventions. The cellular and molecular pathophysiology of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) and obesity in horses, however, remain ill-defined. Read More

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The Plastisphere - Uncovering tightly attached plastic "specific" microorganisms.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215859. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Alfred-Wegener-Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Helgoland, Germany.

In order to understand the degradation potential of plastics in the marine environment, microorganisms that preferentially colonize and interact with plastic surfaces, as opposed to generalists potentially colonising everything, need to be identified. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that i.) plastic "specific" microorganisms are closely attached to the polymeric surface and ii. Read More

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April 2019
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Peptide barcoding for establishment of new types of genotype-phenotype linkages.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215993. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.

Measuring binding properties of binders (e.g., antibodies) is essential for developing useful experimental reagents, diagnostics, and pharmaceuticals. Read More

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Re-introducing non-optimal synonymous codons into codon-optimized constructs enhances soluble recovery of recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215892. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Drug Discovery Program, CRUK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Gene synthesis services have largely superseded traditional PCR methods for the generation of cDNAs destined for bacterial expression vectors. This, in turn, has increased the application of codon-optimized cDNAs where codons rarely used by Escherchia coli are replaced with common synonymous codons to accelerate translation of the target. A markedly accelerated rate of expression often results in a significant uplift in the levels of target protein but a substantial proportion of the enhanced yield can partition to the insoluble fraction rendering a significant portion of the gains unavailable for native purification. Read More

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Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for identification of patients with hyperventilation syndrome.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215997. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Introduction: Measurement of ventilatory efficiency, defined as minute ventilation per unit carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2), by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been proposed as a screen for hyperventilation syndrome (HVS). However, increased VE/VCO2 may be associated with other disorders which need to be distinguished from HVS. A more specific marker of HVS by CPET would be clinically useful. Read More

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April 2019
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Natural variation in the roles of C. elegans autophagy components during microsporidia infection.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0216011. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Natural genetic variation can determine the outcome of an infection, and often reflects the co-evolutionary battle between hosts and pathogens. We previously found that a natural variant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from Hawaii (HW) has increased resistance against natural microsporidian pathogens in the Nematocida genus, when compared to the standard laboratory strain of N2. In particular, HW animals can clear infection, while N2 animals cannot. Read More

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Diurnal variation of human tear meniscus volume measured with tear strip meniscometry self-examination.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215922. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Tear secretion is critical for maintenance of healthy ocular surface and vision. Most of normal subjects and dry eye patients feel worsening of ocular dryness in the afternoon, however, diurnal variation of tear meniscus volume has not been directly measured because there was no appropriate method. We used a simple, non-invasive technique, tear strip meniscometry (SM) by self-examination. Read More

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Baseline cultural competence in physician assistant students.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215910. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Physician Assistant Studies Department, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, United States of America.

Purpose: Cultural competence is a critical component in health care services. The relationship between health disparities and prejudice and discrimination is well documented. Prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior are modifiable through training yet few programs have evidence-based training. Read More

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Regional level influenza study based on Twitter and machine learning method.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215600. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science & Dynamic Measurement Ministry of Educations, School of Information and Communication Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030051, People's Republic of China.

The significance of flu prediction is that the appropriate preventive and control measures can be taken by relevant departments after assessing predicted data; thus, morbidity and mortality can be reduced. In this paper, three flu prediction models, based on twitter and US Centers for Disease Control's (CDC's) Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) data, are proposed (models 1-3) to verify the factors that affect the spread of the flu. In this work, an Improved Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to optimize the parameters of Support Vector Regression (IPSO-SVR) was proposed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215600PLOS
April 2019
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The association between neck adiposity and long-term outcome.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215538. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Anthropometric indices of obesity (e.g. body mass index, waist circumference and neck circumference) are associated with poor long-term cardiovascular outcome. Read More

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Interactions between a population of fallow deer (Dama dama), humans and crops in a managed composite temperate landscape in southern Sweden: Conflict or opportunity?

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215594. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden.

Landscapes composed of agricultural land mixed with forest are desirable since they provide a wide range of diversified ecosystem services, unlike specialized agricultural landscapes, but that creates a trade-off between these land uses since wildlife usually feed on crops and reduce yields. In Nordic countries, where human population density is low and game hunting can be a viable economic alternative, mixed landscape systems are particularly interesting. To evaluate the economic sustainability of such systems we need to quantify wildlife damage to crops. Read More

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The 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations may be able to more accurately identify patients at risk for diastolic dysfunction in living donor liver transplantation.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215603. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction between the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and 2009 ASE/European Association of Echocardiography recommendations in patients undergoing living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT).

Patients And Methods: A total of 312 adult patients who underwent LDLT at our hospital from January 2010 to December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion criteria were systolic dysfunction, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, and mitral or aortic valvular insufficiency. Read More

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Predictors of mortality in adult people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Nepal: A retrospective cohort study, 2004-2013.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215776. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Saath-Saath Project, Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: In Nepal, since 2004, 19,388 people living with HIV (PLHIV) have been enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to measure mortality rate and to identify predictors of mortality in adult (≥15 years) PLHIV who initiated ART between 2004 and 2013 in five large ART centers of Nepal.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study of 3,799 (60. Read More

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Knowledge about cataract and associated factors among adults in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215809. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Optometry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding cataract and associated factors among adults in Gondar town Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 836 adults age ≥18years, using multi-stage systematic random sampling technique, in Gondar town Northwest Ethiopia from April 15-May 7, 2017. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires through face to face interview. Read More

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Effects of bensulfuron-methyl residue on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves of cucumber seedlings.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215486. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute of Plant Protection, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Henan Key Laboratory of Crop Pest Control, IPM key laboratory in the southern part of North China for Ministry of Agriculture, Zhengzhou, China.

A potted soil experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) residue on the growth and photosynthesis of seedlings of a local cucumber variety (Xia Feng No.1). When the residue of bensulfuron-methyl in soil exceeded 50μg kg-1, it significantly inhibited the growth of cucumber, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity of cucumber. Read More

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April 2019
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Effects of tendon injury on uninjured regional tendons in the distal limb: An in-vivo study using an ovine tendinopathy model.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215830. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Raymond Purves Bone and Joint Research Laboratories, The Kolling Institute, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Following injury to a tendon little is known about potential for pathology to develop in other regional tendons from overloading or altered function. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression and histopathological changes that occur 1) within the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) after injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and 2) within the flexor tendons (SDFT and DDFT) after injury to the extensor tendons. Merino wethers [Ovis aries] (n = 18) were divided into three equal groups and underwent either partial transection of the SDFT, complete transection of the extensor tendons or were left as non-operated controls. Read More

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April 2019
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Effects of hydrogen-rich water in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215766. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

Various factors are considered to be mechanisms of the increase in the sizes of cysts in patients with polycystic kidney disease. Vasopressin is one of the causes, and drinking large volumes of water shows an effect of suppressing an increase in cysts. On the other hand, it is known that hydrogen-rich water reduces oxidative stress and has a good effect on kidney injury. Read More

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Effects of the selective inhibition of proteasome caspase-like activity by CLi a derivative of nor-cerpegin in dystrophic mdx mice.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215821. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Sorbonne Université, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine (IBPS), CNRS UMR 8256, Inserm ERL U1164, Biological Adaptation and Ageing, Paris, France.

Previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibition can have beneficial effects in dystrophic mouse models. In this study, we have investigated the effects of a new selective proteasome inhibitor, CLi, a strong caspase-like inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, on skeletal and cardiac muscle functions of mdx mice. In the first series of experiments, five-month-old male mdx mice (n = 34) were treated with 2 different doses (20 and 100 μg/kg) of CLi and in the second series of experiments, five-month-old female mdx (n = 19) and wild-type (n = 24) mice were treated with 20 μg/kg CLi and Velcade (1 mg/kg) for 1-month. Read More

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April 2019
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Consensus and variations in cell line specificity among human metapneumovirus strains.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215822. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, Japan.

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has been a notable etiological agent of acute respiratory infection in humans, but it was not discovered until 2001, because HMPV replicates only in a limited number of cell lines and the cytopathic effect (CPE) is often mild. To promote the study of HMPV, several groups have generated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing recombinant HMPV strains (HMPVGFP). However, the growing evidence has complicated the understanding of cell line specificity of HMPV, because it seems to vary notably among HMPV strains. Read More

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Effects of curcumin on glycemic control and lipid profile in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215840. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Scope: Studies have demonstrated inconsistent effects of curcumin on glycemic outcomes and lipid parameters in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to assess the effect of curcumin on glycemic control and lipid profile in prediabetes and T2DM.

Methods And Results: A systematic search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted from inception to June 2018 in electronic sources including AMED, ANZCTR, BioMed Central, CENTRAL, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Different predation capacities and mechanisms of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on two morphotypes of pear psylla Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215834. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Pear psylla, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li) are present as two seasonal morphotypes in pear orchards where they, suck phloem sap, defoliate pear trees, and cause fruit russet. Despite the importance of natural enemies in psyllid control, the interactions between predators and the two seasonal morphotypes of psyllids remain poorly documented. Here we determined the predation efficiencies of the Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) on the two psyllid morphotypes. Read More

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Media portrayal of illness-related medical crowdfunding: A content analysis of newspaper articles in the United States and Canada.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215805. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Health Law Institute, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Medical crowdfunding is a growing phenomenon, and newspapers are publishing on the topic. This research analyzed how illness-related crowdfunding and crowdfunding campaigns have recently been represented in newspapers that are popular in the United States and Canada.

Methods: A sample of 336 articles about medical crowdfunding published during the two year time period from October 7, 2015 to October 6, 2017 was produced using a Factiva search of the English language newspapers with the largest Canadian and United States readership. Read More

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Linoleic acid and stearic acid are biosynthetic precursors of (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienal, the major component of the sex pheromone of Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215769. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

The main pheromone compound of Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) has been recently identified as (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienal. The biosynthesis of this pheromone compound showing attributes of both Type I and Type II lepidopteran pheromones was studied by the topical application of isotope-labeled fatty acids to the pheromone gland and subsequent analysis of the gland contents (pheromone compounds and fatty acyl compounds) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The deuterium label of D11-linoleic acid was incorporated into the pheromone compound and its putative acyl precursor (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienoate, demonstrating that the pheromone compound is biosynthesized from linoleic acid by chain-shortening and further functional group transformation. Read More

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Tortuosity of the descending thoracic aorta: Normal values by age.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215549. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Health and Community Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: Aging changes the aorta in length, tortuosity and diameter. This is relevant in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and in the long term follow up.

Methods And Results: Two groups of hundred patients < 65 years and hundred patients ≥ 65 years, with no vascular diseases were made. Read More

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April 2019
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A lumped parameter model of endoplasm flow in Physarum polycephalum explains migration and polarization-induced asymmetry during the onset of locomotion.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215622. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute for Biophysics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

The plasmodial slime mold Physarum polycephalum exhibits strong, periodic flow of cytoplasm through the veins of its network. In the special case of mesoplasmodia, a newly described starvation-induced, shape-constant morphotype, this periodic endoplasm streaming is the basis of locomotion. Furthermore, we presume that cytoplasm flow is also involved in signal transmission and signal processing. Read More

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April 2019
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Holding soft objects increases expectation and disappointment in the Cyberball task.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215772. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

When a person is excluded from a group, she/he often experiences negative emotions, referred to as social pain. Previous studies have reported that touching/holding soft objects can lead to a decrease of negative attitude toward uncertain events, and it is possible that such physical intervention may also be effective for reducing social pain induced by the group exclusion. This study examines the effects of holding soft objects on social pain. Read More

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Study on optimization algorithm of tuned mass damper parameters to reduce vehicle-bridge coupled vibration.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215773. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Changsha Planning & Design Institute Co., Ltd., Changsha, Hunan, China.

A vehicle-bridge tuned mass damper (TMD) coupled dynamic analysis and vibration-control model was established to optimize TMD damping effects on a steel-box girder bridge bearing vehicle loads. It was also used to investigate optimization efficiency of different algorithms in TMD design parameters. This model simulated bridges and vehicles with the use of a 7 degrees of freedom curved-beam element model and a 7 degrees of freedom vehicle model, respectively. Read More

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Determinants of continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health services in rural Khammouane, Lao PDR.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215635. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: The concept of continuum of care has gained attention as measures to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. However, little is known about the factors associated with the coverage level of continuum of care in Lao PDR. Therefore, this study was conducted 1) to investigate the coverage level of continuum of care and 2) to identify barriers and promoting factors that are associated with mothers' continuation in receiving services in rural Lao PDR. Read More

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Middle-way flexible docking: Pose prediction using mixed-resolution Monte Carlo in estrogen receptor α.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215694. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, United States of America.

There is a vast gulf between the two primary strategies for simulating protein-ligand interactions. Docking methods significantly limit or eliminate protein flexibility to gain great speed at the price of uncontrolled inaccuracy, whereas fully flexible atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are expensive and often suffer from limited sampling. We have developed a flexible docking approach geared especially for highly flexible or poorly resolved targets based on mixed-resolution Monte Carlo (MRMC), which is intended to offer a balance among speed, protein flexibility, and sampling power. Read More

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April 2019
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Uptake and persistence of bacterial magnetite magnetosomes in a mammalian cell line: Implications for medical and biotechnological applications.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215657. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Magnetotactic bacteria biomineralize intracellular magnetic nanocrystals surrounded by a lipid bilayer called magnetosomes. Due to their unique characteristics, magnetite magnetosomes are promising tools in Biomedicine. However, the uptake, persistence, and accumulation of magnetosomes within mammalian cells have not been well studied. Read More

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Foreign Direct Investment in oil-abundant countries: The role of institutions.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215650. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Economic Structure, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

The present work reassesses the impact of good governance and democracy on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in oil-abundant countries. To this end, we estimate the effect of host countries' institutions on greenfield FDI, using a gravity equation for a dataset that covers 182 countries during 2003-2012. Our findings confirm that compliance to rule of law, lack of corruption, political stability and democracy could boost new FDI links through the extensive margin. Read More

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Ultrasonography and electrophysiological study of median nerve in patients with essential tremor.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215750. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Essential tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder characterized by postural or kinetic tremor. We aimed to evaluate median nerve enlargement in patients with ET using ultrasonography (USG). Thirty-eight hands from 19 patients with ET and 24 hands from 13 controls underwent nerve conduction studies (NCS) and USG at the wrist. Read More

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Structural and diffusion weighted MRI demonstrates responses to ibrutinib in a mouse model of follicular helper (Tfh) T-cell lymphoma.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215765. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Leicester Cancer Research Centre and Ernest and Helen Scott Haematology Research Institute, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Recent analyses of the genetics of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) have shown that a large proportion of cases are derived from normal follicular helper (Tfh) T-cells. The sanroque mouse strain bears a mutation that increases Tfh cell number and heterozygous animals (Roquinsan/+) develop lymphomas similar to human Tfh lymphoma. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of Roquinsan/+ animals as a pre-clinical model of Tfh lymphoma. Read More

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Dicer regulates activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215689. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Muscle Health Research Centre (MHRC), Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Inflammation plays a critical role in initiation of adaptive immunity, pathogen clearance and tissue repair. Interleukin (IL)-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine and therefore its production is tightly regulated: its secretion requires the assembly of a macromolecular protein complex, termed the inflammasome. Aberrant activation of the inflammasome has been linked to debilitating human diseases including chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Read More

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April 2019
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Postmortem imaging in goats using computed tomography with air as a negative contrast agent.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215758. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: Evaluation of the usefulness of air as a negative contrast medium of blood vessels in goats in post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and establishing the protocol with appropriate doses and timing of the contrast medium administration.

Methods: Thirty three goats were euthanized 10 to 300 min before the study. First, in 3 goats air was administered into the left or right common carotid artery at dose of 60, 100 and 120 ml/kg, and after each dose PMCT was performed in lateral recumbency. Read More

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Virtual patients designed for training against medical error: Exploring the impact of decision-making on learner motivation.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215597. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute of Medical and Biomedical Education, St George's, University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Medical error is a significant cause of patient harms in clinical practice, but education and training are recognised as having a key role in minimising their incidence. The use of virtual patient (VP) activities targeting training in medical error allows learners to practice patient management in a safe environment. The inclusion of branched decision-making elements in the activities has the potential to drive additional generative cognitive processing and improved learning outcomes, but the increased cognitive load on learning risks negatively affecting learner motivation. Read More

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April 2019
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Can nano-hydroxyapatite permeate the oral mucosa? A histological study using three-dimensional tissue models.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215681. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Sangi Co., Ltd, Central Research Laboratory, Kasukabe, Saitama, Japan.

Nano-hydroxyapatite is used in oral care products worldwide. But there is little evidence yet whether nano-hydroxyapatite can enter systemic tissues via the oral epithelium. We investigated histologically the ability of two types of nano-hydroxyapatite, SKM-1 and Mi-HAP, to permeate oral epithelium both with and without a stratum corneum, using two types of three-dimensional reconstituted human oral epithelium, SkinEthic HGE and SkinEthic HOE respectively with and without a stratum corneum. Read More

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Enhanced sentinel surveillance for hepatitis B infection in 200 counties in China, 2013-2016.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215580. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing,China.

Hepatitis B infection is a major public health challenge in China. Clinicians report hepatitis B cases to the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System. A 2007 study found that only 35% of hepatitis B cases that had been reported as acute infections met a rigorous case definition of acute hepatitis B, implying overreporting of new-onset infections. Read More

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April 2019
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Causal effects of challenge and threat appraisals on pain self-efficacy, pain coping, and tolerance for laboratory pain: An experimental path analysis study.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215087. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Cognition & Personality Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Primary appraisals of pain as a potential threat influence pain perception and coping but comparatively less is known about related effects of challenge appraisals or causal effects of primary appraisals on secondary appraisals of perceived pain coping capacities (e.g., pain self-efficacy). Read More

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Stochastic block models: A comparison of variants and inference methods.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215296. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Production Systems and Logistic Systems, BIBA - Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH at the University of Bremen, Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Finding communities in complex networks is a challenging task and one promising approach is the Stochastic Block Model (SBM). But the influences from various fields led to a diversity of variants and inference methods. Therefore, a comparison of the existing techniques and an independent analysis of their capabilities and weaknesses is needed. Read More

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Emotional and social repercussions of stroke on patient-family caregiver dyads: Analysis of diverging attitudes and profiles of the differing dyads.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0215425. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute for Research on Socio-Economy and health Inequalities (IRSEI), Unit INSIDE, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg city, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

For patients, the social and emotional repercussions of stroke include shame, personality changes, and upheavals experienced by the couple (i.e. patient and main family caregiver). Read More

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Identification of key regulatory genes connected to NF-κB family of proteins in visceral adipose tissues using gene expression and weighted protein interaction network.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(4):e0214337. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Center of Excellence in Bionanoscience Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Obesity is connected to the activation of chronic inflammatory pathways in both adipocytes and macrophages located in adipose tissues. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a central molecule involved in inflammatory pathways linked to the pathology of different complex metabolic disorders. Investigating the gene expression data in the adipose tissue would potentially unravel disease relevant gene interactions. Read More

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