6,878 results match your criteria PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases [Journal]


A major hurdle in the elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis revealed: Identifying key gaps in knowledge and understanding of female genital schistosomiasis within communities and local health workers.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0007207. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

COUNTDOWN Consortium, Institute for Health Research, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Background: Urogenital schistosomiasis is endemic throughout Ghana with elevated infection levels in certain areas e.g. Lake Volta Region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007207DOI Listing

The prevalence and antifolate drug resistance profiles of Plasmodium falciparum in study participants randomized to discontinue or continue cotrimoxazole prophylaxis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0007223. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Emerging and Infectious Diseases (DEID), United States Army Medical Research Directorate-Africa (USAMRD-A), Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Kisumu, Kenya.

Objective: Cotrimoxazole prevents opportunistic infections including falciparum malaria in HIV-infected individuals but there are concerns of cross-resistance to other antifolate drugs such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antifolate-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum that are associated with SP resistance in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment randomized to discontinue (STOP-CTX), or continue (CTX) cotrimoxazole in Western Kenya.

Design: Samples were obtained from an unblinded, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial where participants were recruited on a rolling basis for the first six months of the study, then followed-up for 12 months with samples collected at enrollment, quarterly, and during sick visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007223DOI Listing

Calculating the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection through pooling of stool samples: Choosing and optimizing the pooling strategy.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0007196. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

The DeWorm3 Project, Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.

Prevalence is a common epidemiological measure for assessing soil-transmitted helminth burden and forms the basis for much public-health decision-making. Standard diagnostic techniques are based on egg detection in stool samples through microscopy and these techniques are known to have poor sensitivity for individuals with low infection intensity, leading to poor sensitivity in low prevalence populations. PCR diagnostic techniques offer very high sensitivities even at low prevalence, but at a greater cost for each diagnostic test in terms of equipment needed and technician time and training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007196DOI Listing

Aurora kinase protein family in Trypanosoma cruzi: Novel role of an AUK-B homologue in kinetoplast replication.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0007256. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Laboratorio de señalización y mecanismos adaptativos en tripanosomátidos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular "Dr. Héctor N. Torres", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Aurora kinases constitute a family of enzymes that play a key role during metazoan cells division, being involved in events like centrosome maturation and division, chromatin condensation, mitotic spindle assembly, control of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and cytokinesis initiation. In this work, three Aurora kinase homologues were identified in Trypanosoma cruzi (TcAUK1, -2 and -3), a protozoan parasite of the Kinetoplastida Class. The genomic organization of these enzymes was fully analyzed, demonstrating that TcAUK1 is a single-copy gene, TcAUK2 coding sequence is present in two different forms (short and long) and TcAUK3 is a multi-copy gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007256DOI Listing

Helminth mediated modulation of the systemic and mycobacterial antigen - stimulated cytokine profiles in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0007265. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India.

Background: Helminth infections are known to regulate cytokine responses in both pulmonary and latent tuberculosis infection. Whether helminth infections also modulate cytokine responses in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, specifically tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBL), has not been examined thus far.

Methodology: Hence, to determine the cytokine profile in helminth-TBL coinfection, we measured the systemic and mycobacterial (TB)-antigen stimulated levels of Type 1, Type 2, Type 17, regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in TBL individuals coinfected with or without Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007265DOI Listing

A comparative genome analysis of Rift Valley Fever virus isolates from foci of the disease outbreak in South Africa in 2008-2010.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0006576. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Gauteng, South Africa.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging zoonotic disease responsible for major losses in livestock production, with negative impact on the livelihoods of both commercial and resource-poor farmers in sub-Sahara African countries. The disease remains a threat in countries where its mosquito vector thrives. Outbreaks of RVF usually follow weather conditions which favour increase in mosquito populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006576DOI Listing

Nicaragua's human rights crisis requires international response.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 21;13(3):e0007119. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

University of Central America, UCA, Managua, Nicaragua.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007119DOI Listing

A protocol to count Cryptosporidium oocysts by flow cytometry without antibody staining.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 20;13(3):e0007259. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

National Reference Centre for Parasitology, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Cryptosporidiosis caused by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum, threatens the lives of young children in developing countries. In veterinary medicine, C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007259DOI Listing

The influence of raw milk exposures on Rift Valley fever virus transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 20;13(3):e0007258. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic phlebovirus that can be transmitted to humans or livestock by mosquitoes or through direct contact with contaminated bodily fluids and tissues. Exposure to bodily fluids and tissues varies by types of behaviors engaged for occupational tasks, homestead responsibilities, or use in dietary or therapeutic capacities. While previous studies have included milk exposures in their analyses, their primary focus on livestock exposures has been on animal handling, breeding, and slaughter. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007258
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March 2019
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Wolbachia endosymbionts subvert the endoplasmic reticulum to acquire host membranes without triggering ER stress.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 20;13(3):e0007218. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

CRBM, University of Montpellier, CNRS, France.

The reproductive parasites Wolbachia are the most common endosymbionts on earth, present in a plethora of arthropod species. They have been introduced into mosquitos to successfully prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases, yet the strategies of host cell subversion underlying their obligate intracellular lifestyle remain to be explored in depth in order to gain insights into the mechanisms of pathogen-blocking. Like some other intracellular bacteria, Wolbachia reside in a host-derived vacuole in order to replicate and escape the immune surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007218DOI Listing

Correction: Strategies to increase adoption of animal vaccines by smallholder farmers with focus on neglected diseases and marginalized populations.

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PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 18;13(3):e0007279. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007279DOI Listing

Development and evaluation of a droplet digital PCR assay for the diagnosis of paucibacillary leprosy in skin biopsy specimens.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 18;13(3):e0007284. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Background: The reduced amounts of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) among paucibacillary (PB) patients reflect the need to further optimize methods for leprosy diagnosis. An increasing number of reports have shown that droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a promising tool for diagnosis of infectious disease among samples with low copy number. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007284DOI Listing

Update on the geographical distribution and prevalence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), two major arbovirus vectors in Cameroon.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 18;13(3):e0007137. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Introduction: Arboviral diseases including dengue are increasingly spreading in the tropical/subtropical world including Africa. Updated knowledge on the distribution and abundance of the major vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus constitutes crucial surveillance action to prepare African countries such as Cameroon for potential arbovirus outbreaks. Here, we present a nationwide survey in Cameroon to assess the current geographical distribution and prevalence of both vectors including a genetic diversity profiling of Ae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007137DOI Listing

Socio-epidemiological and land cover risk factors for melioidosis in Kedah, Northern Malaysia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 18;13(3):e0007243. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, United States of America.

Background: Melioidosis, a fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly diagnosed in tropical regions. However, data on risk factors and the geographic epidemiology of the disease are still limited. Previous studies have also largely been based on the analysis of case series data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007243DOI Listing

Increasing incidence of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in Queensland, Australia, 2007-2016.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 18;13(3):e0007187. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a major contributor to the global burden of foodborne disease, with invasive infections contributing substantially to illnesses and deaths. We analyzed notifiable disease surveillance data for invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease (iNTS) in Queensland, Australia. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios by gender, age group, and geographical area over 2007-2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007187DOI Listing

Insects in anthelminthics research: Lady beetle-derived harmonine affects survival, reproduction and stem cell proliferation of Schistosoma mansoni.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0007240. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institute of Parasitology, BFS, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

Natural products have moved into the spotlight as possible sources for new drugs in the treatment of helminth infections including schistosomiasis. Surprisingly, insect-derived compounds have largely been neglected so far in the search for novel anthelminthics, despite the generally recognized high potential of insect biotechnology for drug discovery. This motivated us to assess the antischistosomal capacity of harmonine, an antimicrobial alkaloid from the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis that raised high interest in insect biotechnology in recent years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007240DOI Listing

The paediatric participation scale measuring participation restrictions among former Buruli Ulcer patients under the age of 15 in Ghana and Benin: Development and first validation results.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0007273. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

University of Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Former BU patients may experience participation restrictions due to physical limitations, stigmatization and other social factors. A scale that measures participation restrictions among children, who represent almost half of the affected population, has not been developed yet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007273DOI Listing
March 2019
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Nutritional stress targets LeishIF4E-3 to storage granules that contain RNA and ribosome components in Leishmania.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0007237. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Leishmania parasites lack pathways for de novo purine biosynthesis. The depletion of purines induces differentiation into virulent metacyclic forms. In vitro, the parasites can survive prolonged periods of purine withdrawal changing their morphology to long and slender cells with an extended flagellum, and decreasing their translation rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007237DOI Listing

In vitro model of postoncosphere development, and in vivo infection abilities of Taenia solium and T. saginata.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0007261. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Taenia solium is known to cause human cysticercosis while T. saginata does not. Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies on the oncosphere and the postoncospheral (PO) forms of T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007261DOI Listing
March 2019
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Molecular and antigenic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi TolT proteins.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0007245. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas "Dr Rodolfo Ugalde" (IIB-INTECh, Universidad Nacional de San Martín and CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: TolT was originally described as a Trypanosoma cruzi molecule that accumulated on the trypomastigote flagellum bearing similarity to bacterial TolA colicins receptors. Preliminary biochemical studies indicated that TolT resolved in SDS-PAGE as ~3-5 different bands with sizes between 34 and 45 kDa, and that this heterogeneity could be ascribed to differences in polypeptide glycosylation. However, the recurrent identification of TolT-deduced peptides, and variations thereof, in trypomastigote proteomic surveys suggested an intrinsic TolT complexity, and prompted us to undertake a thorough reassessment of this antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007245DOI Listing

Use of oral cholera vaccine as a vaccine probe to determine the burden of culture-negative cholera.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 14;13(3):e0007179. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Analyses of stool from patients with acute watery diarrhea (AWD) using sensitive molecular diagnostics have challenged whether fecal microbiological cultures have acceptably high sensitivity for cholera diagnosis. If true, these findings imply that current estimates of the global burden of cholera, which rely largely on culture-confirmation, may be underestimates. We conducted a vaccine probe study to evaluate this possibility, assessing whether an effective killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) tested in a field trial in a cholera-endemic population conferred protection against cholera culture-negative AWD, with the assumption that if cultures are indeed insensitive, OCV protection in such cases should be detectable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007179DOI Listing

A novel diagnostic algorithm equipped on an automated hematology analyzer to differentiate between common causes of febrile illness in Southeast Asia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0007183. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Distinguishing arboviral infections from bacterial causes of febrile illness is of great importance for clinical management. The Infection Manager System (IMS) is a novel diagnostic algorithm equipped on a Sysmex hematology analyzer that evaluates the host response using novel techniques that quantify cellular activation and cell membrane composition. The aim of this study was to train and validate the IMS to differentiate between arboviral and common bacterial infections in Southeast Asia and compare its performance against C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007183DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Serological proteomic screening and evaluation of a recombinant egg antigen for the diagnosis of low-intensity Schistosoma mansoni infections in endemic area in Brazil.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 14;13(3):e0006974. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Biologia do Schistosoma mansoni e sua interação com o hospedeiro, Instituto René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Despite decades of use of control programs, schistosomiasis remains a global public health problem. To further reduce prevalence and intensity of infection, or to achieve the goal of elimination in low-endemic areas, there needs to be better diagnostic tools to detect low-intensity infections in low-endemic areas in Brazil. The rationale for development of new diagnostic tools is that the current standard test Kato-Katz (KK) is not sensitive enough to detect low-intensity infections in low-endemic areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006974DOI Listing

Melioidosis: The hazards of incomplete peer-review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 14;13(3):e0007123. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University and Infectious Diseases Department, Royal Darwin Hospital and Northern Territory Medical Program, Darwin NT, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007123DOI Listing

Retraction: Vector competence of biting midges and mosquitoes for Shuni virus.

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PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 13;13(3):e0007274. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007274DOI Listing

Strongyloides stercoralis infection: A systematic review of endemic cases in Spain.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 12;13(3):e0007230. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, PROSICS Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Strongyloides stercoralis infection, a neglected tropical disease, is widely distributed. Autochthonous cases have been described in Spain, probably infected long time ago. In recent years the number of diagnosed cases has increased due to the growing number of immigrants, travelers and refugees, but endemically acquired cases in Spain remains undetermined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007230DOI Listing
March 2019
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Spatial distribution, prevalence and potential risk factors of Tungiasis in Vihiga County, Kenya.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 12;13(3):e0007244. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Production Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Tungiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans also known as jigger flea. Communities living in precarious conditions in tropical and sub tropical countries bear the brunt of the infection. The main objective of this study was to determine the burden of Tungiasis in Vihiga County in Kenya. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007244DOI Listing

Perinatal analyses of Zika- and dengue virus-specific neutralizing antibodies: A microcephaly case-control study in an area of high dengue endemicity in Brazil.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 11;13(3):e0007246. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Aggeu Magalhães Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Laboratory confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is challenging due to cross-reactivity with dengue virus (DENV) and limited knowledge about the kinetics of anti-Zika antibody responses during pregnancy. We described ZIKV and DENV serological markers and the maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies among mothers and neonates after the ZIKV microcephaly outbreak in Northeast Brazil (2016). We included 89 microcephaly cases and 173 neonate controls at time of birth and their mothers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007246DOI Listing

Assessment of false negative rates of lactate dehydrogenase-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium ovale detection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 11;13(3):e0007254. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

NHC Key Laboratory of Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory on Parasite and Vector Control Technology (Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases), Wuxi, China.

Currently, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but test performance and the factors that lead to failure of Plasmodium ovale detection are not well understood. In this study, three pLDH-based RDTs were evaluated using cases in China that originated in Africa. The sensitivity of Wondfo Pf/Pan, CareStart pLDH PAN and SD BIOLINE Pf/Pan in P. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007254
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007254DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

A polyvalent coral snake antivenom with broad neutralization capacity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 11;13(3):e0007250. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Grupo de Investigación en Animales Ponzoñosos y sus Venenos, Grupo de Producción y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Dirección de Producción, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, Colombia.

Coral snakes of the genus Micrurus have a high diversity and wide distribution in the Americas. Despite envenomings by these animals being uncommon, accidents are often severe and may result in death. Producing an antivenom to treat these envenomings has been challenging since coral snakes are difficult to catch, produce small amounts of venom, and the antivenoms produced have shown limited cross neutralization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007250DOI Listing

Active surveillance identified a neglected burden of macular cases of Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in West Bengal.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 11;13(3):e0007249. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) develops in patients apparently cured of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), and is the strongest contender for being the disease reservoir. Therefore, existence of a few cases is sufficient to trigger an epidemic of VL in a given community, emphasizing the need for its active detection and in turn ensuring success of the current elimination program. This study explored the impact of active surveillance on the demographic profile of PKDL patients in West Bengal. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007249
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007249DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

A combined experimental-computational approach for spatial protection efficacy assessment of controlled release devices against mosquitoes (Anopheles).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 11;13(3):e0007188. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

GearJump Technologies LLC, Brookline, MA, United States of America.

This work describes the use of entomological studies combined with in silico models (computer simulations derived from numerical models) to assess the efficacy of a novel device for controlled release of spatial repellents. Controlled Release Devices (CRDs) were tested with different concentrations of metofluthrin and tested against An. quadrimaculatus mosquitoes using arm-in cage, semi-field, and outdoor studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007188DOI Listing

Analysis of a meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Niger - potential effectiveness of reactive prophylaxis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 11;13(3):e0007077. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Departments of Epidemiology and Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Seasonal epidemics of bacterial meningitis in the African Meningitis Belt carry a high burden of disease and mortality. Reactive mass vaccination is used as a control measure during epidemics, but the time taken to gain immunity from the vaccine reduces the flexibility and effectiveness of these campaigns. Targeted reactive antibiotic prophylaxis could be used to supplement reactive mass vaccination and further reduce the incidence of meningitis, and the potential effectiveness and efficiency of these strategies should be explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007077DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A little goes a long way: Weak vaccine transmission facilitates oral vaccination campaigns against zoonotic pathogens.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 8;13(3):e0007251. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Mathematics. University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, United States of America.

Zoonotic pathogens such as Ebola and rabies pose a major health risk to humans. One proven approach to minimizing the impact of a pathogen relies on reducing its prevalence within animal reservoir populations using mass vaccination. However, two major challenges remain for vaccination programs that target free-ranging animal populations. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007251
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007251DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

A systematic review of scabies transmission models and data to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of scabies interventions.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 8;13(3):e0007182. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Scabies is a common dermatological condition, affecting more than 130 million people at any time. To evaluate and/or predict the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of scabies interventions, disease transmission modelling can be used.

Objective: To review published scabies models and data to inform the design of a comprehensive scabies transmission modelling framework to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of scabies interventions. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007182
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007182DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in loiasis areas: A new strategy shows no evidence for Wuchereria bancrofti endemicity in Cameroon.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 8;13(3):e0007192. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti largely relies on the detection of circulating antigen using ICT cards. Several studies have recently shown that this test can be cross-reactive with sera of subjects heavily infected with Loa loa and thus mapping results in loiasis endemic areas may be inaccurate.

Methodology/principal Findings: In order to develop an LF mapping strategy for areas with high loiasis prevalence, we collected day blood samples from 5,001 subjects residing in 50 villages that make up 6 health districts throughout Cameroon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007192DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

The role of fibroblast growth factor signalling in Echinococcus multilocularis development and host-parasite interaction.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 8;13(3):e0006959. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

University of Würzburg, Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal zoonosis caused by the metacestode larva of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. The infection is characterized by tumour-like growth of the metacestode within the host liver, leading to extensive fibrosis and organ-failure. The molecular mechanisms of parasite organ tropism towards the liver and influences of liver cytokines and hormones on parasite development are little studied to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006959DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Genomic, epidemiological and digital surveillance of Chikungunya virus in the Brazilian Amazon.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 7;13(3):e0007065. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Since its first detection in the Caribbean in late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has affected 51 countries in the Americas. The CHIKV epidemic in the Americas was caused by the CHIKV-Asian genotype. In August 2014, local transmission of the CHIKV-Asian genotype was detected in the Brazilian Amazon region. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007065
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March 2019
4 Reads

Shortening of Zika virus CD-loop reduces neurovirulence while preserving antigenicity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 7;13(3):e0007212. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne positive sense RNA virus. Recently, ZIKV emerged into the Western hemisphere as a human health threat, with severe disease associated with developmental and neurological complications. The structural envelope protein of ZIKV and other neurotropic flaviviruses contains an extended CD-loop relative to non-neurotropic flaviviruses, and has been shown to augment ZIKV stability and pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007212DOI Listing
March 2019
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Evaluation of a novel West Nile virus transmission control strategy that targets Culex tarsalis with endectocide-containing blood meals.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 7;13(3):e0007210. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Arthropod-borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States of America.

Control of arbovirus transmission remains focused on vector control through application of insecticides directly to the environment. However, these insecticide applications are often reactive interventions that can be poorly-targeted, inadequate for localized control during outbreaks, and opposed due to environmental and toxicity concerns. In this study, we developed endectocide-treated feed as a systemic endectocide for birds to target blood feeding Culex tarsalis, the primary West Nile virus (WNV) bridge vector in the western United States, and conducted preliminary tests on the effects of deploying this feed in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007210DOI Listing
March 2019
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Host and parasite responses in human diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 7;13(3):e0007152. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics and the Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD United States of America.

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare form of leishmaniasis where parasites grow uncontrolled in diffuse lesions across the skin. Meta-transcriptomic analysis of biopsies from DCL patients infected with Leishmania amazonensis demonstrated an infiltration of atypical B cells producing a surprising preponderance of the IgG4 isotype. DCL lesions contained minimal CD8+ T cell transcripts and no evidence of persistent TH2 responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007152DOI Listing
March 2019
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Resolving "worm wars": An extended comparison review of findings from key economics and epidemiological studies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 7;13(3):e0006940. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Center for Health and Biosciences, James A Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006940DOI Listing
March 2019
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Development of a screening eye clinic for Ebola virus disease survivors: Lessons learned and rapid implementation at ELWA Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia 2015.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 7;13(3):e0007209. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Uveitis and Vasculitis Service, Emory Eye Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: In the wake of the West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2016, thousands of EVD survivors began to manifest a constellation of systemic and ophthalmic sequelae. Besides systemic arthralgias, myalgias, and abdominal pain, patients were developing uveitis, a spectrum of inflammatory eye disease leading to eye pain, redness, and vision loss. To investigate this emerging eye disease, resources and equipment were needed to promptly evaluate this sight-threatening condition, particularly given our identification of Ebola virus in the ocular fluid of an EVD survivor during disease convalescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007209DOI Listing
March 2019
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The unique tropism of Mycobacterium leprae to the nasal epithelial cells can be explained by the mammalian cell entry protein 1A.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 5;13(3):e0006704. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Bioscience, Kitasato University School of Science, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Leprosy is a chronic infection where the skin and peripheral nervous system is invaded by Mycobacterium leprae. The infection mechanism remains unknown in part because culture methods have not been established yet for M. leprae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006704DOI Listing
March 2019
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Diel periodicity and visual cues guide oviposition behavior in Phlebotomus papatasi, vector of old-world cutaneous leishmaniasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 5;13(3):e0007165. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 235 Eberhart Bldg., Greensboro, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of human leishmaniases, important neglected tropical diseases. In this study, we investigated diel patterns of oviposition behavior, effects of visual cues on oviposition-site selection, and whether these affect the attraction of gravid Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), the vector of old-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, to olfactory cues from oviposition sites.

Methodology/principal Findings: To evaluate these questions, we conducted a series of experiments using attraction and oviposition assays within free-flight test chambers containing gravid females entrained under a 14:10 hrs light:dark photoperiod. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007165DOI Listing

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction in paucibacillary leprosy diagnosis: A follow-up study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Mar 5;13(3):e0007147. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Leprosy Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: The diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy cases remains a challenge because of the absence of a confirmatory laboratory method. While quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been shown to provide reliable sensitivity and specificity in PB diagnoses, a thorough investigation of its efficacy in clinical practice has not yet been published. The present study evaluated patients with suspected leprosy skin lesions by using qPCR to identify PB individuals in the Leprosy Outpatient clinic at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007147DOI Listing
March 2019
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Insecticide-impregnated dog collars reduce infantile clinical visceral leishmaniasis under operational conditions in NW Iran: A community-wide cluster randomised trial.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 4;13(3):e0007193. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of community-wide deployment of insecticide-impregnated collars for dogs- the reservoir of Leishmania infantum-to reduce infantile clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL).

Methods: A pair matched-cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 collared and 40 uncollared control villages (161 [95% C.L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007193DOI Listing
March 2019
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Comparison of Kato Katz, antibody-based ELISA and droplet digital PCR diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica: Lessons learnt from a setting of low infection intensity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 4;13(3):e0007228. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Zoonotic schistosomiasis in Asia, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains a major public health concern in China and the Philippines. The developing epidemiological and socio-economic picture of the disease in endemic areas necessitates the development of affordable and highly accurate field diagnostics as an important component in evaluating ongoing integrated control and elimination efforts.

Methods: Three diagnostic methods, namely Kato-Katz (KK) stool microscopy, ELISA and droplet digital (dd) PCR assays, were compared by detecting infection in a total of 412 participants from an area moderately endemic for schistosomiasis in the Philippines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007228DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads