6,722 results match your criteria PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases [Journal]


The impact of imperfect screening tools on measuring the prevalence of epilepsy and headaches in Burkina Faso.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0007109. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Background: Epilepsy and progressively worsening severe chronic headaches (WSCH) are the two most common clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis, a form of cysticercosis. Most community-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) use a two-step approach (questionnaire and confirmation) to estimate the prevalence of these neurological disorders and neurocysticercosis. Few validate the questionnaire in the field or account for the imperfect nature of the screening questionnaire and the fact that only those who screen positive have the opportunity to be confirmed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007109DOI Listing
January 2019

Chikungunya as a paradigm for emerging viral diseases: Evaluating disease impact and hurdles to vaccine development.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0006919. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Institute for Human Infections and Immunity and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an emerging infectious disease caused by an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Because mosquito control programs are not highly efficient for outbreak containment, vaccines are essential to reduce the burden of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006919DOI Listing
January 2019

Development of a preliminary in vitro drug screening assay based on a newly established culturing system for pre-adult fifth-stage Onchocerca volvulus worms.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0007108. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Molecular Parasitology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: The human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus is the causative agent of onchocerciasis (river blindness). It causes blindness in 270,000 individuals with an additional 6.5 million suffering from severe skin pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007108DOI Listing
January 2019

Ghana: Accelerating neglected tropical disease control in a setting of economic development.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0007005. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Center for Sustainable Development, Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007005
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January 2019
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A secreted schistosome cathepsin B1 cysteine protease and acute schistosome infection induce a transient T helper 17 response.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0007070. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The natural history of schistosome infection in the mammalian host is determined by CD4+ T helper responses mounted against different parasite life cycle stages. A T helper 2 (TH2) response to schistosome eggs is required for host survival and establishment of chronic infection. However, a TH2 cell-derived cytokine also contributes to an immune milieu that is conducive to schistosome growth and development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007070DOI Listing
January 2019

High-accuracy detection of malaria vector larval habitats using drone-based multispectral imagery.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0007105. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Laboratorio ICEMR-Amazonia, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Interest in larval source management (LSM) as an adjunct intervention to control and eliminate malaria transmission has recently increased mainly because long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spray (IRS) are ineffective against exophagic and exophilic mosquitoes. In Amazonian Peru, the identification of the most productive, positive water bodies would increase the impact of targeted mosquito control on aquatic life stages. The present study explores the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) for identifying Nyssorhynchus darlingi (formerly Anopheles darlingi) breeding sites with high-resolution imagery (~0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007105DOI Listing
January 2019

A randomized trial of AmBisome monotherapy and AmBisome and miltefosine combination to treat visceral leishmaniasis in HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0006988. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Research & Development Department, Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients requires special case management. AmBisome monotherapy at 40 mg/kg is recommended by the World Health Organization. The objective of the study was to assess if a combination of a lower dose of AmBisome with miltefosine would show acceptable efficacy at the end of treatment. Read More

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January 2019

Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Bolivian patients at high risk of complications.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 17;13(1):e0007028. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Strongyloidiasis can be fatal in immunocompromised patients, but few epidemiological studies investigated the burden of this neglected tropical disease among these populations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries such as Bolivia. This study aimed to fill in this gap by estimating prevalence rate and risk factors associated with strongyloidiasis among patients at high risk of complications.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Santa Cruz (elevation 400 meters, tropical climate) and Cochabamba (elevation 2,500 meters, temperate climate), among patients with cancer, HIV infection and rheumatic or hematologic disease, using four coproparasitological techniques and one serological (ELISA) test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007028DOI Listing
January 2019

Flubendazole as a macrofilaricide: History and background.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 16;13(1):e0006436. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Johnson & Johnson Global Public Health, Janssen Research and Development, LLC., New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America.

Benzimidazole anthelmintics have long been employed for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Flubendazole (FBZ) was approved in 1980 for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections in both veterinary and human medicine. It has also long been known that parenteral administration of FBZ can lead to high macrofilaricidal efficacy in a variety of preclinical models and in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006436DOI Listing
January 2019

Macrofilaricidal efficacy of single and repeated oral and subcutaneous doses of flubendazole in Litomosoides sigmodontis infected jirds.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 16;13(1):e0006320. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Flubendazole (FBZ) is highly efficacious against filarial nematodes after parenteral administration and presents a promising macrofilaricidal drug candidate for the elimination of onchocerciasis and other filariae. In the present study the efficacy of a newly developed bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) oral formulation of FBZ was investigated in the Litomosoides sigmodontis jird model. FBZ was administered to chronically infected, microfilariae-positive jirds by single (40mg/kg), repeated (2, 6 or 15mg/kg for 5 or 10 days) oral (OR) doses or single subcutaneous (SC) injections (2 or 10mg/kg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006320DOI Listing
January 2019

Efficacy of subcutaneous doses and a new oral amorphous solid dispersion formulation of flubendazole on male jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) infected with the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 16;13(1):e0006787. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

River blindness and lymphatic filariasis are two filarial diseases that globally affect millions of people mostly in impoverished countries. Current mass drug administration programs rely on drugs that primarily target the microfilariae, which are released from adult female worms. The female worms can live for several years, releasing millions of microfilariae throughout the course of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006787DOI Listing
January 2019

Preclinical toxicity and pharmacokinetics of a new orally bioavailable flubendazole formulation and the impact for clinical trials and risk/benefit to patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 16;13(1):e0007026. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Nonclinical Safety, Janssen Research & Development, A Division of Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, Beerse, Belgium.

Background: Flubendazole, originally developed to treat infections with intestinal nematodes, has been shown to be efficacious in animal models of filarial infections. For treatment of filarial nematodes, systemic exposure is needed. For this purpose, an orally bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of flubendazole was developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007026DOI Listing
January 2019

Association study between CCR2-CCR5 genes polymorphisms and chronic Chagas heart disease in Wichi and in admixed populations from Argentina.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 16;13(1):e0007033. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

GIEM, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

Several studies have proposed different genetic markers of susceptibility to develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Many genes may be involved, each one making a small contribution. For this reason, an appropriate approach for this problematic is to study a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in individuals sharing a genetic background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007033DOI Listing
January 2019

Short-course, oral flubendazole does not mediate significant efficacy against Onchocerca adult male worms or Brugia microfilariae in murine infection models.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 16;13(1):e0006356. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Parasitology and Research Centre for Drugs and Diagnostics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The Onchocerca ochengi adult implant and Brugia malayi microfilariemic Severe-Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) mouse models are validated screens to measure macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal activities of candidate onchocerciasis drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether 5 daily sub-cutaneous (s.c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006356DOI Listing
January 2019

The reemergence of human rabies and emergence of an Indian subcontinent lineage in Tibet, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 14;13(1):e0007036. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Coordinated surveillance, vaccination and public information efforts have brought the Chinese rabies epizootic under control, but significant numbers of fatalities are still reported annually with some cases occurring in previously rabies free regions. Tibet has remained virtually rabies free for 16 years, but since 2015 one human rabies case has been reported each year. To better understand the origins of these cases, we sequenced three human samples and an additional sample isolated from a dog in 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007036DOI Listing
January 2019

Follow-up study of high-dose praziquantel therapy for cerebral sparganosis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 14;13(1):e0007018. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Cerebral sparganosis is the most serious complication of human sparganosis. Currently, there is no standard for the treatment of inoperable patients. Conventional-dose praziquantel therapy is the most reported treatment. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007018
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January 2019
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Metagenomic profiling of ticks: Identification of novel rickettsial genomes and detection of tick-borne canine parvovirus.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 14;13(1):e0006805. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Al-Quds Nutrition and Health Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Quds University Abu Deis, East Jerusalem, Palestine and Al-Quds Public Health Society, Abu Deis, East Jerusalem, Palestine.

Background: Across the world, ticks act as vectors of human and animal pathogens. Ticks rely on bacterial endosymbionts, which often share close and complex evolutionary links with tick-borne pathogens. As the prevalence, diversity and virulence potential of tick-borne agents remain poorly understood, there is a pressing need for microbial surveillance of ticks as potential disease vectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006805DOI Listing
January 2019

Utilization of proliferable extracellular amastigotes for transient gene expression, drug sensitivity assay, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout in Trypanosoma cruzi.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 14;13(1):e0007088. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Trypanosoma cruzi has three distinct life cycle stages; epimastigote, trypomastigote, and amastigote. Amastigote is the replication stage in host mammalian cells, hence this stage of parasite has clinical significance in drug development research. Presence of extracellular amastigotes (EA) and their infection capability have been known for some decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007088DOI Listing
January 2019

Risk factors for hospitalization of patients with chikungunya virus infection at sentinel hospitals in Puerto Rico.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 14;13(1):e0007084. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dengue Branch, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Background: Hospitalization of patients during outbreaks of chikungunya virus has been reported to be uncommon (0.5-8.7%), but more frequent among infants and the elderly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007084DOI Listing
January 2019

Community knowledge, attitude, and perceived stigma of leprosy amongst community members living in Dhanusha and Parsa districts of Southern Central Nepal.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 11;13(1):e0007075. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Adventist Development and Relief Agency Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Though Nepal declared leprosy elimination in 2010, its burden is constantly rising in Terai communities for the past 2 years with 3000 new leprosy cases being diagnosed annually. Community's perception is important for prevention and control of leprosy and enhancing quality of life of leprosy patients. Poor knowledge, unfavorable attitude and stigma create a hindrance to leprosy control. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007075
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January 2019
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Improved DNA extraction technique from clot for the diagnosis of Chagas disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 11;13(1):e0007024. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Sciences, School of Science and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Background: The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi genetic material in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. We have previously demonstrated that PCR using clot samples yields greater sensitivity than either buffy coat or whole blood samples. However, phenol-chloroform DNA extraction from clot samples is difficult and toxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007024DOI Listing
January 2019

DNA plasmid coding for Phlebotomus sergenti salivary protein PsSP9, a member of the SP15 family of proteins, protects against Leishmania tropica.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 11;13(1):e0007067. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Immunotherapy and Leishmania Vaccine Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis is transmitted to humans by infected female sand flies, which transmits Leishmania parasites together with saliva during blood feeding. In Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania (L.) major and L. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007067
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January 2019
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Economic burden of dengue in Indonesia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 10;13(1):e0007038. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Centre for Health Economics and Policy Studies, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

Background: Dengue is associated with significant economic expenditure and it is estimated that the Asia Pacific region accounts for >50% of the global cost. Indonesia has one of the world's highest dengue burdens; Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary vectors. In the absence of local data on disease cost, this study estimated the annual economic burden during 2015 of both hospitalized and ambulatory dengue cases in Indonesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007038DOI Listing
January 2019
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Emergence of Madariaga virus as a cause of acute febrile illness in children, Haiti, 2015-2016.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 10;13(1):e0006972. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

Madariaga virus (MADV), also known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, has been identified in animals and humans in South and Central America, but not previously in Hispaniola or the northern Caribbean. MADV was isolated from virus cultures of plasma from an 8-year-old child in a school cohort in the Gressier/Leogane region of Haiti, who was seen in April, 2015, with acute febrile illness (AFI). The virus was subsequently cultured from an additional seven AFI case patients from this same cohort in February, April, and May 2016. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006972
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January 2019
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Assessing the risk of autochthonous yellow fever transmission in Lazio, central Italy.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 10;13(1):e0006970. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Center for Information Technology, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006970
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January 2019
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Antagonistic effects of Plasmodium-helminth co-infections on malaria pathology in different population groups in Côte d'Ivoire.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 10;13(1):e0007086. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Introduction: Plasmodium spp. and helminths are co-endemic in many parts of the tropics; hence, co-infection is a common phenomenon. Interactions between Plasmodium and helminth infections may alter the host's immune response and susceptibility and thus impact on morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007086DOI Listing
January 2019
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Matching the genetics of released and local Aedes aegypti populations is critical to assure Wolbachia invasion.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 8;13(1):e0007023. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Traditional vector control approaches such as source reduction and insecticide spraying have limited effect on reducing Aedes aegypti population. The endosymbiont Wolbachia is pointed as a promising tool to mitigate arbovirus transmission and has been deployed worldwide. Models predict a rapid increase on the frequency of Wolbachia-positive Ae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007023DOI Listing
January 2019

Psychological burden and resilience factors in patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis - A cross-sectional study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 7;13(1):e0007082. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Section Clinical Tropical Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a parasitic zoonosis resembling malignancy due to its clinically silent infiltrative growth, predominately in the liver. The comorbid psychological burden and fear of disease progression in AE patients have hardly been examined to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate depression, anxiety, quality of life, and fear of disease progression in AE patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007082DOI Listing
January 2019

Comparison of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) and Leptospira sp. (Leptospirosis) dynamics in urban and rural settings.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 7;13(1):e0007074. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Equipe EA 3593, Ecosystèmes amazoniens et pathologie tropicale, Université de la Guyane, Cayenne, Guyane française.

Background: Zoonotic pathogens respond to changes in host range and/or pathogen, vector and host ecology. Environmental changes (biodiversity, habitat changes, variability in climate), even at a local level, lead to variability in environmental pathogen dynamics and can facilitate their transmission from natural reservoirs to new susceptible hosts. Whilst the environmental dynamics of aquatic bacteria are directly linked to seasonal changes of their habitat they also rely on the ecological processes underpining their transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007074DOI Listing
January 2019

Extracellular vesicles from Echinococcus granulosus larval stage: Isolation, characterization and uptake by dendritic cells.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 7;13(1):e0007032. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Laboratorio de Zoonosis Parasitarias, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes, Nivel Cero, Mar del Plata, Argentina.

The secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in helminth parasites is a constitutive mechanism that promotes survival by improving their colonization and adaptation in the host tissue. In the present study, we analyzed the production of EVs from supernatants of cultures of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes and their interaction with dendritic cells, which have the ability to efficiently uptake and process microbial antigens, activating T lymphocytes. To experimentally increase the release of EVs, we used loperamide, a calcium channel blocker that increases the cytosolic calcium level in protoscoleces and EV secretion. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007032
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January 2019
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Elimination within reach: A cross-sectional study highlighting the factors that contribute to persistent lymphatic filariasis in eight communities in rural Ghana.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 4;13(1):e0006994. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background: Despite the progress achieved in scaling-up mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Ghana, communities with persistent LF still exist even after 10 years of community treatment. To understand the reasons for persistence, we conducted a study to assess the status of disease elimination and understand the adherence to interventions including MDA and insecticide treated nets.

Methodology And Principal Findings: We conducted a parasitological and epidemiological cross-sectional study in adults from eight villages still under MDA in the Northern Region savannah and the coastal Western Region of the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006994DOI Listing
January 2019

Colonization factors among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea and from matched controls in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 4;13(1):e0007037. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) alone or with heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in developing country children. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified ETEC encoding ST among the top four enteropathogens. Since the GEMS objective was to provide evidence to guide development and implementation of enteric vaccines and other interventions to diminish diarrheal disease morbidity and mortality, we examined colonization factor (CF) prevalence among ETEC isolates from children age <5 years with MSD and from matched controls in four African and three Asian sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007037DOI Listing
January 2019

Alternative strategies for mosquito-borne arbovirus control.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 3;13(1):e0006822. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Institute Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH), Crete, Greece.

Background: Mosquito-borne viruses-such as Zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, and yellow fever, among others-are of global importance. Although vaccine development for prevention of mosquito-borne arbovirus infections has been a focus, mitigation strategies continue to rely on vector control. However, vector control has failed to prevent recent epidemics and arrest expanding geographic distribution of key arboviruses, such as dengue. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006822
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January 2019
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Topical treatment with gallium maltolate reduces Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue burden in primary experimental lesions in a rabbit model of yaws.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jan 2;13(1):e0007076. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Innovation to End Neglected Diseases (IT-ENDs), East Palo Alto, CA, United States of America.

Background: Gallium is a semi-metallic element known since the 1930s to have antimicrobial activity. This activity stems primarily from gallium's ability to mimic trivalent iron and disrupt specific Fe(III)-dependent pathways, particularly DNA synthesis (due to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase). Because of its novel mechanism of action, gallium is currently being investigated as a new antibacterial agent, particularly in light of the increasing resistance of many pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007076DOI Listing
January 2019

A longitudinal systems immunologic investigation of acute Zika virus infection in an individual infected while traveling to Caracas, Venezuela.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 31;12(12):e0007053. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus linked to devastating neurologic diseases. Immune responses to flaviviruses may be pathogenic or protective. Our understanding of human immune responses to ZIKV in vivo remains limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007053DOI Listing
December 2018

Enteric infection and dysfunction-A new target for PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 28;12(12):e0006906. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310236PMC
December 2018

The effects of prednisolone treatment on serological responses and lipid profiles in Ethiopian leprosy patients with Erythema Nodosum Leprosum reactions.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 28;12(12):e0007035. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), London, United Kingdom.

Background: Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is a systemic inflammatory complication occurring mainly in patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL). Prednisolone is widely used for treatment of ENL reactions. However, it has been reported that prolonged treatment with prednisolone increases the risk for prednisolone-induced complications such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataract and arteriosclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007035DOI Listing
December 2018

Exploration of a simplified clinical examination for scabies to support public health decision-making.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 27;12(12):e0006996. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: In most settings, the diagnosis of scabies is reliant on time-consuming and potentially intrusive clinical examination of all accesible regions of skin. With the recent recognition of scabies as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization there is a need for standardised approaches to disease mapping to define populations likely to benefit from intervention, and to measure the impact of interventions. Development and validation of simplified approaches to diagnose scabies would facilitate these efforts. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307692PMC
December 2018
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Health, financial, and education gains of investing in preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, and lymphatic filariasis in Madagascar: A modeling study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 27;12(12):e0007002. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston MA, United States of America.

Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) account for a large disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. While the general cost-effectiveness of NTD interventions to improve health outcomes has been assessed, few studies have also accounted for the financial and education gains of investing in NTD control.

Methods: We built on extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) methods to assess the health gains (e. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307713PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Using physical contact heterogeneity and frequency to characterize dynamics of human exposure to nonhuman primate bodily fluids in central Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 27;12(12):e0006976. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Institut Pasteur, Emerging Diseases Epidemiology Unit, Paris, France.

Emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin constitute a recurrent threat to global health. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) occupy an important place in zoonotic spillovers (pathogenic transmissions from animals to humans), serving as reservoirs or amplifiers of multiple neglected tropical diseases, including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arboviruses, parasites and bacteria, as well as retroviruses (simian foamy virus, PTLV) that are pathogenic in human beings. Hunting and butchering studies in Africa characterize at-risk human social groups, but overlook critical factors of contact heterogeneity and frequency, NHP species differences, and meat processing practices. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307716PMC
December 2018

Toll-like receptor-2 regulates macrophage polarization induced by excretory-secretory antigens from Schistosoma japonicum eggs and promotes liver pathology in murine schistosomiasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 27;12(12):e0007000. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, China; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, China; WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Schistosomiasis is endemic to many regions of the world and affects approximately 200 million people. Conventional adaptive T cell responses are considered to be the primary contributors to the pathogenesis of Schistosoma japonicum infection, leading to liver granuloma and fibrosis. However, the functional polarization of macrophages and the associated underlying molecular mechanisms during the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis remains unknown. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307705PMC
December 2018
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Evaluation of the analytical and diagnostic performance of a digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 26;12(12):e0007063. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The recent development of novel Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technologies that confer theoretical advantages over quantitative PCR has considerable potential in the diagnosis of low load infections, such as Trypanosoma cruzi in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. We evaluated the utility of the digital droplet (dd)PCR platform in the detection of T. cruzi infection. Read More

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December 2018
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General contextual effects on neglected tropical disease risk in rural Kenya.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 21;12(12):e0007016. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are characterized by their tendency to cluster within groups of people, typically the poorest and most marginalized. Despite this, measures of clustering, such as within-group correlation or between-group heterogeneity, are rarely reported from community-based studies of NTD risk. We describe a general contextual analysis that uses multi-level models to partition and quantify variation in individual NTD risk at multiple grouping levels in rural Kenya. Read More

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December 2018
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Does appreciative inquiry decrease false positive diagnosis during leprosy case detection campaigns in Bihar, India? An operational research study.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 21;12(12):e0007004. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, India.

Background: India contributes ~60% to the global leprosy burden. The country implements 14-day community-based leprosy case detection campaigns (LCDC) periodically in all high endemic states. Paramedical staff screen the population and medical officers of primary health centres (PHCs) diagnose and treat leprosy cases. Read More

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December 2018
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Achieving the endgame: Integrated NTD case searches.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0006623. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Trachoma and Guinea Worm Disease (GWD) are neglected tropical diseases (NTD) slated for elimination as a public health problem and eradication respectively by the World Health Organization. As these programs wind down, uncovering the last cases becomes an urgent priority. In 2010, Ghana Health Services, along with The Carter Center, Sightsavers, and other partners, conducted integrated case searches for both GWD and the last stage of trachoma disease, trachomatous trichiasis (TT), as well as providing surgical treatment for TT to meet elimination (and eradication targets). Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Trend analysis of leprosy in Morocco between 2000 and 2017: Evidence on the single dose rifampicin chemoprophylaxis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0006910. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Directorate of Epidemiology and Diseases Control, Ministry of Health, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: Morocco has achieved the goal of leprosy elimination as a public health problem several years ago (less than 1 case/ 10 000 habitant). The aim of this study was to analyze trends of leprosy detection during the last 17 years taking into consideration the implementation of single dose rifampicin chemoprophylaxis (SDRC) started in 2012.

Methodology: Time series of leprosy cases detected at national level between 2000 and 2017. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301570PMC
December 2018

Rapid and sensitive detection of Chlamydia trachomatis sexually transmitted infections in resource-constrained settings in Thailand at the point-of-care.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0006900. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Bioengineering and Sensing Technology Laboratory, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Khlong Nueng, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301561PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Sounding the alarm: Defining thresholds to trigger a public health response to monkeypox.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0007034. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Read More

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December 2018

Attraction of Lutzomyia longipalpis to synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone: Effect of release rate and proximity of adjacent pheromone sources.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 19;12(12):e0007007. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancashire, United Kingdom.

In South America, the Protist parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially fatal human disease, is transmitted by blood-feeding female Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. A synthetic copy of the male produced sex-aggregation pheromone offers new opportunities for vector control applications. We have previously shown that the pheromone placed in plastic sachets (lures) can attract both females and males to insecticide treated sites for up to 3 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300254PMC
December 2018

Ticks as potential vectors of Mycobacterium leprae: Use of tick cell lines to culture the bacilli and generate transgenic strains.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 19;12(12):e0007001. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Lab. de Microbiologia Celular, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de janeiro, Brazil.

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and frequently resulting in irreversible deformities and disabilities. Ticks play an important role in infectious disease transmission due to their low host specificity, worldwide distribution, and the biological ability to support transovarial transmission of a wide spectrum of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and protozoa. To investigate a possible role for ticks as vectors of leprosy, we assessed transovarial transmission of M. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads