243,221 results match your criteria PLoS Computational Biology [Journal]


Gluconeogenesis is essential for trypanosome development in the tsetse fly vector.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1007502. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratoire de Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité (MFP), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS UMR-5234, Bordeaux, France.

In the glucose-free environment that is the midgut of the tsetse fly vector, the procyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei primarily uses proline to feed its central carbon and energy metabolism. In these conditions, the parasite needs to produce glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) through gluconeogenesis from metabolism of non-glycolytic carbon source(s). We showed here that two phosphoenolpyruvate-producing enzymes, PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) have a redundant function for the essential gluconeogenesis from proline. Read More

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December 2018

Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) expression as a predictive biomarker for gemcitabine chemotherapy in biliary tract cancer.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209104. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Gemcitabine is a principal chemotherapeutic agent for biliary tract cancer (BTC). Expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) is regarded as a potential predictive biomarker for a gemcitabine response in some cancers. This study was conducted to investigate the association between hENT1 expression and the effects of gemcitabine on BTC cell lines and on patients with advanced BTC receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Read More

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December 2018

Compartment models for the electrical stimulation of retinal bipolar cells.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209123. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Analysis and Scientific Computing, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse, Vienna, Austria.

Bipolar cells of the retina are among the smallest neurons of the nervous system. For this reason, compared to other neurons, their delay in signaling is minimal. Additionally, the small bipolar cell surface combined with the low membrane conductance causes very little attenuation in the signal from synaptic input to the terminal. Read More

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December 2018

Fabrication of scaffold-free tubular cardiac constructs using a Bio-3D printer.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209162. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Regenerative Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

A major challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the host's immune response to artificial materials. To overcome this problem, we established a scaffold-free system for assembling cell constructs using an automated Bio-3D printer. This printer has previously been used to fabricate other three-dimensional (3D) constructs, including liver, blood vessels, and cartilage. Read More

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December 2018

Sera selected from national STI surveillance system shows Chlamydia trachomatis PgP3 antibody correlates with time since infection and number of previous infections.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208652. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions at University of Bristol in partnership with Public Health England, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Seroprevalence surveys of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antibodies are promising for estimating age-specific CT cumulative incidence, however accurate estimates require improved understanding of antibody response to CT infection.

Methods: We used GUMCAD, England's national sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system, to select sera taken from female STI clinic attendees on the day of or after a chlamydia diagnosis. Serum specimens were collected from laboratories and tested anonymously on an indirect and a double-antigen ELISA, both of which are based on the CT-specific Pgp3 antigen. Read More

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December 2018

Network characterization of the Entangled Model for sustainability indicators. Analysis of the network properties for scenarios.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208718. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Mathematics and Centre for Complexity Science, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, United Kingdom.

Policy-makers require strategies to select a set of sustainability indicators that are useful for monitoring sustainability. For this reason, we have developed a model where sustainability indicators compete for the attention of society. This model has shown to have steady situations where a set of sustainability indicators are stable. Read More

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December 2018

Do male and female soccer players differ in helping? A study on prosocial behavior among young players.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209168. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Social and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Acting prosocially can be quite challenging in one of the most salient intergroup contexts in contemporary society: Soccer. When winning is the ultimate goal, balancing self-interest with helping a fellow player in distress can be a tough decision; yet it happens. To date, we know little about what motivates soccer players to offer such help in the heat of the game. Read More

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December 2018

Whole genome sequencing of Moraxella bovoculi reveals high genetic diversity and evidence for interspecies recombination at multiple loci.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209113. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Genetics, Breeding, and Animal Health Research Unit, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Clay Center, Nebraska, United States of America.

Moraxella bovoculi is frequently cultured from the ocular secretions and conjunctiva of cattle with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Previous work has shown that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity in this species is quite high with 81,284 SNPs identified in eight genomes representing two distinct genotypes isolated from IBK affected eyes (genotype 1) and the nasopharynx of cattle without clinical IBK signs (genotype 2), respectively. The goals of this study were to identify SNPs from a collection of geographically diverse and epidemiologically unlinked M. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on markers of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the normal colorectal mucosa of colorectal adenoma patients.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208762. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

To clarify the roles of vitamin D and calcium as potential chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, and to develop "treatable", pre-neoplastic, phenotypic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, we estimated the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 (1,000 IU/day [25 μg/day]) and calcium (1,200 mg/day), alone and in combination, on biomarkers of proliferation (mib-1), differentiation (p21), and apoptosis (bax [apoptosis-promoting] and bcl-2 [apoptosis-inhibiting]), in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa in a subsample of participants (n = 104) in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among colorectal adenoma patients. The biomarkers were measured in rectal biopsies at baseline and after one year of follow up, using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. In the vitamin D plus calcium group relative to control, in the crypt differentiation zone (upper 40% of crypts), mib-1 expression decreased 24% (P = 0. Read More

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December 2018

Association of HLA class I type with prevalence and outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and mutated nucleophosmin.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0204290. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Acute myeloid leukemia with mutated nucleophosmin (NPMc+ AML) forms a distinct AML subgroup with better prognosis which can potentially be associated with immune response against the mutated nucleophosmin (NPM). As the T-cell-mediated immunity involves antigen presentation on HLA class I molecules, we hypothesized that individuals with suitable HLA type could be less prone to develop NPMc+ AML. We compared HLA class I distribution in NPMc+ AML patient cohort (398 patients from 5 centers) with the HLA allele frequencies of the healthy population and found HLA-A*02, B*07, B*40 and C*07 underrepresented in the NPMc+ AML group. Read More

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December 2018
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Modified TCA/acetone precipitation of plant proteins for proteomic analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0202238. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

Protein extracts obtained from cells or tissues often require removal of interfering substances for the preparation of high-quality protein samples in proteomic analysis. A number of protein extraction methods have been applied to various biological samples. TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction, a common method of protein extraction, is thought to minimize protein degradation and activity of proteases as well as reduce contaminants like salts and polyphenols. Read More

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December 2018

Retrospective analysis of long-term gastrointestinal symptoms after Clostridium difficile infection in a nonelderly cohort.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209152. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Outcomes Unit, Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Elderly patients and those with comorbid conditions are at high risk for poor outcomes after Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but outcomes in a healthier, nonelderly population are not well described. We sought to investigate gastrointestinal diagnoses and CDI during hospitalizations in the 24 to 36 months after an initial episode of CDI in nonelderly patients in a cohort with an overall low prevalence of comorbid conditions. We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital admissions from 2010-2013 using the Truven MarketScan database of employment-based private insurance claims. Read More

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December 2018

EBV-miR-BART1-5P activates AMPK/mTOR/HIF1 pathway via a PTEN independent manner to promote glycolysis and angiogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1007484. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Viral Oncology, the Clinical Innovation & Research Center (CIRC), Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Abnormal metabolism and uncontrolled angiogenesis are two important characteristics of malignant tumors. The occurrence of both events involves many key molecular changes including miRNA. However, EBV encoded miRNAs are rarely mentioned as capable of regulating tumor metabolism and tumor angiogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Empirically developed dietary inflammatory potential (EDIP) in patients candidate for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG): Association with metabolic parameters, dietary antioxidant quality score and dietary phytochemical index.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208711. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: It has been suggested that empirically developed dietary inflammatory potential (EDIP) is a diagnostic tool for assessment of inflammatory potential of diet in prediction of risk factors related to chronic disease. In the current work, we examined the association between EDIP with cardio-metabolic risk factors, dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQs), dietary phytochemical index (DPI) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (MEDQI) in patients candidate for CABG.

Materials And Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, the data obtained from Tehran- Heart Center-Coronary Outcome Measurement (THC-COM) study from 454 patients candidate for the CABG were used. Read More

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December 2018
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Benefit-cost analysis of the policy of mandatory annual rabies vaccination of domestic dogs in rabies-free Japan.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0206717. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries/territories which implement the policy of mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs. In order to assess the economic efficiency of such policy in reducing the economic burden of a future canine rabies outbreak in Japan, a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) was performed using probabilistic decision tree modelling. Input data derived from simulation results of published mathematical model, field investigation conducted by the authors at prefectural governments, literature review, international or Japanese database and empirical data of rabies outbreaks in other countries/territories. Read More

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December 2018

Classroom-based physical activity improves children's math achievement - A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208787. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centre of Research in Childhood Health, Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern, Odense, Denmark.

This RCT investigated the effect on children of integrating physical activity (PA) into math lessons. The primary outcome was math achievement and the secondary outcomes were executive functions, fitness and body mass index. Twelve Danish schools were randomized to either an intervention group or a control group. Read More

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December 2018

Experiences of mobile health in promoting physical activity: A qualitative systematic review and meta-ethnography.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208759. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Allied Health, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Limerick, Ireland.

Objective: Despite evidence supporting physical activity in primary and secondary prevention, many individuals do not meet recommended levels. Mobile health is a field with a growing evidence base and is proposed as a convenient method for delivering health interventions. Despite qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives, there is a lack of synthesis to inform evidence-based design. Read More

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December 2018

Systematic in vitro comparison of decellularization protocols for blood vessels.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209269. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine/Wallenberg Laboratory, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Decellularization of native blood vessels is a promising technology to generate 3D biological scaffolds for vascular grafting. Blood vessel decellularization has been performed in previous studies under various experimental conditions, that complicates comparison and optimization of suitable protocols. The goal of this work was to systematically compare the decellularization and recellularization efficacy of 5 different protocols utilizing the detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium deoxycholate (SDC), CHAPS and TritonX-100 together with DNA-removing enzymes on porcine vena cava in a perfusion bioreactor setup. Read More

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December 2018

Laboratory strains of Bacillus anthracis exhibit pervasive alteration in expression of proteins related to sporulation under laboratory conditions relative to genetically related wild strains.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America.

The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Read More

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December 2018

Role of serum levels of intraoperative brain natriuretic peptide for predicting acute kidney injury in living donor liver transplantation.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209164. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Patients with end-stage liver disease frequently experience acute kidney injury (AKI) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have increasingly been accepted as a predictor of AKI in clinical settings. This study investigated the predictive role of intraoperative BNP levels in the early development of AKI after LDLT. Read More

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December 2018

Use of C-reactive protein for the early prediction of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy: Systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209272. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Division of General Surgery, University of Milan, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Milan, Italy.

Background: Early suspicion, diagnosis, and timely treatment of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy is essential. Retrospective studies have investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as early marker of anastomotic leakage. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the predictive value of CRP after esophageal resection. Read More

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December 2018

Small-molecule induction of Aβ-42 peptide production in human cerebral organoids to model Alzheimer's disease associated phenotypes.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209150. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Service d'Etude des Prions et Infections Atypiques (SEPIA), Institut François Jacob, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Human mini-brains (MB) are cerebral organoids that recapitulate in part the complexity of the human brain in a unique three-dimensional in vitro model, yielding discrete brain regions reminiscent of the cerebral cortex. Specific proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders are physiologically expressed in MBs, such as APP-derived amyloids (Aβ), whose physiological and pathological roles and interactions with other proteins are not well established in humans. Here, we demonstrate that neuroectodermal organoids can be used to study the Aβ accumulation implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018

Increasing the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing by copy number variant analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209185. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States of America.

As whole exome sequencing (WES) becomes more widely used in the clinical realm, a wealth of unanalyzed information will be routinely generated. Using WES read depth data to predict copy number variation (CNV) could extend the diagnostic utility of this previously underutilized data by providing clinically important information such as previously unsuspected deletions or duplications. We evaluated ExomeDepth, a free R package, in addition to an aneuploidy prediction method, to detect CNVs in WES data. Read More

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December 2018

Early-life environmental exposures and childhood growth: A comparison of statistical methods.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209321. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, United States of America.

There is a growing literature that suggests environmental exposure during key developmental periods could have harmful impacts on growth and development of humans. Understanding and estimating the relationship between early-life exposure and human growth is vital to studying the adverse health impacts of environmental exposure. We compare two statistical tools, mixed-effects models with interaction terms and growth mixture models, used to measure the association between exposure and change over time within the context of non-linear growth and non-monotonic relationships between exposure and growth. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of endogenous reference genes in Bactrocera cucurbitae by qPCR under different conditions.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0202829. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, Hainan, China.

Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon flies) are prominent invasive pests in southern China. To screen for a stable reference gene in melon flies suitable for comparing tissue samples subjected to different conditions in four categories (temperature, insect stage, days of age and gender), the expression of 12 candidate reference genes under different treatment conditions was analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results obtained from a comprehensive analysis with geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder software showed that the most stable reference gene was RPL60, and the least stable reference gene was actin-5. Read More

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December 2018

Power and sample size calculations for comparison of two regression lines with heterogeneous variances.

Authors:
Gwowen Shieh

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207745. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Management Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

The existence of interactive effects of a dichotomous treatment variable on the relationship between the continuous predictor and response variables is an essential issue in biological and medical sciences. Also, considerable attention has been devoted to raising awareness of the often-untenable assumption of homogeneous error variance among treatment groups. Although the procedures for detecting interactions between treatment and predictor variables are well documented in the literature, the corresponding problem of power and sample size calculations has received relatively little attention. Read More

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December 2018

The role of Pleistocene climate change in the genetic variability, distribution and demography of Proechimys cuvieri and P. guyannensis (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in northeastern Amazonia.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0206660. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Cayenne cedex, French Guiana.

The spiny rats, genus Proechimys, have the highest species richness within the Echimyidae family, as well as species with high genetic variability. The genus distribution includes tropical South America and Central America south to Honduras. In this study, we evaluate the phylogeographic histories of Proechimys guyannensis and P. Read More

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December 2018

Cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine enhances nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells via sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209250. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Rivastigmine (Riv) is a potent and selective cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and butyrylcholinesterase, BuChE) inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate whether Riv causes neuronal differentiation, we examined its effect on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. At concentrations of 0-100 μM, Riv was non-toxic in PC12 cells. Read More

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December 2018

Multimorbidity patterns in high-need, high-cost elderly patients.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208875. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: Patients with complex health care needs (PCHCN) are individuals who require numerous, costly care services and have been shown to place a heavy burden on health care resources. It has been argued that an important issue in providing value-based primary care concerns how to identify groups of patients with similar needs (who pose similar challenges) so that care teams and care delivery processes can be tailored to each patient subgroup. Our study aims to describe the most common chronic conditions and their combinations in a cohort of elderly PCHCN. Read More

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December 2018
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Correction: Allelic variation of vernalization and photoperiod response genes in a diverse set of North American high latitude winter wheat genotypes.

Authors:

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209543. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone. Read More

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December 2018

Surgery and protontherapy in Grade I and II skull base chondrosarcoma: A comparative retrospective study.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208786. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

AP-HP, Hôpital Lariboisière, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Paris Diderot University, Paris, France.

Objective: Skull base chondrosarcoma is a rare tumour usually treated by surgery and proton therapy. However, as mortality rate is very low and treatment complications are frequent, a less aggressive therapeutic strategy could be considered. The objective of this study was to compare the results of surgery only vs surgery and adjuvant proton therapy, in terms of survival and treatment adverse effects, based on a retrospective series. Read More

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December 2018

The effectiveness of art therapy for anxiety in adults: A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208716. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Faculty of Health, University of Applied Sciences Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Anxiety disorders are one of the most diagnosed mental health disorders. Common treatment consists of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. In clinical practice, also art therapy is additionally provided to patients with anxiety (disorders), among others because treatment as usual is not sufficiently effective for a large group of patients. Read More

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December 2018

A modular and customizable open-source package for quantum voltage standards operation and control.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209246. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

INRiM - Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Torino, Italy.

This paper presents an open-source package developed in Python that controls and drives a programmable Josephson array to synthesize dc and ac quantum-accurate voltages. Programmable arrays are devices subdivided into independent subsections, each counting a number of series connected Josephson junctions that follows a binary sequence (1, 2, 4, 8, …) to control the output voltage. Our software allows to independently measure the current-voltage characteristics of each subsection by means of a set of arbitrary waveform generators and a nanovoltmeter that measures the voltage across the whole array with high sensitivity. Read More

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December 2018

Stable isotope signatures and nutritional sources of some dominant species from the PACManus hydrothermal area and the Desmos caldera.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208887. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, P. R. China.

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the western Pacific are increasingly explored for potential mineral extraction. The study of the composition of the food web plays an important guiding role in the ecological protection and restoration of potential mining areas. The general picture of the nutritional sources of species should be established to assess the potential impacts of future mining activities on the biological composition and food sources. Read More

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December 2018

Tumor suppressor RARRES1- A novel regulator of fatty acid metabolism in epithelial cells.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208756. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biochemical, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.

Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) is silenced in many cancers and is differentially expressed in metabolism associated diseases, such as hepatic steatosis, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Here we report a novel function of RARRES1 in metabolic reprogramming of epithelial cells. Using non-targeted LC-MS, we discovered that RARRES1 depletion in epithelial cells caused a global increase in lipid synthesis. Read More

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December 2018

Continuous neuromuscular blockade infusion for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209327. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Introduction: The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of a continuous infusion of a neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) subjects who underwent targeted temperature management (TTM).

Methods: In this open-label, multicenter trial, subjects resuscitated from OHCA were randomly assigned to receive either NMB (38 subjects) or placebo (43 subjects) for 24 hours. Sedatives and analgesics were given according to the protocol of each hospital during TTM. Read More

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December 2018

Incidence trends and risk prediction nomogram of metachronous second primary lung cancer in lung cancer survivors.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209002. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Respiratory Disease Research Institute of China, The First College of Clinical Medical Science, Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Background: This study was designed to estimate the trends in 5-year incidence of metachronous second primary lung cancer(SPLC) and to establish a risk prediction model to identify candidates who were at high risk of developing metachronous SPLC.

Methods: Incidence data between 2004 and 2007 were obtained from SEER database, including 42453 participants who survived ≥ 2 years after the initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to calculate the 5-year incidence rates of metachronous SPLC per 100 000 population. Read More

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December 2018

Multiscale dynamics of interstimulus interval integration in visual cortex.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208822. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Bioengineering Institute, Miguel Hernández University (UMH), Alicante, Spain.

Although the visual cortex receives information at multiple temporal patterns, much of the research in the field has focused only on intervals shorter than 1 second. Consequently, there is almost no information on what happens at longer temporal intervals. We have tried to address this question recording neuronal populations of the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with repetitive grating stimuli and intervals ranging from 1 to 7 seconds. Read More

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December 2018

Nab3's localization to a nuclear granule in response to nutrient deprivation is determined by its essential prion-like domain.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209195. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are higher order assemblies of RNA, RNA-binding proteins, and other proteins, that regulate the transcriptome and protect RNAs from environmental challenge. There is a diverse range of RNP granules, many cytoplasmic, which provide various levels of regulation of RNA metabolism. Here we present evidence that the yeast transcription termination factor, Nab3, is targeted to intranuclear granules in response to glucose starvation by Nab3's proline/glutamine-rich, prion-like domain (PrLD) which can assemble into amyloid in vitro. Read More

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December 2018

Differentiation of multiple myeloma and metastases: Use of axial diffusion-weighted MR imaging in addition to standard MR imaging at 3T.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208860. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Metastasis and multiple myeloma are common malignant bone marrow lesions which may be difficult to distinguish because of similar imaging findings. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard MR imaging to differentiate multiple myeloma from metastasis.

Methods: 25 patients with metastasis and 18 patients with multiple myeloma underwent 3T MR imaging with DWI (b = 0, 800 s/mm2) were enrolled. Read More

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December 2018
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Public acceptability of development in the Northern Forest of Vermont, USA-The influence of wildlife information, recreation involvement, and demographic characteristics.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0203515. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Barre, Vermont, United States of America.

Increasing development such as roads and houses will alter future landscapes and result in biological, social, and economic trade-offs. Managing development requires information on the public's acceptability of development and understanding which factors shape acceptability. In this study, we examined three questions: 1) What is the public's acceptability of development? 2) Is acceptability of development influenced by wildlife information? and 3) Is the maximum amount of acceptable development influenced by views about wildlife, involvement in outdoor recreation, and demographic factors? We conducted a visual-preference survey of 9,000 households in Vermont, USA that asked about acceptable levels of development, acceptability of wildlife, involvement in recreation, and individual and town demographics. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of renal oxygen saturation using photoacoustic imaging for the early prediction of chronic renal function in a model of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0206461. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the utility of photoacoustic imaging in measuring changes in renal oxygen saturation after ischemia-induced acute kidney injury, and to compare these measurements with histological findings and serum levels of kidney function.

Material And Methods: Acute kidney injury was induced by clamping the left renal pedicle in C57Bl/6 mice, with a 35-min ischemic period used to induce mild renal injury (14 mice) and a 50-min period for severe injury (13 mice). The oxygen saturation was measured before induction, and at 5 time-points over the first 48 h after induction, starting at 4 h after induction. Read More

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December 2018

Genome wide association study to identify predictors for severe skin toxicity in colorectal cancer patients treated with cetuximab.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208080. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

EGFR-antibodies are associated with significant skin toxicity, including acneiform rash and folliculitis. It remains impossible to predict the occurrence of severe skin toxicity due to the lack of predictive markers. Here, we present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with EGFR inhibitor-induced skin toxicity using data of the multicentre randomized phase III CAIRO2 trial (clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018
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Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer in Japanese predicted regulatory variants in 22q13.1.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209096. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Clinical Genome Sequencing, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified greater than 30 variants associated with ovarian cancer, but most of these variants were investigated in European populations. Here, we integrated GWAS and subsequent functional analyses to identify the genetic variants with potential regulatory effects. We conducted GWAS for ovarian cancer using 681 Japanese cases and 17,492 controls and found that rs137672 on 22q13. Read More

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December 2018
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Assessment of degenerative cervical myelopathy differs between specialists and may influence time to diagnosis and clinical outcomes.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207709. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Academic Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosurgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy [DCM] often presents with non-specific symptoms and signs. It progresses insidiously and leads to permanent neurological dysfunction. Decompressive surgery can halt disease progression, however significant delays in diagnosis result in increased disability and limit recovery. Read More

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December 2018
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Cervical cancer screening in Sweden 2014-2016.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209003. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: To enable incremental optimization of screening, regular reporting of quality indicators is required.

Aim: To report key quality indicators and basic statistics about cervical screening in Sweden.

Methods: We collected individual level data on all cervical cytologies, histopathologies, human papillomavirus tests and all invitations for cervical screening in Sweden during 2013-2016. Read More

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December 2018

GSK-3 inhibitors enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208094. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis has been reported in some cancer cells, including AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Reducing this resistance might shed light on the treatment of human gastric adenocarcinoma. In this study, we examined whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors can restore TRAIL responsiveness in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus structural proteins: Promising candidates for antibody-based rapid diagnostic test development.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208851. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In response to the aggressive global spread of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an accurate and accessible diagnostic tool is of high importance. CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, comprises three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. A previous rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1 protein showed promising performance for detection of the ECSA genotype. Read More

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December 2018

The CbrB Regulon: Promoter dissection reveals novel insights into the CbrAB expression network in Pseudomonas putida.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209191. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo/ Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/ Junta de Andalucía, Seville, Spain.

CbrAB is a high ranked global regulatory system exclusive of the Pseudomonads that responds to carbon limiting conditions. It has become necessary to define the particular regulon of CbrB and discriminate it from the downstream cascades through other regulatory components. We have performed in vivo binding analysis of CbrB in P. Read More

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December 2018

Not one Brexit: How local context and social processes influence policy analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208451. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Scotland's Rural College, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

This paper develops an empirical agent-based model to assess the impacts of Brexit on Scottish cattle farms. We first identify several trends and processes among Scottish cattle farms that were ongoing before Brexit: the lack of succession, the rise of leisure farming, the trend to diversify and industrialise, and, finally, the phenomenon of the "disappearing middle", characterised by the decline of medium-sized farms and the polarization of farm sizes. We then study the potential impact of Brexit amid the local context and those ongoing social processes. Read More

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December 2018