4,590 results match your criteria PLoS Biology [Journal]


How host genetics dictates successful viral zoonosis.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 19;17(4):e3000217. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

BioFrontiers Institute and Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, United States of America.

Viruses of wild and domestic animals can infect humans in a process called zoonosis, and these events can give rise to explosive epidemics such as those caused by the HIV and Ebola viruses. While humans are constantly exposed to animal viruses, those that can successfully infect and transmit between humans are exceedingly rare. The key event in zoonosis is when an animal virus begins to replicate (one virion making many) in the first human subject. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000217
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000217DOI Listing
April 2019
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Regulation of the apical extension morphogenesis tunes the mechanosensory response of microvilliated neurons.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 19;17(4):e3000235. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM), Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Multiple types of microvilliated sensory cells exhibit an apical extension thought to be instrumental in the detection of sensory cues. The investigation of the mechanisms underlying morphogenesis of sensory apparatus is critical to understand the biology of sensation. Most of what we currently know comes from the study of the hair bundle of the inner ear sensory cells, but morphogenesis and function of other sensory microvilliated apical extensions remain poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000235DOI Listing

Epigenetic regulator G9a provides glucose as a sweet key to stress resistance.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 19;17(4):e3000236. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Department of Medical Genetics, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The ability to adapt to acute and chronic stress is important for organisms to thrive in evolutionary niches and for cells to survive in adverse conditions. The regulatory networks that control stress responses are evolutionarily conserved, and many factors that selectively activate stress responses have been identified. Less well understood are mechanisms that guard against unnecessary induction of cytoprotective factors and that connect stress responses with cellular metabolism to control energy expenditure during stress. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000236
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April 2019
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Task-related hemodynamic responses are modulated by reward and task engagement.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 19;17(4):e3000080. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Hemodynamic recordings from visual cortex contain powerful endogenous task-related responses that may reflect task-related arousal, or "task engagement" distinct from attention. We tested this hypothesis with hemodynamic measurements (intrinsic-signal optical imaging) from monkey primary visual cortex (V1) while the animals' engagement in a periodic fixation task over several hours was varied through reward size and as animals took breaks. With higher rewards, animals appeared more task-engaged; task-related responses were more temporally precise at the task period (approximately 10-20 seconds) and modestly stronger. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000080
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April 2019
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Harmonization of resting-state functional MRI data across multiple imaging sites via the separation of site differences into sampling bias and measurement bias.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 18;17(4):e3000042. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institutes International, Kyoto, Japan.

When collecting large amounts of neuroimaging data associated with psychiatric disorders, images must be acquired from multiple sites because of the limited capacity of a single site. However, site differences represent a barrier when acquiring multisite neuroimaging data. We utilized a traveling-subject dataset in conjunction with a multisite, multidisorder dataset to demonstrate that site differences are composed of biological sampling bias and engineering measurement bias. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000042
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April 2019
2 Reads

Monoclonal antibodies point to Achilles' heel in picornavirus capsid.

Authors:
Mihnea Bostina

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 17;17(4):e3000232. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Otago Micro and Nano Imaging, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Picornaviruses are small, icosahedral, nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that form one of the largest and most important viral families. Numerous Picornaviridae members pose serious health or agricultural threats, causing diseases such as poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, or foot-and-mouth disease. The antigenic characterization of picornavirus capsids plays an important role in understanding the mechanism of viral neutralization and the conformational changes associated with genome release, and it can point to regions which can be targeted by small-molecule compounds to be developed as antiviral inhibitors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000232DOI Listing
April 2019
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Distinct roles of two myosins in C. elegans spermatid differentiation.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 16;17(4):e3000211. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

During spermatogenesis, interconnected haploid spermatids segregate undesired cellular contents into residual bodies (RBs) before detaching from RBs. It is unclear how this differentiation process is controlled to produce individual spermatids or motile spermatozoa. Here, we developed a live imaging system to visualize and investigate this process in C. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000211
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April 2019
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Oxytocin blocks enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol dependence and blocks alcohol effects on GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 16;17(4):e2006421. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Neurobiology of Addiction Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Oxytocin administration has been reported to decrease consumption, withdrawal, and drug-seeking associated with several drugs of abuse and thus represents a promising pharmacological approach to treat drug addiction. We used an established rat model of alcohol dependence to investigate oxytocin's effects on dependence-induced alcohol drinking, enhanced motivation for alcohol, and altered GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Intraperitoneal oxytocin administration blocked escalated alcohol drinking and the enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol-dependent but not nondependent rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006421DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fine-tuned adaptation of embryo-endometrium pairs at implantation revealed by transcriptome analyses in Bos taurus.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 12;17(4):e3000046. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

UMR BDR, INRA, ENVA, Université Paris Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Interactions between embryo and endometrium at implantation are critical for the progression of pregnancy. These reciprocal actions involve exchange of paracrine signals that govern implantation and placentation. However, it remains unknown how these interactions between the conceptus and the endometrium are coordinated at the level of an individual pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000046
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April 2019
3 Reads

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 12;17(4):e3000226. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, United Kingdom.

Although collar cells are conserved across animals and their closest relatives, the choanoflagellates, little is known about their ancestry, their subcellular architecture, or how they differentiate. The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta expresses genes necessary for animal development and can alternate between unicellular and multicellular states, making it a powerful model for investigating the origin of animal multicellularity and mechanisms underlying cell differentiation. To compare the subcellular architecture of solitary collar cells in S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000226DOI Listing

Feedforward regulation of Myc coordinates lineage-specific with housekeeping gene expression during B cell progenitor cell differentiation.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 12;17(4):e2006506. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Unit of Computational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The differentiation of self-renewing progenitor cells requires not only the regulation of lineage- and developmental stage-specific genes but also the coordinated adaptation of housekeeping functions from a metabolically active, proliferative state toward quiescence. How metabolic and cell-cycle states are coordinated with the regulation of cell type-specific genes is an important question, because dissociation between differentiation, cell cycle, and metabolic states is a hallmark of cancer. Here, we use a model system to systematically identify key transcriptional regulators of Ikaros-dependent B cell-progenitor differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006506DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Dhh1 promotes autophagy-related protein translation during nitrogen starvation.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 11;17(4):e3000219. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Life Sciences Institute, and the Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a well-conserved cellular process through which cytoplasmic components are delivered to the vacuole/lysosome for degradation and recycling. Studies have revealed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation of autophagy-related (ATG) genes upon nutrient deprivation. However, little is known about their translational regulation. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000219
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April 2019
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Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 11;17(4):e3000193. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to animal care policies in journals, which our analysis of 206 journals suggests are either absent (34%), weak, incoherent, or neglected by researchers, could provide a practical, effective, and rapidly imposed safeguard against unnecessary suffering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000193DOI Listing

Mouse screen reveals multiple new genes underlying mouse and human hearing loss.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 11;17(4):e3000194. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.

Adult-onset hearing loss is very common, but we know little about the underlying molecular pathogenesis impeding the development of therapies. We took a genetic approach to identify new molecules involved in hearing loss by screening a large cohort of newly generated mouse mutants using a sensitive electrophysiological test, the auditory brainstem response (ABR). We review here the findings from this screen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000194DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

The architecture of intra-organism mutation rate variation in plants.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 9;17(4):e3000191. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Given the disposability of somatic tissue, selection can favor a higher mutation rate in the early segregating soma than in germline, as seen in some animals. Although in plants intra-organismic mutation rate heterogeneity is poorly resolved, the same selectionist logic can predict a lower rate in shoot than in root and in longer-lived terminal tissues (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000191DOI Listing
April 2019
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Infection-generated electric field in gut epithelium drives bidirectional migration of macrophages.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 9;17(4):e3000044. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California, United States of America.

Many bacterial pathogens hijack macrophages to egress from the port of entry to the lymphatic drainage and/or bloodstream, causing dissemination of life-threatening infections. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that Salmonella infection generates directional electric fields (EFs) in the follicle-associated epithelium of mouse cecum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000044DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Tubulin mRNA stability is sensitive to change in microtubule dynamics caused by multiple physiological and toxic cues.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 9;17(4):e3000225. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The localization, mass, and dynamics of microtubules are important in many processes. Cells may actively monitor the state of their microtubules and respond to perturbation, but how this occurs outside mitosis is poorly understood. We used gene-expression analysis in quiescent cells to analyze responses to subtle and strong perturbation of microtubules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000225DOI Listing

Exact replication: Foundation of science or game of chance?

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 9;17(4):e3000188. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Center for Stroke Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

The need for replication of initial results has been rediscovered only recently in many fields of research. In preclinical biomedical research, it is common practice to conduct exact replications with the same sample sizes as those used in the initial experiments. Such replication attempts, however, have lower probability of replication than is generally appreciated. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000188
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April 2019
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The amplitude in periodic neural state trajectories underlies the tempo of rhythmic tapping.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 8;17(4):e3000054. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro, México.

Our motor commands can be exquisitely timed according to the demands of the environment, and the ability to generate rhythms of different tempos is a hallmark of musical cognition. Yet, the neuronal underpinnings behind rhythmic tapping remain elusive. Here, we found that the activity of hundreds of primate medial premotor cortices (MPCs; pre-supplementary motor area [preSMA] and supplementary motor area [SMA]) neurons show a strong periodic pattern that becomes evident when their responses are projected into a state space using dimensionality reduction analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000054DOI Listing

Response to: "Questioning the evidence for BCI-based communication in the complete locked-in state".

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 8;17(4):e3000063. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Eberhrd-Karls University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453359PMC
April 2019
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Questioning the evidence for BCI-based communication in the complete locked-in state.

Authors:
Martin Spüler

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 8;17(4):e2004750. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Computer Engineering, Eberhard-Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2004750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453399PMC

Thought-based interaction: Same data, same methods, different results?

Authors:
Reinhold Scherer

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 8;17(4):e3000190. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Brain-Computer Interfaces and Neural Engineering Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, United Kingdom.

Restoration of communication in people with complete motor paralysis-a condition called complete locked-in state (CLIS)-is one of the greatest challenges of brain-computer interface (BCI) research. New findings have recently been presented that bring us one step closer to this goal. However, the validity of the evidence has been questioned: independent reanalysis of the same data yielded significantly different results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453358PMC
April 2019
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Signaling by adenosine receptors-Homeostatic or allostatic control?

Authors:
Rodrigo A Cunha

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 5;17(4):e3000213. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Adenosine modulation is considered both a paracrine signal coordinating different cells in a tissue and a stress signal. Both functions are ensured by 4 types of adenosine receptors (ARs), which have been studied individually. Mice with knockout of all ARs (quad-AR-KO) now allow enquiring the overall function of the adenosine modulation system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000213DOI Listing
April 2019
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A non-natural nucleotide uses a specific pocket to selectively inhibit telomerase activity.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 5;17(4):e3000204. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Telomerase, a unique reverse transcriptase that specifically extends the ends of linear chromosomes, is up-regulated in the vast majority of cancer cells. Here, we show that an indole nucleotide analog, 5-methylcarboxyl-indolyl-2'-deoxyriboside 5'-triphosphate (5-MeCITP), functions as an inhibitor of telomerase activity. The crystal structure of 5-MeCITP bound to the Tribolium castaneum telomerase reverse transcriptase reveals an atypical interaction, in which the nucleobase is flipped in the active site. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000204
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April 2019
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A novel evolutionary conserved mechanism of RNA stability regulates synexpression of primordial germ cell-specific genes prior to the sex-determination stage in medaka.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 4;17(4):e3000185. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

University of Wuerzburg, Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Dmrt1 is a highly conserved transcription factor, which is critically involved in regulation of gonad development of vertebrates. In medaka, a duplicate of dmrt1-acting as master sex-determining gene-has a tightly timely and spatially controlled gonadal expression pattern. In addition to transcriptional regulation, a sequence motif in the 3' UTR (D3U-box) mediates transcript stability of dmrt1 mRNAs from medaka and other vertebrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448818PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

The "backdoor pathway" of androgen synthesis in human male sexual development.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 3;17(4):e3000198. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Departments of Medicine and of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Mammalian sex determination (male versus female) is largely controlled by genes, whereas sex differentiation (development of reproductive structures) is largely controlled by hormones. Work in the 20th century indicated that female external anatomy was a "default" pathway of development not requiring steroids, whereas male genital development required testicular testosterone plus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) made in genital skin according to a "classic" pathway. Recent work added the description of an alternative "backdoor" pathway of androgen synthesis discovered in marsupials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000198DOI Listing

To integrate or not to integrate: Temporal dynamics of hierarchical Bayesian causal inference.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 2;17(4):e3000210. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Robotics Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

To form a percept of the environment, the brain needs to solve the binding problem-inferring whether signals come from a common cause and are integrated or come from independent causes and are segregated. Behaviourally, humans solve this problem near-optimally as predicted by Bayesian causal inference; but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Combining Bayesian modelling, electroencephalography (EEG), and multivariate decoding in an audiovisual spatial localisation task, we show that the brain accomplishes Bayesian causal inference by dynamically encoding multiple spatial estimates. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000210
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April 2019
2 Reads

Up-regulation of FOXD1 by YAP alleviates senescence and osteoarthritis.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 1;17(4):e3000201. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Cellular senescence is a driver of various aging-associated disorders, including osteoarthritis. Here, we identified a critical role for Yes-associated protein (YAP), a major effector of Hippo signaling, in maintaining a younger state of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and ameliorating osteoarthritis in mice. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9)-mediated knockout (KO) of YAP in hMSCs resulted in premature cellular senescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000201DOI Listing

Novel hybrid action of GABA mediates inhibitory feedback in the mammalian retina.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 1;17(4):e3000200. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

The stream of visual information sent from photoreceptors to second-order bipolar cells is intercepted by laterally interacting horizontal cells that generate feedback to optimize and improve the efficiency of signal transmission. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of graded photoreceptor synaptic output in this nonspiking network have remained elusive. Here, we analyze with patch clamp recording the novel mechanisms by which horizontal cells control pH in the synaptic cleft to modulate photoreceptor neurotransmitter release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000200DOI Listing

CRISPR screening using an expanded toolkit of autophagy reporters identifies TMEM41B as a novel autophagy factor.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 1;17(4):e2007044. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Northwest Labs, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The power of forward genetics in yeast is the foundation on which the field of autophagy research firmly stands. Complementary work on autophagy in higher eukaryotes has revealed both the deep conservation of this process, as well as novel mechanisms by which autophagy is regulated in the context of development, immunity, and neuronal homeostasis. The recent emergence of new clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-based technologies has begun facilitating efforts to define novel autophagy factors and pathways by forward genetic screening in mammalian cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2007044DOI Listing
April 2019
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Evolthon: A community endeavor to evolve lab evolution.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 29;17(3):e3000182. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

In experimental evolution, scientists evolve organisms in the lab, typically by challenging them to new environmental conditions. How best to evolve a desired trait? Should the challenge be applied abruptly, gradually, periodically, sporadically? Should one apply chemical mutagenesis, and do strains with high innate mutation rate evolve faster? What are ideal population sizes of evolving populations? There are endless strategies, beyond those that can be exposed by individual labs. We therefore arranged a community challenge, Evolthon, in which students and scientists from different labs were asked to evolve Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae for an abiotic stress-low temperature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440615PMC

Areal differences in depth cue integration between monkey and human.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 29;17(3):e2006405. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Neuro- and Psychophysiology, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven Medical School, Leuven, Belgium.

Electrophysiological evidence suggested primarily the involvement of the middle temporal (MT) area in depth cue integration in macaques, as opposed to human imaging data pinpointing area V3B/kinetic occipital area (V3B/KO). To clarify this conundrum, we decoded monkey functional MRI (fMRI) responses evoked by stimuli signaling near or far depths defined by binocular disparity, relative motion, and their combination, and we compared results with those from an identical experiment previously performed in humans. Responses in macaque area MT are more discriminable when two cues concurrently signal depth, and information provided by one cue is diagnostic of depth indicated by the other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006405DOI Listing

New perspectives on the origins of the unique vocal tract of birds.

Authors:
Michael B Habib

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 28;17(3):e3000184. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Birds utilize a unique structure, called a syrinx, for the production of their vocalizations. The origins of the syrinx are not well understood. New work, utilizing first principles-based models, suggests that a key element in selection for the early syrinx might be the position of this vocal structure: although the larynx sits at the cranial end of the airway, the avian syrinx is located at the base of the airway at the split of the trachea to the lungs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000184DOI Listing

Prophylactic TLR9 stimulation reduces brain metastasis through microglia activation.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 28;17(3):e2006859. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Neurobiology Department, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Brain metastases are prevalent in various types of cancer and are often terminal, given the low efficacy of available therapies. Therefore, preventing them is of utmost clinical relevance, and prophylactic treatments are perhaps the most efficient strategy. Here, we show that systemic prophylactic administration of a toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 agonist, CpG-C, is effective against brain metastases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006859DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Staying awake to stay alive: A circuit controlling starvation-induced waking.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 27;17(3):e3000199. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

The balance of sleep and wake is plastic and changes to meet environmental demands. Mechanisms that allow an animal to suppress sleep and maintain waking in potentially adverse situations could serve adaptive functions in evolution. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is well poised as a system in which to explore these questions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453464PMC

PlotsOfData-A web app for visualizing data together with their summaries.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 27;17(3):e3000202. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Section of Molecular Cytology, van Leeuwenhoek Centre for Advanced Microscopy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Reporting of the actual data in graphs and plots increases transparency and enables independent evaluation. On the other hand, data summaries are often used in graphs because they aid interpretation. To democratize state-of-the-art data visualization of raw data with a selection of statistical summaries, a freely available, open-source web app was written using R/shiny that uses the ggplot2 package for generating plots. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453475PMC

A small proportion of Talin molecules transmit forces at developing muscle attachments in vivo.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 27;17(3):e3000057. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

Cells in developing organisms are subjected to particular mechanical forces that shape tissues and instruct cell fate decisions. How these forces are sensed and transmitted at the molecular level is therefore an important question, one that has mainly been investigated in cultured cells in vitro. Here, we elucidate how mechanical forces are transmitted in an intact organism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453563PMC

Turing patterning with and without a global wave.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 25;17(3):e3000195. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Periodic patterning represents a fundamental process in tissue morphogenesis. In chicken dorsal skin, feather formation starts from the midline; then the morphogenetic wave propagates bilaterally, leaving a regular hexagonal array of feather germs. Yet, in vitro reconstitution showed feather germs appear simultaneously, leading to the hypothesis that the feather-forming wave results from the coupling of local Turing patterning processes with an unidentified global event. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448946PMC

HSP-4/BiP expression in secretory cells is regulated by a developmental program and not by the unfolded protein response.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 25;17(3):e3000196. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Biology Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Differentiation of secretory cells leads to sharp increases in protein synthesis, challenging endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis. Anticipatory activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) prepares cells for the onset of secretory function by expanding the ER size and folding capacity. How cells ensure that the repertoire of induced chaperones matches their postdifferentiation folding needs is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448932PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Performing group-level functional image analyses based on homologous functional regions mapped in individuals.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 25;17(3):e2007032. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have traditionally relied on intersubject normalization based on global brain morphology, which cannot establish proper functional correspondence between subjects due to substantial intersubject variability in functional organization. Here, we reliably identified a set of discrete, homologous functional regions in individuals to improve intersubject alignment of fMRI data. These functional regions demonstrated marked intersubject variability in size, position, and connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2007032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448916PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

A blueprint of mammalian cortical connectomes.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 22;17(3):e2005346. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Institute of Computational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany.

The cerebral cortex of mammals exhibits intricate interareal wiring. Moreover, mammalian cortices differ vastly in size, cytological composition, and phylogenetic distance. Given such complexity and pronounced species differences, it is a considerable challenge to decipher organizational principles of mammalian connectomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005346DOI Listing
March 2019
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A genetic switch for worker nutrition-mediated traits in honeybees.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 21;17(3):e3000171. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute of Evolutionary Genetics, Heinrich-Heine University Dusseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Highly social insects are characterized by caste dimorphism, with distinct size differences of reproductive organs between fertile queens and the more or less sterile workers. An abundance of nutrition or instruction via diet-specific compounds has been proposed as explanations for the nutrition-driven queen and worker polyphenism. Here, we further explored these models in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) using worker nutrition rearing and a novel mutational screening approach using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428258PMC

Chronotopic maps in human supplementary motor area.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 21;17(3):e3000026. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

Time is a fundamental dimension of everyday experiences. We can unmistakably sense its passage and adjust our behavior accordingly. Despite its ubiquity, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the capacity to perceive time remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428248PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Comprehensive profiling of the STE20 kinase family defines features essential for selective substrate targeting and signaling output.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 21;17(3):e2006540. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Specificity within protein kinase signaling cascades is determined by direct and indirect interactions between kinases and their substrates. While the impact of localization and recruitment on kinase-substrate targeting can be readily assessed, evaluating the relative importance of direct phosphorylation site interactions remains challenging. In this study, we examine the STE20 family of protein serine-threonine kinases to investigate basic mechanisms of substrate targeting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445471PMC
March 2019
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Lateral hypothalamic neurotensin neurons promote arousal and hyperthermia.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 20;17(3):e3000172. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Sleep and wakefulness are greatly influenced by various physiological and psychological factors, but the neuronal elements responsible for organizing sleep-wake behavior in response to these factors are largely unknown. In this study, we report that a subset of neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) expressing the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts) is critical for orchestrating sleep-wake responses to acute psychological and physiological challenges or stressors. We show that selective activation of NtsLH neurons with chemogenetic or optogenetic methods elicits rapid transitions from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep to wakefulness and produces sustained arousal, higher locomotor activity (LMA), and hyperthermia, which are commonly observed after acute stress exposure. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000172
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426208PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Ablating astrocyte insulin receptors leads to delayed puberty and hypogonadism in mice.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 20;17(3):e3000189. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, United States of America.

Insulin resistance and obesity are associated with reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and infertility. Mice that lack insulin receptors (IRs) throughout development in both neuronal and non-neuronal brain cells are known to exhibit subfertility due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, attempts to recapitulate this phenotype by targeting specific neurons have failed. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000189
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443191PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

γ-proteobacteria eject their polar flagella under nutrient depletion, retaining flagellar motor relic structures.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 19;17(3):e3000165. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Bacteria switch only intermittently to motile planktonic lifestyles under favorable conditions. Under chronic nutrient deprivation, however, bacteria orchestrate a switch to stationary phase, conserving energy by altering metabolism and stopping motility. About two-thirds of bacteria use flagella to swim, but how bacteria deactivate this large molecular machine remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424402PMC

Serotonin receptor HTR6-mediated mTORC1 signaling regulates dietary restriction-induced memory enhancement.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 18;17(3):e2007097. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Dietary restriction (DR; sometimes called calorie restriction) has profound beneficial effects on physiological, psychological, and behavioral outcomes in animals and in humans. We have explored the molecular mechanism of DR-induced memory enhancement and demonstrate that dietary tryptophan-a precursor amino acid for serotonin biosynthesis in the brain-and serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 (HTR6) are crucial in mediating this process. We show that HTR6 inactivation diminishes DR-induced neurological alterations, including reduced dendritic complexity, increased spine density, and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2007097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438579PMC

Evidence that alternative transcriptional initiation is largely nonadaptive.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 18;17(3):e3000197. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Alternative transcriptional initiation (ATI) refers to the frequent observation that one gene has multiple transcription start sites (TSSs). Although this phenomenon is thought to be adaptive, the specific advantage is rarely known. Here, we propose that each gene has one optimal TSS and that ATI arises primarily from imprecise transcriptional initiation that could be deleterious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438578PMC

Biodiversity data integration-the significance of data resolution and domain.

PLoS Biol 2019 Mar 18;17(3):e3000183. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Biodiversity, Macroecology & Biogeography, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Recent years have seen an explosion in the availability of biodiversity data describing the distribution, function, and evolutionary history of life on earth. Integrating these heterogeneous data remains a challenge due to large variations in observational scales, collection purposes, and terminologies. Here, we conceptualize widely used biodiversity data types according to their domain (what aspect of biodiversity is described?) and informational resolution (how specific is the description?). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445469PMC