243,027 results match your criteria PLoS Biology [Journal]
Invest New Drugs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Institut Claudius Regaud, IUCT-Oncopole, Departement d'Oncologie Medicale, Toulouse, France.
Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of F14512, a topoisomerase II inhibitor designed to target cancer cells through the polyamine transport system, (three-hour daily infusion given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks) in platinum-refractory or resistant ovarian cancer. Other objectives were safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), PK/pharmacodynamics relationship, and efficacy. Methods This was an open-label, dose-escalation, multicenter phase I study. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209004. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Today's students have increased expectations for flexible learning options and evidence-based practice resources to be available to support curricular activities. We investigated: (i) the suitability of a static website for teaching ocular anatomy and physiology and an interactive version of the website with quiz and self-assessment activities and (ii) the usefulness of a blended online and in-lab environment to teach in Optometry. We administered a survey to compare responses of optometry students who had access to the interactive website, with those from students from a previous year who used the static version. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 13;14(12):e1007342. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pediatrics, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 13;14(12):e1007380. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America.
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 13;14(12):e1007193. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, 130062, Changchun, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.
Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the most detrimental diseases, and leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Despite efforts by many government authorities to stamp out the disease from national pig populations, the disease remains widespread. Here, antiviral small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were selected and then inserted at the porcine Rosa26 (pRosa26) locus via a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in strategy. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209267. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Instituto de Neurociencias, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.
Are mathematical learning difficulties caused by impairment of the abilities that underlie mathematical talent? Or are mathematical difficulties and talent qualitatively different? The main goal of this study was to determine whether mathematical learning difficulties are explained by the same executive functions as mathematical talent. We screened a pool of 2,682 first-year high school students and selected 48 for evaluation, dividing them into three groups: those with mathematical learning difficulties (n = 16), those with typical performance (n = 16), and those with mathematical talent (n = 16). Adolescents from the learning difficulties and talented groups had age, reading skills, and verbal and non-verbal intelligence that were similar to those of the typical performance group. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209117. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.
Background: Vaccine hesitancy has been little studied in low- and middle-income countries but is a potential concern because vaccine refusal may increase the burden of infectious diseases and impede control efforts. The aim of this study was to compare vaccine hesitancy between locals, long-time city residents, and non-locals, who have more recently moved to the city from either other urban or rural areas, in Shanghai, China.
Methods: Parents of infants ≤3 months of age were surveyed at immunization clinics in Shanghai, China. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209192. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
INRA, Abeilles et Environnement, Avignon, France.
Honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to environmental stress factors, which can lead to their decline or failure. However, there are major gaps in stressor risk assessment due to the difficulty of assessing the honeybee colony state and detecting abnormal events. Since stress factors usually induce a demographic disturbance in the colony (e. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209014. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, People's Republic of China.
Three arsenic species in urine are measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RT-PCR is performed to detect the expression levels of AS3MT, 3 miRNAs, and 17 relative mRNAs in 43 workers producing arsenic trioxide, 36 workers who stopped exposure to arsenic for 85 days, and 24 individuals as the control group. The concentrations of urinary arsenic are very high in workers. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208630. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies invest a substantial amount of colony resources in the production of drones during the reproductive season to enable mating with virgin queens from nearby colonies. Recent studies have shown significant differences in the production of sperm cells that are viable (i.e. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 13;14(12):e1007457. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are extremely common and can be highly recurrent, with 1-2% of women suffering from six or more recurrent episodes per year. The high incidence of recurrent UTI, including recurrent infections caused by the same bacterial strain that caused the first infection, suggests that at least some women do not mount a protective adaptive immune response to UTI. Here we observed in a mouse model of cystitis (bladder infection) that infection with two different clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates, UTI89 or CFT073, resulted in different kinetics of bacterial clearance and different susceptibility to same-strain recurrent infection. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209112. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.
Introduction: Golden retrievers are over-represented in cases of taurine-deficient dilated cardiomyopathy and recently a surge in cases has prompted further investigation.
Objective: To describe the clinical, dietary, and echocardiographic features in golden retrievers diagnosed with taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy, and to determine specific dietary associations. A second aim was to determine the whole blood taurine concentrations in a representative sample of healthy golden retrievers. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209169. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
Introduction: 11C-acetate (ACE)-PET/CT is used for staging of high-risk prostate cancer. PET data is reconstructed with iterative algorithms, such as VUEPointHD ViP (VPHD) and VUEPoint HD Sharp IR (SharpIR), the latter with additional resolution recovery. It is expected that the resolution recovery algorithm should render more accurate maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) and functional tumor volumes (FTV) than the ordinary OSEM. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209023. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
METHODS Team, Centre of Research in Epidemiology and Statistics Sorbonne Paris Cité (CRESS), INSERM, UMR 1153, Paris, France.
Background: Achieving good medication adherence is a major challenge for patients with chronic conditions. Our study aimed to assess the Threshold for Unacceptable Risk of Non-adherence (TURN), defined as the threshold at which physicians consider the health risks incurred by patients due to medication non-adherence unacceptable, for the most commonly prescribed drugs in France.
Methods: We conducted an online study using a crowdsourcing approach among French general practitioners and specialists from September 2016 to August 2017. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208911. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Background: Aedes japonicus was first documented in Ontario, Canada, in 2001. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Ae. japonicus establishment on the abundance of other mosquitoes in the Greater Golden Horseshoe (GGH) region of Ontario. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209033. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Population Health Sciences Division, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
Background: Vitamin D has been linked with improved survival after breast cancer diagnosis but little is known about prescribing rates. This study investigates trends in vitamin D supplement use in both a general female and breast cancer population.
Methods: Women with a breast cancer diagnosis were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (n = 19870). Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208936. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine and Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
This study explores the genomic alterations that contribute to the formation of a unique subset of low-risk, epithelial differentiated, favorable histology Wilms tumors (WT), tumors that have been characterized by their expression of post-induction renal developmental genes (Subset 1 WT). We demonstrate copy neutral loss of heterozygosity involving 19q13.32-q13. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209084. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
It is well-established that experiences of discrimination influence immigrants' acculturation. Yet, whereas a large body of research has demonstrated the role of discrimination by members of the dominant societal group, surprisingly little is known about how being discriminated by members of one's own group relates to the way immigrants acculturate. With a sample of 162 African first- and second-generation immigrants living in Norway, the present research investigated the relationship between both types of discrimination, acculturation and psychological well-being. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208991. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS, Brasil.
Toxocariasis is a neglected zoonosis that affects children and adults. Recombinant proteins have been widely investigated for diagnosis, achieving high sensitivity and specificity in an overall population; however, little is known about age as a factor in its application. This study aims to investigate the diagnostic potential of Toxocara canis TES-30 and TES-120 recombinant proteins in humans, differentiating between its performance in children and adults. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209042. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.
Development and implementation of rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is critical for guiding patient care and improving clinical outcomes, especially in cases of sepsis. One approach to reduce the time-to-answer for antimicrobial susceptibility is monitoring the inhibition of DNA production, as differences in DNA concentrations are more quickly impacted compared to optical density changes in traditional antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Here, we use real-time PCR to rapidly determine antimicrobial susceptibility after short incubations with antibiotic. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208956. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive impairments. However, the nature of cognitive modification in patients with PD remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether patients with PD could correct and maintain subjective time duration and line length estimation. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208919. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
National AIDS Control Program, MoHCDGEC, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Although several studies have evaluated one or more linkage services to improve early enrollment in HIV care in Tanzania, none have evaluated the package of linkage services recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). We describe the uptake of each component of the CDC/WHO recommended package of linkage services, and early enrollment in HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among persons with HIV who participated in a peer-delivered, linkage case management (LCM) program implemented in Bukoba, Tanzania, October 2014 -May 2017. Of 4206 participants (88% newly HIV diagnosed), most received recommended services including counseling on the importance of early enrollment in care and ART (100%); escort by foot or car to an HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC) (83%); treatment navigation at a CTC (94%); telephone support and appointment reminders (77% among clients with cellphones); and counseling on HIV-status disclosure and partner/family testing (77%), and on barriers to care (69%). Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208805. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.
Background: The PROMOTE study aims to measure long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) safety and adherence; compare HIV disease progression; assess subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes; evaluate effect of ART exposure on growth and development in HIV-exposed uninfected children; and assess long-term survival of mothers and children. This report primarily describes cohort characteristics at baseline to better understand long-term outcomes.
Methods And Findings: This is a prospective study. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208857. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Mathematics, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
In network security, firewall is a security system that observes and controls the network traffic based on some predefined rules. A firewall sets up a barrier between internal network and another outside unsecured network, such as the Internet. A number of signcryption schemes for firewall are proposed over the years, many of them are proved to have security flaws. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209065. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Modelling of internal migration to new cities is challenging, yet necessary to ensure that these newly established urban areas will be populated and function as intended. In the State of Kuwait, there is a unique set of push and pull factors: government subsidised housing for citizens, the existence of a single urban area, and the initiation of a new and ambitious master plan for the construction of 12 new cities, which are expected to attract not only locals, but also international residents and businesses. On top of these factors, there is an unusual demographic situation, as non-citizens outnumber Kuwaiti citizens by a factor of 2. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208842. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
Objectives: Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a leading cause of death globally, is a multidimensional process influenced by clinical, psychological, social and occupational factors, the single impact of which, however, is still not well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate these 4 factors on return to work (RTW) within 365 days after AMI in a homogeneous cohort of patients who had undergone an urgent coronary angioplasty.
Participants: We studied 102 patients, in employment at the time of AMI (88. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208982. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.
Cholinergic Receptor Nicotinic Alpha 5 (CHRNA5) is an important susceptibility locus for nicotine addiction and lung cancer. Depletion of CHRNA5 has been associated with reduced cell viability, increased apoptosis and alterations in cellular motility in different cancers yet not in breast cancer. Herein we first showed the expression of CHRNA5 was variable and positively correlated with the fraction of total genomic alterations in breast cancer cell lines and tumors indicating its potential role in DNA damage response (DDR). Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208817. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Background: A biphasic, U-shape relationship has been reported between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and the cardiovascular risk following PCI has not been reported.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208636. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Integrative Neuroanatomy, Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
Objective: To identify the specific domains of the presynaptic protein synapsin targeted by recently described autoantibodies to synapsin.
Methods: Sera of 20 and CSF of two patients with different psychiatric and neurological disorders previously tested positive for immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies to full-length synapsin were screened for IgG against synapsin I domains using HEK293 cells transfected with constructs encoding different domains of rat synapsin Ia. Additionally, IgG subclasses were determined using full-length synapsin Ia. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209052. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
UNC Project-Malawi, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi.
Background: In Malawi's PMTCT Option B+ program, HIV-infected pregnant women who are already receiving ART are continued on their current therapy regimen without testing for treatment failure at the first antenatal care (ANC) visit. HIV RNA screening at ANC may identify women with treatment failure and ensure that viral suppression is maintained throughout the pregnancy.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected pregnant women who had been receiving ART for at least 6 months at the first ANC visit under the PMTCT Option B+ program at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi from June 2015 to December 2017. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209050. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pharmacology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan.
A bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), acts extracellularly as a potent mediator, and is implicated in the progression of various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). S1P exerts its functions by binding to five types of specific receptors, S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1), S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 on the plasma membrane. However, the exact roles of S1P and each S1PR in HCC cells remain to be clarified. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209074. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
INSERM U1153, METHODS (Méthodes en Évaluation Thérapeutique des Maladies Chroniques) Research Unit. Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité University, Paris, France.
Objectives: To assess variations in management of severe postpartum hemorrhage: 1) between obstetricians in the same situation 2) by the same obstetrician in different situations.
Study Design: A link to a vignette-based survey was emailed to obstetricians of 215 maternity units; the questionnaire asked them to report how they would manage the PPH described in 2 previously validated case-vignettes of different scenarios of severe PPH. Vignette 1 described a typical immediate, severe PPH, and vignette 2 a less typical case of severe but gradual PPH. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209080. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Genetics, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
In most Eukaryotes, ubiquitin either exists as free monoubiquitin or as a molecule that is covalently linked to other proteins. These two forms cycle between each other and due to the concerted antagonistic activity of ubiquitylating and deubiquitylating enzymes, an intracellular ubiquitin equilibrium is maintained that is essential for normal biological function. However, measuring the level and ratio of these forms of ubiquitin has been difficult and time consuming. Read More
PLoS Genet 2018 Dec 13;14(12):e1007845. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Laboratory Biology of the Cell Nucleus, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Gosselies, Belgium.
Nucleoporins build the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which, as sole gate for nuclear-cytoplasmic exchange, is of outmost importance for normal cell function. Defects in the process of nucleocytoplasmic transport or in its machinery have been frequently described in human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, but only in a few cases of developmental disorders. Here we report biallelic mutations in the nucleoporin NUP88 as a novel cause of lethal fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) in two families. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209071. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
The Sharing Economy (SE) is a growing ecosystem focusing on peer-to-peer enterprise. In the SE the information available to assist individuals (users) in making decisions focuses predominantly on community-generated trust and reputation information. However, how such information impacts user judgement is still being understood. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208977. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama-shi, Toyama, Japan.
The guinea pig has been used as a model to study various human infectious diseases because of its similarity to humans regarding symptoms and immune response, but little is known about the humoral immune response. To better understand the mechanism underlying the generation of the antibody repertoire in guinea pigs, we performed deep sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin variable chains from naïve B and plasma cells. We gathered and analyzed nearly 16,000 full-length VH, Vκ and Vλ genes and analyzed V and J gene segment usage profiles and mutation statuses by annotating recently reported genome data of guinea pig immunoglobulin genes. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208981. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Calcium (Ca2+) is an important ion in physiology and is found both outside and inside cells. The intracellular concentration of Ca2+ is tightly regulated as it is an intracellular signal molecule and can affect a variety of cellular processes. In immune cells Ca2+ has been shown to regulate e. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208975. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
Azotobacter vinelandii is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the Pseudomonadaceae family that prefers the use of organic acids rather than carbohydrates. Thus, in a mixture of acetate-glucose, glucose is consumed only after acetate is exhausted. In a previous work, we investigated the molecular basis of this carbon catabolite repression (CCR) process under diazotrophic conditions. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209000. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.
The estimation of the Sample Size Requirement (SSR) when using a binary composite endpoint (i.e. two or more outcomes combined in a unique primary endpoint) is not trivial. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208829. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (hgs) are evolutionarily conserved sets of mtDNA SNP-haplotypes with characteristic geographical distribution. Associations of hgs with disease and physiological characteristics have been reported, but have frequently not been reproducible. Using 418 mtDNA SNPs on the PsychChip (Illumina), we assessed the spatio-temporal distribution of mtDNA hgs in Denmark from DNA isolated from 24,642 geographically un-biased dried blood spots (DBS), collected from 1981 to 2005 through the Danish National Neonatal Screening program. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208813. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Dialog N - Research and Communication for People, Environment and Nature, Uster, Switzerland.
Private-sector investors could be key players in combatting global land degradation and realising the emerging concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN). To better understand how to incentivize private-sector investors for LDN, we conducted an online-survey of 68 private-sector investors. Structural equation modelling based on the theory of planned behavior was performed to investigate how cognitive, social, emotional, motivational and financial determinants influence their intention and motivation to invest in LDN. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208879. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
Objective: Explore associations between dietary patterns and maternal age.
Design: Population based cohort study.
Setting: Maternity department of a large hospital in northern England. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208888. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Background: An increasing number of people are living with multiple chronic conditions and it is unclear which quality indicators should be used to guide care for this population.
Objective: To critically appraise and select the most appropriate set of quality indicators for ambulatory care for older adults with five selected disease combinations.
Methods: A two-round web-based Delphi process was used to critically appraise and select quality of care indicators for older adults with diabetes and comorbidities. Read More
PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208876. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Background: A stepped wedge cluster randomised trial (SWCRT) is a multicentred study which allows an intervention to be rolled out at sites in a random order. Once the intervention is initiated at a site, all participants within that site remain exposed to the intervention for the remainder of the study. The time since the start of the study ("calendar time") may affect outcome measures through underlying time trends or periodicity. Read More