4,502 results match your criteria PLoS Biology [Journal]


Alternative (backdoor) androgen production and masculinization in the human fetus.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 14;17(2):e3000002. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Masculinization of the external genitalia in humans is dependent on formation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) through both the canonical androgenic pathway and an alternative (backdoor) pathway. The fetal testes are essential for canonical androgen production, but little is known about the synthesis of backdoor androgens, despite their known critical role in masculinization. In this study, we have measured plasma and tissue levels of endogenous steroids in second trimester human fetuses using multidimensional and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000002DOI Listing
February 2019

Long noncoding RNAs: p53's secret weapon in the fight against cancer?

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 13;17(2):e3000143. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Regulatory RNAs and Cancer Section, Genetics Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

p53 regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. Recent surprising observations indicate that no single protein-coding gene controls the tumor suppressor effects of p53. This raises the possibility that a subset of these genes, regulated by a p53-induced long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), could control p53's tumor suppressor function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000143DOI Listing
February 2019

A single pair of leucokinin neurons are modulated by feeding state and regulate sleep-metabolism interactions.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 13;17(2):e2006409. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, Florida, United States of America.

Dysregulation of sleep and feeding has widespread health consequences. Despite extensive epidemiological evidence for interactions between sleep and metabolic function, little is known about the neural or molecular basis underlying the integration of these processes. D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006409DOI Listing
February 2019

Reliable novelty: New should not trump true.

Authors:
Björn Brembs

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 12;17(2):e3000117. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Universität Regensburg, Institut für Zoologie, Neurogenetik, Regensburg, Germany.

Although a case can be made for rewarding scientists for risky, novel science rather than for incremental, reliable science, novelty without reliability ceases to be science. The currently available evidence suggests that the most prestigious journals are no better at detecting unreliable science than other journals. In fact, some of the most convincing studies show a negative correlation, with the most prestigious journals publishing the least reliable science. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000117DOI Listing
February 2019

A proposal for the future of scientific publishing in the life sciences.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 12;17(2):e3000116. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, United States of America.

Science advances through rich, scholarly discussion. More than ever before, digital tools allow us to take that dialogue online. To chart a new future for open publishing, we must consider alternatives to the core features of the legacy print publishing system, such as an access paywall and editorial selection before publication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000116DOI Listing
February 2019

Developmental regulation of regenerative potential in Drosophila by ecdysone through a bistable loop of ZBTB transcription factors.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 11;17(2):e3000149. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IBDM, UMR 7288, Marseille, France.

In many organisms, the regenerative capacity of tissues progressively decreases as development progresses. However, the developmental mechanisms that restrict regenerative potential remain unclear. In Drosophila, wing imaginal discs become unable to regenerate upon damage during the third larval stage (L3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000149DOI Listing
February 2019

Contingency in the convergent evolution of a regulatory network: Dosage compensation in Drosophila.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 11;17(2):e3000094. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America.

The repeatability or predictability of evolution is a central question in evolutionary biology and most often addressed in experimental evolution studies. Here, we infer how genetically heterogeneous natural systems acquire the same molecular changes to address how genomic background affects adaptation in natural populations. In particular, we take advantage of independently formed neo-sex chromosomes in Drosophila species that have evolved dosage compensation by co-opting the dosage-compensation male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to study the mutational paths that have led to the acquisition of hundreds of novel binding sites for the MSL complex in different species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000094DOI Listing
February 2019

Proximal recolonization by self-renewing microglia re-establishes microglial homeostasis in the adult mouse brain.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 8;17(2):e3000134. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Gladstone Institutes of Neurological Diseases, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Microglia are resident immune cells that play critical roles in maintaining the normal physiology of the central nervous system (CNS). Remarkably, microglia have an intrinsic capacity to repopulate themselves after acute ablation. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive such restoration remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000134
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February 2019
2 Reads

Molecular recognition and maturation of SOD1 by its evolutionarily destabilised cognate chaperone hCCS.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 8;17(2):e3000141. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Molecular Biophysics Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) maturation comprises a string of posttranslational modifications which transform the nascent peptide into a stable and active enzyme. The successive folding, metal ion binding, and disulphide acquisition steps in this pathway can be catalysed through a direct interaction with the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS). This process confers enzymatic activity and reduces access to noncanonical, aggregation-prone states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000141DOI Listing
February 2019

Evolutionary change in the human gut microbiome: From a static to a dynamic view.

Authors:
Isabel Gordo

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000126. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal.

Our intestine is a melting pot of interactions between microbial and human cells. This gene-rich ecosystem modulates our health, but questions remain unanswered regarding its genetic structure, such as, "How rapid is evolutionary change in the human gut microbiome? How can its function be maintained?" Much research on the microbiome has characterized the species it contains. Yet the high growth rate and large population sizes of many species, and the mutation rate of most microbes (approximately 10-3 per genome per generation), could imply that evolution might be happening in our gut along our lifetime. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000126DOI Listing
February 2019

Fat cells gobbling up norepinephrine?

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000138. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism Institute, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls key aspects of adipose tissue (AT) function through the release of norepinephrine (NE) and beta adrenergic signaling. Sympathetic tone is determined by NE release but also by the rate of extracellular NE clearance that historically has been believed to occur solely through solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2) expressed on sympathetic neurons. Song and colleagues show that adipocytes can also clear NE through organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000138DOI Listing
February 2019

The evolution of the syrinx: An acoustic theory.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e2006507. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

University of Utah, Department of Biology, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States of America.

The unique avian vocal organ, the syrinx, is located at the caudal end of the trachea. Although a larynx is also present at the opposite end, birds phonate only with the syrinx. Why only birds evolved a novel sound source at this location remains unknown, and hypotheses about its origin are largely untested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006507DOI Listing
February 2019

Late-life mortality is underestimated because of data errors.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000148. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Knowledge of true mortality trajectory at extreme old ages is important for biologists who test their theories of aging with demographic data. Studies using both simulation and direct age validation found that longevity records for ages 105 years and older are often incorrect and may lead to spurious mortality deceleration and mortality plateau. After age 105 years, longevity claims should be considered as extraordinary claims that require extraordinary evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000148DOI Listing
February 2019

If a fish can pass the mark test, what are the implications for consciousness and self-awareness testing in animals?

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000021. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Animal Sociology, Department of Biology and Geosciences, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Editor’s Note: This Short Report received both positive and negative reviews by experts. The Academic Editor has written an accompanying Primer that we are publishing alongside this article (https://doi.org/10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000021DOI Listing
February 2019

Searching for the genes driving assortative mating.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000108. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States of America.

Animals display an astonishing array of diverse colors and patterns, and animals also exhibit preferences for these diverse, species-specific traits when choosing a mate (i.e., assortative mate preference). Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000108
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February 2019
2 Reads

Recombination rate variation shapes barriers to introgression across butterfly genomes.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e2006288. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Hybridisation and introgression can dramatically alter the relationships among groups of species, leading to phylogenetic discordance across the genome and between populations. Introgression can also erode species differences over time, but selection against introgression at certain loci acts to maintain postmating species barriers. Theory predicts that species barriers made up of many loci throughout the genome should lead to a broad correlation between introgression and recombination rate, which determines the extent to which selection on deleterious foreign alleles will affect neutral alleles at physically linked loci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006288DOI Listing
February 2019

Fish, mirrors, and a gradualist perspective on self-awareness.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000112. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Psychology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

The mirror mark test has encouraged a binary view of self-awareness according to which a few species possess this capacity whereas others do not. Given how evolution works, however, we need a more gradualist model of the various ways in which animals construe a self and respond to mirrors. The recent study on cleaner wrasses (Labroides dimidiatus) by Kohda and colleagues highlights this need by presenting results that, due to ambiguous behavior and the use of physically irritating marks, fall short of mirror self-recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000112DOI Listing
February 2019

Modeling Edar expression reveals the hidden dynamics of tooth signaling center patterning.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e3000064. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratoire de Biologie et Modélisation de la Cellule, Université de Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard, CNRS UMR 5239, INSERM U1210, Lyon, France.

When patterns are set during embryogenesis, it is expected that they are straightly established rather than subsequently modified. The patterning of the three mouse molars is, however, far from straight, likely as a result of mouse evolutionary history. The first-formed tooth signaling centers, called MS and R2, disappear before driving tooth formation and are thought to be vestiges of the premolars found in mouse ancestors. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000064
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February 2019
2 Reads

Genetic dissection of assortative mating behavior.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 7;17(2):e2005902. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The evolution of new species is made easier when traits under divergent ecological selection are also mating cues. Such ecological mating cues are now considered more common than previously thought, but we still know little about the genetic changes underlying their evolution or more generally about the genetic basis for assortative mating behaviors. Both tight physical linkage and the existence of large-effect preference loci will strengthen genetic associations between behavioral and ecological barriers, promoting the evolution of assortative mating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005902DOI Listing
February 2019

A mutagenesis screen for essential plastid biogenesis genes in human malaria parasites.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 6;17(2):e3000136. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Endosymbiosis has driven major molecular and cellular innovations. Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria contain an essential, non-photosynthetic plastid-the apicoplast-which originated from a secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000136DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

TRIM2, a novel member of the antiviral family, limits New World arenavirus entry.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 6;17(2):e3000137. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UIC College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins belong to a large family with many roles in host biology, including restricting virus infection. Here, we found that TRIM2, which has been implicated in cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD) in humans, acts by blocking hemorrhagic fever New World arenavirus (NWA) entry into cells. We show that Trim2-knockout mice, as well as primary fibroblasts from a CMTD patient with mutations in TRIM2, are more highly infected by the NWAs Junín and Tacaribe virus than wild-type mice or cells are. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000137DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Lens differentiation is controlled by the balance between PDGF and FGF signaling.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 4;17(2):e3000133. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Departments of Ophthalmology, Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

How multiple receptor tyrosine kinases coordinate cell fate determination is yet to be elucidated. We show here that the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling recruits the p85 subunit of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) to regulate mammalian lens development. Activation of PI3K signaling not only prevents B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-Associated X (Bax)- and BCL2 Antagonist/Killer (Bak)-mediated apoptosis but also promotes Notch signaling to prevent premature cell differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000133DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A census-based estimate of Earth's bacterial and archaeal diversity.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 4;17(2):e3000106. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The global diversity of Bacteria and Archaea, the most ancient and most widespread forms of life on Earth, is a subject of intense controversy. This controversy stems largely from the fact that existing estimates are entirely based on theoretical models or extrapolations from small and biased data sets. Here, in an attempt to census the bulk of Earth's bacterial and archaeal ("prokaryotic") clades and to estimate their overall global richness, we analyzed over 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000106DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Structural basis of DSF recognition by its receptor RpfR and its regulatory interaction with the DSF synthase RpfF.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 4;17(2):e3000123. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.

The diffusible signal factors (DSFs) are a family of quorum-sensing autoinducers (AIs) produced and detected by numerous gram-negative bacteria. The DSF family AIs are fatty acids, differing in their acyl chain length, branching, and substitution but having in common a cis-2 double bond that is required for their activity. In both human and plant pathogens, DSFs regulate diverse phenotypes, including virulence factor expression, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm dispersal. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000123
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February 2019
2 Reads

Genetic redundancy fuels polygenic adaptation in Drosophila.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 4;17(2):e3000128. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institut für Populationsgenetik, Vetmeduni Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The genetic architecture of adaptive traits is of key importance to predict evolutionary responses. Most adaptive traits are polygenic-i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000128DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Experimental evolution reveals microbial traits for association with the host gut.

Authors:
Nicole M Vega

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 4;17(2):e3000129. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Understanding how microbes adapt to their host is an enduring problem in microbiome ecology, and understanding the microbial traits that allow colonization of the host and increase adaptation to the host environment is of particular interest. In this study, Robinson and colleagues use experimental evolution to demonstrate adaptation of a commensal bacterium to its zebrafish host and describe the changes in phenotype that emerge during this evolutionary process. These results provide insight into the evolutionary problem of host adaptation and demonstrate the utility of simple models for understanding host-microbiome dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000129DOI Listing
February 2019

Potent anti-influenza H7 human monoclonal antibody induces separation of hemagglutinin receptor-binding head domains.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 4;17(2):e3000139. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Seasonal influenza virus infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the threat from the emergence of a new pandemic influenza strain might have potentially even more devastating consequences. As such, there is intense interest in isolating and characterizing potent neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface glycoprotein. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to decipher the mechanism of action of a potent HA head-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) bound to an influenza H7 HA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000139DOI Listing
February 2019

A novel nonosteocytic regulatory mechanism of bone modeling.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 1;17(2):e3000140. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

Osteocytes, cells forming an elaborate network within the bones of most vertebrate taxa, are thought to be the master regulators of bone modeling, a process of coordinated, local bone-tissue deposition and removal that keeps bone strains at safe levels throughout life. Neoteleost fish, however, lack osteocytes and yet are known to be capable of bone modeling, although no osteocyte-independent modeling regulatory mechanism has so far been described. Here, we characterize a novel, to our knowledge, bone-modeling regulatory mechanism in a fish species (medaka), showing that although lacking osteocytes (i. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000140
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February 2019
1 Read

A Notch-mediated, temporal asymmetry in BMP pathway activation promotes photoreceptor subtype diversification.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 31;17(1):e2006250. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Centre de Biologie du Développement (Unité Mixte de Recherche 5547), Centre de Biologie Intégrative (Fédération de Recherche 3743), Université de Toulouse, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

Neural progenitors produce neurons whose identities can vary as a function of the time that specification occurs. Here, we describe the heterochronic specification of two photoreceptor (PhR) subtypes in the zebrafish pineal gland. We find that accelerating PhR specification by impairing Notch signaling favors the early fate at the expense of the later fate. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006250
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January 2019
1 Read

Pathogen diversity drives the evolution of generalist MHC-II alleles in human populations.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 31;17(1):e3000131. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary.

Central players of the adaptive immune system are the groups of proteins encoded in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which shape the immune response against pathogens and tolerance to self-peptides. The corresponding genomic region is of particular interest, as it harbors more disease associations than any other region in the human genome, including associations with infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers, and neuropsychiatric diseases. Certain MHC molecules can bind to a much wider range of epitopes than others, but the functional implication of such an elevated epitope-binding repertoire has remained largely unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000131DOI Listing
January 2019

Coordinated electrical activity in the olfactory bulb gates the oscillatory entrainment of entorhinal networks in neonatal mice.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 31;17(1):e2006994. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Developmental Neurophysiology, Institute of Neuroanatomy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Although the developmental principles of sensory and cognitive processing have been extensively investigated, their synergy has been largely neglected. During early life, most sensory systems are still largely immature. As a notable exception, the olfactory system is functional at birth, controlling mother-offspring interactions and neonatal survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006994DOI Listing
January 2019

Continued poxvirus research: From foe to friend.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 30;17(1):e3000124. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The eradication of smallpox is one of the greatest medical successes in history. Vaccinia virus was made famous by being the virus used in the live vaccine that enabled this feat. Nearly 40 years on from that success, this prototypical poxvirus continues to empower the exploration of fundamental biology and the potential to develop therapeutics against some of the major causes of death and disease in the modern world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000124DOI Listing
January 2019

Network hubs affect evolvability.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 30;17(1):e3000111. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

CMPG Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics, Departement Microbiële en Moleculaire Systemen (M2S), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The regulatory processes in cells are typically organized into complex genetic networks. However, it is still unclear how this network structure modulates the evolution of cellular regulation. One would expect that mutations in central and highly connected modules of a network (so-called hubs) would often result in a breakdown and therefore be an evolutionary dead end. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000111DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

The Cdk8/19-cyclin C transcription regulator functions in genome replication through metazoan Sld7.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 29;17(1):e2006767. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Vertebrate DNA Replication Lab, Centre for Medical Biotechnology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Accurate genome duplication underlies genetic homeostasis. Metazoan Mdm2 binding protein (MTBP) forms a main regulatory platform for origin, firing together with Topoisomerase II binding protein 1 (TopBP1)-interacting replication stimulating protein/TopBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator (Treslin/TICRR) and TopBP1. We report the first comprehensive analysis of MTBP and reveal conserved and metazoa-specific MTBP functions in replication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006767DOI Listing
January 2019
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Developing a modern data workflow for regularly updated data.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 29;17(1):e3000125. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Over the past decade, biology has undergone a data revolution in how researchers collect data and the amount of data being collected. An emerging challenge that has received limited attention in biology is managing, working with, and providing access to data under continual active collection. Regularly updated data present unique challenges in quality assurance and control, data publication, archiving, and reproducibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000125DOI Listing
January 2019

Dominance reversals and the maintenance of genetic variation for fitness.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 29;17(1):e3000118. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia.

Antagonistic selection between different fitness components (e.g., survival versus fertility) or different types of individuals in a population (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000118DOI Listing
January 2019

Insulin resistance disrupts epithelial repair and niche-progenitor Fgf signaling during chronic liver injury.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 29;17(1):e2006972. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

CIBERDEM (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas), Madrid, Spain.

Insulin provides important information to tissues about feeding behavior and energy status. Defective insulin signaling is associated with ageing, tissue dysfunction, and impaired wound healing. In the liver, insulin resistance leads to chronic damage and fibrosis, but it is unclear how tissue-repair mechanisms integrate insulin signals to coordinate an appropriate injury response or how they are affected by insulin resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006972DOI Listing
January 2019

Open notebook science can maximize impact for rare disease projects.

Authors:
Rachel J Harding

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 28;17(1):e3000120. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Transparency lies at the heart of the open lab notebook movement. Open notebook scientists publish laboratory experiments and findings in the public domain in real time, without restrictions or omissions. Research on rare diseases is especially amenable to the open notebook model because it can both increase scientific impact and serve as a mechanism to engage patient groups in the scientific process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000120DOI Listing
January 2019

Environment-dependent pleiotropic effects of mutations on the maximum growth rate r and carrying capacity K of population growth.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 25;17(1):e3000121. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Maximum growth rate per individual (r) and carrying capacity (K) are key life-history traits that together characterize the density-dependent population growth and therefore are crucial parameters of many ecological and evolutionary theories such as r/K selection. Although r and K are generally thought to correlate inversely, both r/K tradeoffs and trade-ups have been observed. Nonetheless, neither the conditions under which each of these relationships occur nor the causes of these relationships are fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000121
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January 2019
3 Reads

Evidence that nonsignificant results are sometimes preferred: Reverse P-hacking or selective reporting?

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 25;17(1):e3000127. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

There is increased concern about poor scientific practices arising from an excessive focus on P-values. Two particularly worrisome practices are selective reporting of significant results and 'P-hacking'. The latter is the manipulation of data collection, usage, or analyses to obtain statistically significant outcomes. Read More

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January 2019

Evolutionary dynamics of bacteria in the gut microbiome within and across hosts.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 23;17(1):e3000102. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Gut microbiota are shaped by a combination of ecological and evolutionary forces. While the ecological dynamics have been extensively studied, much less is known about how species of gut bacteria evolve over time. Here, we introduce a model-based framework for quantifying evolutionary dynamics within and across hosts using a panel of metagenomic samples. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000102
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000102DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Arbovirus coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected public health concern?

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 22;17(1):e3000130. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Epidemiological synergy between outbreaks of viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses, has resulted in coinfection of humans with multiple viruses. Despite the potential impact on public health, we know only little about the occurrence and consequences of such coinfections. Here, we review the impact of coinfection on clinical disease in humans, discuss the possibility for co-transmission from mosquito to human, and describe a role for modeling transmission dynamics at various levels of co-transmission. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000130
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000130DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Intervention against hypertension in the next generation programmed by developmental hypoxia.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 22;17(1):e2006552. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Evidence derived from human clinical studies and experimental animal models shows a causal relationship between adverse pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease in the adult offspring. However, translational studies isolating mechanisms to design intervention are lacking. Sheep and humans share similar precocial developmental milestones in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006552
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342530PMC
January 2019
5 Reads

Asymmetric diversification of mating pheromones in fission yeast.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 22;17(1):e3000101. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Genetics Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan.

In fungi, mating between partners depends on the molecular recognition of two peptidyl mating pheromones by their respective receptors. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp) has two mating types, Plus (P) and Minus (M). The mating pheromones P-factor and M-factor, secreted by P and M cells, are recognized by the receptors mating type auxiliary minus 2 (Mam2) and mating type auxiliary plus 3 (Map3), respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342294PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Structure of the DP1-DP2 PolD complex bound with DNA and its implications for the evolutionary history of DNA and RNA polymerases.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 18;17(1):e3000122. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Unit of Structural Dynamics of Macromolecules, Pasteur Institute and CNRS UMR 3528, Paris, France.

PolD is an archaeal replicative DNA polymerase (DNAP) made of a proofreading exonuclease subunit (DP1) and a larger polymerase catalytic subunit (DP2). Recently, we reported the individual crystal structures of the DP1 and DP2 catalytic cores, thereby revealing that PolD is an atypical DNAP that has all functional properties of a replicative DNAP but with the catalytic core of an RNA polymerase (RNAP). We now report the DNA-bound cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the heterodimeric DP1-DP2 PolD complex from Pyrococcus abyssi, revealing a unique DNA-binding site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000122DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) is a distinct catecholamines clearance route in adipocytes mediating the beiging of white adipose tissue.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 17;17(1):e2006571. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a particularly appealing target for therapeutics in the treatment of metabolic diseases through norepinephrine (NE)-mediated signaling pathways. Although previous studies report NE clearance mechanisms via SLC6A2 on sympathetic neurons or proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissues (ATs), the low catecholamine clearance capacity of SLC6A2 may limit the cleaning efficiency. Here, we report that mouse organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3; Slc22a3) is highly expressed in WAT and displays the greatest uptake rate of NE as a selective non-neural route of NE clearance in white adipocytes, which differs from other known routes such as adjacent neurons or macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006571
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336244PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Avoidance response to CO2 in the lateral horn.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 17;17(1):e2006749. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal.

In flies, the olfactory information is carried from the first relay in the brain, the antennal lobe, to the mushroom body (MB) and the lateral horn (LH). Olfactory associations are formed in the MB. The LH was ascribed a role in innate responses based on the stereotyped connectivity with the antennal lobe, stereotyped physiological responses to odors, and MB silencing experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336243PMC
January 2019
1 Read

CD4 occupancy triggers sequential pre-fusion conformational states of the HIV-1 envelope trimer with relevance for broadly neutralizing antibody activity.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 16;17(1):e3000114. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

During the entry process, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer undergoes a sequence of conformational changes triggered by both CD4 and coreceptor engagement. Resolving the conformation of these transient entry intermediates has proven challenging. Here, we fine-mapped the antigenicity of entry intermediates induced by increasing CD4 engagement of cell surface-expressed Env. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000114DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Adding function to the genome of African Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 15;17(1):e3000059. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 causes invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting susceptible HIV+, malarial, or malnourished individuals. An in-depth genomic comparison between the ST313 isolate D23580 and the well-characterized ST19 isolate 4/74 that causes gastroenteritis across the globe revealed extensive synteny. To understand how the 856 nucleotide variations generated phenotypic differences, we devised a large-scale experimental approach that involved the global gene expression analysis of strains D23580 and 4/74 grown in 16 infection-relevant growth conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333337PMC
January 2019
2 Reads