50 results match your criteria PET Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Molecular imaging of autism spectrum disorder.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2017 12 12;29(6):530-554. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

c Section of High Resolution Brain Positron Emission Tomography Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science , School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09540261.2017.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2017.1397606DOI Listing
December 2017
46 Reads

A distinct microRNA expression profile is associated with α[C]-methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET uptake in epileptogenic cortical tubers resected from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Jan 7;109(Pt A):76-87. Epub 2017 Oct 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by hamartomatous lesions in various organs and arises due to mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC mutations lead to a range of neurological manifestations including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and brain lesions that include cortical tubers. There is evidence that seizures arise at or near cortical tubers, but it is unknown why some tubers are epileptogenic while others are not. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2017.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070303PMC
January 2018
20 Reads

[C]PF-3274167 as a PET radiotracer of oxytocin receptors: Radiosynthesis and evaluation in rat brain.

Nucl Med Biol 2017 Dec 2;55:1-6. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM, CNRS, LabEx PRIMES, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon, France; CERMEP-Imagerie du Vivant, Bron, France; Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Oxytocin plays a major role in the regulation of social interactions in mammals by interacting with the oxytocin receptor (OTR) expressed in the brain. Furthermore, the oxytocin system appears as a possible therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and other psychiatric troubles, justifying current pharmacological researches. Since no specific PET radioligand is currently available to image OTR in the brain, the aim of this study was to radiolabel the specific OTR antagonist PF-3274167 and to evaluate [C]PF-3274167 as a potential PET tracer for OTR in rat brains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2017.07.008DOI Listing
December 2017
21 Reads

Integrated multimodal network approach to PET and MRI based on multidimensional persistent homology.

Hum Brain Mapp 2017 03 17;38(3):1387-1402. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Finding underlying relationships among multiple imaging modalities in a coherent fashion is one of the challenging problems in multimodal analysis. In this study, we propose a novel approach based on multidimensional persistence. In the extension of the previous threshold-free method of persistent homology, we visualize and discriminate the topological change of integrated brain networks by varying not only threshold but also mixing ratio between two different imaging modalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23461DOI Listing
March 2017
8 Reads

Nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation for a patient with self-injurious behavior and autism spectrum disorder: functional and structural changes of the brain: report of a case and review of literature.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2017 01 3;159(1):137-143. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

The aim of this report was to investigate the clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the functional and structural changes in the brain after DBS. We present a 14-year-old boy with ASD and self-injurious behavior (SIB) refractory with medical and behavioral therapy. He was treated by bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) DBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-016-3002-2DOI Listing
January 2017
23 Reads

A systematic review of molecular imaging (PET and SPECT) in autism spectrum disorder: current state and future research opportunities.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015 May 12;52:56-73. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Harvard, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are techniques used to quantify molecular interactions, biological processes and protein concentration and distribution. In the central nervous system, these molecular imaging techniques can provide critical insights into neurotransmitter receptors and their occupancy by neurotransmitters or drugs. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of studies that have investigated neurotransmitters in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while earlier studies mostly focused on cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01497634150004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.02.002DOI Listing
May 2015
15 Reads

Platelet SERT as a peripheral biomarker of serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system.

Curr Med Chem 2013 ;20(11):1382-96

Human Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences Research Group, Neurosciences Research Program, IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Alterations in serotonergic activity have been observed in many pathological conditions, including neuro psychiatric diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter(SERT) in the brain clears 5-HT from extracellular spaces, modulating the strength and duration of serotonergic signaling.Outside the central nervous system, it is also present in platelets, where it takes up 5-HT from plasma, keeping levels very low (i. Read More

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August 2013
2 Reads

Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism.

J Clin Neurosci 2013 Mar 7;20(3):373-6. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul University, Arpaemini/Fatih, İstanbul 34093, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients diagnosed with infantile spasms and autism. This study includes 90 patients who were diagnosed with infantile spasms at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in the Istanbul University Medical Faculty between 1995 and 2007. Of the 90 patients, 15 patients who were diagnosed with autism using the Autism Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale and a control group of nine patients without autism but with infantile spasms underwent PET examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2012.03.034DOI Listing
March 2013
17 Reads

Persistent brain network homology from the perspective of dendrogram.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2012 Dec 19;31(12):2267-77. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Korea.

The brain network is usually constructed by estimating the connectivity matrix and thresholding it at an arbitrary level. The problem with this standard method is that we do not have any generally accepted criteria for determining a proper threshold. Thus, we propose a novel multiscale framework that models all brain networks generated over every possible threshold. Read More

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http://www.stat.wisc.edu/~mchung/papers/lee.2012.TMI.pdf
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http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumbe
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2012.2219590DOI Listing
December 2012
1 Read

5-HT2 receptor distribution shown by [18F] setoperone PET in high-functioning autistic adults.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012 ;24(2):191-7

Department of Radiology, the Thompson Center, University of Missouri, MO, USA.

The serotonergic system is implicated in disordered emotional behavior. Autism is characterized by impaired processing of emotional information. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is also critically involved in brain development, and abnormal brain synthesis of serotonin is observed in autism. Read More

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http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11080202DOI Listing
November 2012
18 Reads

The brain GABA-benzodiazepine receptor alpha-5 subtype in autism spectrum disorder: a pilot [(11)C]Ro15-4513 positron emission tomography study.

Neuropharmacology 2013 May 21;68:195-201. Epub 2012 Apr 21.

King's College London, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, PO Box 50, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK.

GABA (gamma-amino-butyric-acid) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It has been proposed that the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are the result of deficient GABA neurotransmission, possibly including reduced expression of GABAA receptors. However, this hypothesis has not been directly tested in living adults with ASD. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00283908120014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4489617PMC
May 2013
6 Reads

[Brain imaging of infantile autism].

Arch Pediatr 2012 May 6;19(5):547-50. Epub 2012 Apr 6.

Unité Inserm U1000, service de radiologie pédiatrique, hôpital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris-Descartes, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75743 Paris cedex 15, France.

Understanding of brain structural anomalies seen in children with autism has considerably progressed since the apparition of MRI and functional imaging. All the results are converging toward the description of anatomical and functional anomalies in the regions of the so-called "social brain". Statistical analyses show diminution of gray matter in the region of the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0929693X1200092
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2012.02.005DOI Listing
May 2012
4 Reads

The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB.

Psychiatry Res 2011 Dec 12;194(3):230-234. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Montefiore Medical Center, University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [(11)C]MDL 100907 and [(11)C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's Disorder. Seventeen individuals with Asperger's Disorder (age=34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3225493PMC
December 2011
9 Reads

Computing the shape of brain networks using graph filtration and Gromov-Hausdorff metric.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2011 ;14(Pt 2):302-9

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The difference between networks has been often assessed by the difference of global topological measures such as the clustering coefficient, degree distribution and modularity. In this paper, we introduce a new framework for measuring the network difference using the Gromov-Hausdorff (GH) distance, which is often used in shape analysis. In order to apply the GH distance, we define the shape of the brain network by piecing together the patches of locally connected nearest neighbors using the graph filtration. Read More

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http://www.stat.wisc.edu/~mchung/papers/lee.2011.MICCAI.pdf
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November 2011
3 Reads

Feature selection and classification of imbalanced datasets: application to PET images of children with autistic spectrum disorders.

Neuroimage 2011 Aug 10;57(3):1003-14. Epub 2011 May 10.

CEA, Neurospin, LNAO, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Learning with discriminative methods is generally based on minimizing the misclassification of training samples, which may be unsuitable for imbalanced datasets where the recognition might be biased in favor of the most numerous class. This problem can be addressed with a generative approach, which typically requires more parameters to be determined leading to reduced performances in high dimension. In such situations, dimension reduction becomes a crucial issue. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S105381191100499
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.011DOI Listing
August 2011
8 Reads

Brief Report: alterations in cerebral blood flow as assessed by PET/CT in adults with autism spectrum disorder with normal IQ.

J Autism Dev Disord 2012 Feb;42(2):313-8

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Specific biological markers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have not yet been established. Functional studies have shown abnormalities in the anatomo-functional connectivity of the limbic-striatal "social" brain. This study aimed to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1240-yDOI Listing
February 2012
27 Reads

Sparse brain network recovery under compressed sensing.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2011 May 7;30(5):1154-65. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

Partial correlation is a useful connectivity measure for brain networks, especially, when it is needed to remove the confounding effects in highly correlated networks. Since it is difficult to estimate the exact partial correlation under the small- n large- p situation, a sparseness constraint is generally introduced. In this paper, we consider the sparse linear regression model with a l(1)-norm penalty, also known as the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), for estimating sparse brain connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2011.2140380DOI Listing
May 2011
4 Reads

Brain imaging findings in children and adolescents with mental disorders: a cross-sectional review.

Eur Psychiatry 2010 Oct;25(6):345-54

Service hospitalier central de médecine nucléaire et neurospin, INSERM-CEA, Research Unit 1000 Neuroimaging & psychiatry, University Paris Sud and University Paris Descartes, 4, place Gl.-Leclerc, 91401 Orsay, France.

Background: While brain imaging studies of juvenile patients has expanded in recent years to investigate the cerebral neurophysiologic correlates of psychiatric disorders, this research field remains scarce. The aim of the present review was to cluster the main mental disorders according to the differential brain location of the imaging findings recently reported in children and adolescents reports. A second objective was to describe the worldwide distribution and the main directions of the recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron tomography (PET) studies in these patients. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S092493381000118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.04.010DOI Listing
October 2010
5 Reads

Cortical serotonin type-2 receptor density in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2009 Jan 1;39(1):97-104. Epub 2008 Jul 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Parents (N = 19) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and adult controls (N = 17) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [(18)F]setoperone to image cortical serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) receptors. The 5-HT2 binding potentials (BPs) were calculated by ratioing [(18)F]setoperone intensity in regions of interest (ROI) to cerebellar intensity. Cortical 5-HT2 BPs were significantly lower in parents compared to controls and platelet 5-HT levels were significantly negatively correlated with cortical 5-HT2 BP in parents. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10803-008-0604-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0604-4DOI Listing
January 2009
5 Reads

Autism with facial port-wine stain: a new syndrome?

Pediatr Neurol 2007 Sep;37(3):192-9

Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

The hallmark of Sturge-Weber syndrome is leptomeningeal angiomatosis. Over 15 years, four children were identified (2 boys, age 2.9-6 years) with unilateral facial port-wine stain, referred for presumable Sturge-Weber syndrome but who were also autistic. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S088789940700232
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.05.005DOI Listing
September 2007
6 Reads

[Advances in neuroimaging research on Asperger syndrome].

Nihon Rinsho 2007 Mar;65(3):449-52

Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (i.e., autism and Asperger syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, although its etiology is still unclear. Read More

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March 2007
9 Reads

Volumetric analysis and three-dimensional glucose metabolic mapping of the striatum and thalamus in patients with autism spectrum disorders.

Am J Psychiatry 2006 Jul;163(7):1252-63

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1505, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Objective: In patients with autism, behavioral deficits as well as neuroimaging studies of the anterior cingulate cortex suggest ventral rather than dorsal striatal and thalamic abnormalities in structure and function. The authors used imaging studies to map volumetric and metabolic differences within the entire dorsoventral extent of the striatum and thalamus.

Method: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) were used to measure volumes and metabolic activity in the thalamus, caudate, and putamen in 17 patients with autism or Asperger's disorder and 17 age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1252DOI Listing
July 2006
8 Reads

PET and SPECT exploration of central monoaminergic transporters for the development of new drugs and treatments in brain disorders.

Curr Pharm Des 2005 ;11(25):3237-45

Inserm U619, Laboratoire de Biophysique médicale et pharmaceutique, Université François Rabelais, Tours, France.

Membrane and vesicular monoaminergic transporters, responsible for the homeostasis of neurotransmitter pools at nerve endings, are very involved in the physiology and diseases of central nervous system. Recent progresses of cerebral molecular imaging using SPECT and PET methods allow the extend of in vivo exploration of these transporters. For this aim, an increasing number of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with [123I], [99mTc], [11C] or [18F] have been developed such as cocaine derivatives for the DAT, compounds from the diphenyl sulfide family for the SERT, and dihydrotetrabenazine derivatives for the VMAT2. Read More

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November 2005
4 Reads

Positron emission tomography methods with potential for increased understanding of mental retardation and developmental disabilities.

Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005 ;11(4):325-30

Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a technique that enables imaging of the distribution of radiolabeled tracers designed to track biochemical and molecular processes in the body after intravenous injection or inhalation. New strategies for the use of radiolabeled tracers hold potential for imaging gene expression in the brain during development and following interventions. In addition, PET may be key in identifying the physiological consequences of gene mutations associated with mental retardation. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mrdd.20086
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20086DOI Listing
March 2006
6 Reads

Significance of abnormalities in developmental trajectory and asymmetry of cortical serotonin synthesis in autism.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2005 Apr-May;23(2-3):171-82

Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Beaubian Blvd., Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

The role of serotonin in prenatal and postnatal brain development is well documented in the animal literature. In earlier studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer alpha[(11)C]methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT), we reported global and focal abnormalities of serotonin synthesis in children with autism. In the present study, we measured brain serotonin synthesis in a large group of autistic children (n = 117) with AMT PET and related these neuroimaging data to handedness and language function. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S073657480400109
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2004.08.002DOI Listing
May 2005
9 Reads

Serotonin in autism and pediatric epilepsies.

Authors:
Diane C Chugani

Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2004 ;10(2):112-6

Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Serotonergic abnormalities have been reported in both autism and epilepsy. This association may provide insights into underlying mechanisms of these disorders because serotonin plays an important neurotrophic role during brain development--and there is evidence for abnormal cortical development in both autism and some forms of epilepsy. This review explores the hypothesis that an early disturbance in the serotonin system affects cortical development and the development of thalamocortical innervation, and is a potential mechanism, common to autism and pediatric epilepsies associated with cortical dysplasia. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mrdd.20021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20021DOI Listing
February 2005
4 Reads

[Functional imaging in mental disorders].

Authors:
Katalin Borbély

Orv Hetil 2004 Feb;145(6):277-89

Országos Idegsebészeti Tudományos Intézet, Nukleáris Medicina Osztály, Budapest.

Considerable progress has been achieved by functional brain imaging over the past 20 years in uncovering the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders and to more effectively target therapeutics. Radioligand techniques, especially the PET (positron emission tomography) method, are specific and sensitive tools for quantitative in vivo imaging of molecular pathways and molecular interactions within brain tissues. Since 1980s, advances in neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques have provided tremendous merits for investigations into different psychiatric disorders. Read More

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February 2004
9 Reads

Regional glucose metabolism within cortical Brodmann areas in healthy individuals and autistic patients.

Neuropsychobiology 2004 ;49(3):115-25

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, N.Y., USA.

A new Brodmann area (BA) delineation approach was applied to FDG-PET scans of autistic patients and healthy volunteers (n = 17 in each group) to examine relative glucose metabolism (rGMR) during performance of a verbal memory task. In the frontal lobe, patients had lower rGMR in medial/cingulate regions (BA 32, 24, 25) but not in lateral regions (BA 8-10) compared with healthy controls. Patients had higher rGMR in occipital (BA 19) and parietal regions (BA 39) compared with controls, but there were no group differences in temporal lobe regions. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/76719
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000076719DOI Listing
May 2004
8 Reads

Changes in cerebral blood flow in Asperger syndrome during theory of mind tasks presented by the auditory route.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003 Aug;12(4):178-89

Department of Child Neurology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents Helsinki University Central Hospital, 280, 00029 HYKS, Finland.

Lack of theory of mind (ToM) has been considered to be a key feature in Asperger syndrome (AS). The main aim of the present study was to determine whether an exclusively auditory input of ToM stories activated the same brain areas as demonstrated previously using visual stimuli. Eight right-handed otherwise healthy men with AS and eight healthy right-handed male controls participated in a PET activation study using auditory given ToM stories and stories about physical events for induction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-003-0337-zDOI Listing
August 2003
3 Reads

Enhanced salience and emotion recognition in Autism: a PET study.

Am J Psychiatry 2003 Aug;160(8):1439-41

Brain-Body Institute, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: This study examined neural activation of facial stimuli in autism when the salience of emotional cues was increased by prosodic information.

Method: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured while eight high-functioning men with autism and eight men without autism performed an emotion-recognition task in which facial emotion stimuli were matched with prosodic voices and a baseline gender-recognition task.

Results: Emotion processing in autistic subjects, compared to that in comparison subjects, resulted in lower rCBF in the inferior frontal and fusiform areas and higher rCBF in the right anterior temporal pole, the anterior cingulate, and the thalamus. Read More

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http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.8.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.8.1439DOI Listing
August 2003
8 Reads

[Bitemporal lobe dysfonction in infantile autism: positron emission tomography study].

J Radiol 2002 Dec;83(12 Pt 1):1829-33

Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, ER-M INSERM 0205, DSV, DRM, CEA, Orsay, 4, place du Général Leclerc 91406, Orsay, France.

Purpose: Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuroanatomical or neurophysiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Read More

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December 2002
7 Reads

Role of altered brain serotonin mechanisms in autism.

Authors:
D C Chugani

Mol Psychiatry 2002 ;7 Suppl 2:S16-7

PET Center, Wayne State University and Children's Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001167DOI Listing
February 2003
2 Reads

Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes.

Brain 2002 Aug;125(Pt 8):1839-49

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, UK.

Ten able adults with autism or Asperger syndrome and 10 normal volunteers were PET scanned while watching animated sequences. The animations depicted two triangles moving about on a screen in three different conditions: moving randomly, moving in a goal-directed fashion (chasing, fighting), and moving interactively with implied intentions (coaxing, tricking). The last condition frequently elicited descriptions in terms of mental states that viewers attributed to the triangles (mentalizing). Read More

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August 2002
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[PET and SPECT scans in autistic children].

Orv Hetil 2002 May;143(21 Suppl 3):1302-4

Debreceni Egyetem, Orvos- és Egészségtudományi Centrum, Nukleáris Medicina Tanszék, Debrecen.

The authors have analyzed and compared the results of the 99mTc-ECD-SPECT and FDG-PET examinations, performed in alert state, of 12 children suffering from infantile (9 subjects) or atypical (3 subjects) autism. In addition to frontally increased FDG metabolism, a decreased blood flow with left-sided dominance was found bifrontally and bitemporally in the infantile form (perfusion-metabolism mismatch). The regional differences in cortical FDG uptake were not significant in atypical autism, although both the blood flow and the metabolism of the thalami were decreased. Read More

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May 2002
9 Reads

Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism.

Pediatr Radiol 2002 Jan 13;32(1):1-7. Epub 2001 Nov 13.

Service de Radiologie Pédiatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-001-0570-xDOI Listing
January 2002
24 Reads

Autism in tuberous sclerosis complex is related to both cortical and subcortical dysfunction.

Neurology 2001 Oct;57(7):1269-77

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University, Detroit 48201, USA.

Objective: To examine the relationship between autism and epilepsy in relation to structural and functional brain abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).

Methods: Children with TSC and intractable epilepsy underwent MRI as well as PET scans with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and alpha-[(11)C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT). Based on the results of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, and overall adaptive behavioral composite (OABC) from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, subjects were divided into three groups: autistic (OABC < 70; n = 9), mentally-retarded nonautistic (OABC < 70; n = 9), and relatively normal intelligence (OABC > or = 70; n = 8). Read More

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October 2001
5 Reads

Effect of fluoxetine on regional cerebral metabolism in autistic spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2001 Jun;4(2):119-25

Neiroscience PET Laboratory, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA.

The regional metabolic effects of fluoxetine were examined in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Six adult patients with DSM-IV and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) diagnoses of autism (n = 5) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 1), entered a 16-wk placebo-controlled cross-over trial of fluoxetine. The patients received (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography with co-registered magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at the end of the period of fluoxetine administration. Read More

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https://ijnp.oxfordjournals.org/content/ijnp/4/2/119.full.pd
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http://ijnp.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.1017/S146114570100
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1461145701002280DOI Listing
June 2001
3 Reads

Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Positron emission tomography.

Am J Psychiatry 2000 Dec;157(12):1988-93

Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot, Direction des Sciences du Vívant, Département de Recherche, Commisariat à l'Energie Atomique, Tours, France.

Objective: The nature of the underlying brain dysfunction of childhood autism, a life-long severe developmental disorder, is not well understood. Although researchers using functional brain imaging have attempted to contribute to this debate, previous studies have failed to report consistent localized neocortical brain dysfunction. The authors reasoned that early methods may have been insensitive to such dysfunction, which may now be detectable with improved technology. Read More

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http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.12.1988DOI Listing
December 2000
5 Reads

Functional neuroimaging of autistic disorders.

Authors:
J M Rumsey M Ernst

Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2000 ;6(3):171-9

Clinical Neuroscience Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Functional neuroimaging methods hold promise for elucidating the neurobiology of autistic disorders, yet they present difficult practical and scientific challenges when applied to these complex and heterogeneous syndromes. Single-state studies of brain metabolism and blood flow thus far have failed to yield consistent findings, but suggest considerable variability in regional patterns of cerebral synaptic activity. Patients with idiopathic autism are less likely to show abnormalities than are patients with comorbid illness or epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2779(2000)6:3<171::AID-MRDD4>3.0.CO;2-NDOI Listing
October 2000
5 Reads

Brain mapping of language and auditory perception in high-functioning autistic adults: a PET study.

J Autism Dev Disord 1999 Feb;29(1):19-31

Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

We examined the brain organization for language and auditory functions in five high-functioning autistic and five normal adults, using [15O]-water positron emission tomography (PET). Cerebral blood flow was studied for rest, listening to tones, and listening to, repeating, and generating sentences. The autism group (compared to the control group) showed (a) reversed hemispheric dominance during verbal auditory stimulation; (b) a trend towards reduced activation of auditory cortex during acoustic stimulation; and (c) reduced cerebellar activation during nonverbal auditory perception and possibly expressive language. Read More

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February 1999
5 Reads

Autism and visual agnosia in a child with right occipital lobectomy.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Oct;65(4):555-60

Hôpital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Neuropédiatrie, Université René Descartes, Paris, France.

Objectives: Autistic disorder is a developmental handicap with an unknown neurological basis. Current neuropsychological models for autism suggest an abnormal construction of visual perceptual representation or a deficit in executive functions. These models predict cerebral lesions in the temporo-occipital or frontal regions of autistic patients. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2170287PMC
October 1998
6 Reads

Impairment of dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway in autistic men: language activation data from positron emission tomography.

Neurosci Lett 1998 Mar;245(1):1-4

Department of Pediatrics at Children's Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit 48201-2196, USA.

Recent evidence suggests disturbances of serotonin synthesis affecting the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway in autistic boys. We studied possible effects of such disturbances on brain activations for language in autistic adults. Four autistic and five normal men were studied while listening to, repeating, and generating sentences, using [15(O)]-water positron emission tomography (PET). Read More

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March 1998
4 Reads

Anterior cingulate gyrus volume and glucose metabolism in autistic disorder.

Am J Psychiatry 1997 Aug;154(8):1047-50

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029-6574, USA.

Objective: This study reports the first paired measurements of glucose metabolism and volume of the anterior cingulate gyrus in autism.

Method: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans of seven high-functioning autistic patients and seven sex- and age-matched normal volunteers were coregistered. After the anterior cingulate gyri were outlined on the MRI images, the volumes of the structures were measured and corrected for brain volume. Read More

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http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/ajp.154.8.1047
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.154.8.1047DOI Listing
August 1997
6 Reads

Possible effects of tetrahydrobiopterin treatment in six children with autism--clinical and positron emission tomography data: a pilot study.

Dev Med Child Neurol 1997 May;39(5):313-8

Department of Paediatrics, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.

Six children, between 3 and 5 years of age, having infantile autism according to DSM-III-R, were treated for 3 months with 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (R-BH4), a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylases in the biosynthetic pathway of catecholamines and serotonin. A criterion for inclusion in the study was a relatively low level of R-BH4 in the cerebrospinal fluid. For clinical evaluation, the Parental Satisfaction Survey (PASS) was used every fourth week and the Griffiths Developmental Scales were used before starting and 3 months after completing the treatment. Read More

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May 1997
2 Reads

Normal fusion for three-dimensional integrated visualization of SPECT and magnetic resonance brain images.

J Nucl Med 1997 Apr;38(4):624-9

Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht University/University Hospital, The Netherlands.

Unlabelled: Multimodality visualization aims at efficiently presenting integrated information obtained from different modalities, usually combining a functional modality (SPECT, PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging) with an anatomical modality [CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)]. This paper presents a technique for three-dimensional integrated visualization of SPECT and magnetic resonance brain images, where MRI is used as a framework of reference for the display of the SPECT data.

Methods: A novel technique for three-dimensional integrated visualization of functional and anatomical information, called normal fusion, is presented. Read More

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April 1997
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'Theory of mind' in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome.

Neuroreport 1996 Dec;8(1):197-201

MRC Cognitive Development Unit, London, UK.

The ability to attribute mental states to others ('theory of mind') pervades normal social interaction and is impaired in autistic individuals. In a previous positron emission tomography scan study of normal volunteers, performing a 'theory of mind' task was associated with activity in left medial prefrontal cortex. We used the same paradigm in five patients with Asperger syndrome, a mild variant of autism with normal intellectual functioning. Read More

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December 1996
6 Reads

Infantile spasms: III. Prognostic implications of bitemporal hypometabolism on positron emission tomography.

Ann Neurol 1996 May;39(5):643-9

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit 48201, USA.

Positron emission tomography (PET) of brain glucose utilization is highly sensitive in detecting focal cortical abnormalities in patients with infantile spasms even when the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are normal. Of 110 infants with spasms evaluated for potential surgical intervention during an 8-year period, we encountered 18 infants (7 males, 11 females; age range, 10 mo to 5 yr) with a common metabolic pattern on positron emission tomography (PET) consisting of bilateral hypometabolism in the temporal lobes. CT and MRI scans did not reveal any focal abnormalities in the 18 infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410390514DOI Listing
May 1996
2 Reads

Glucose metabolic correlates of continuous performance test performance in adults with a history of infantile autism, schizophrenics, and controls.

Schizophr Res 1995 Sep;17(1):85-94

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Bronx Veteran's Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468, USA.

Twenty-five schizophrenic patients, fourteen adults with a history of infantile autism, and twenty normal controls performed a test of sustained attention, the degraded stimulus continuous performance test (CPT), during the 35 minute 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake period preceding positron emission tomographic (PET) scan acquisition. This is the first analysis comparing correlations between glucose metabolic rate (GMR) for selected regions and CPT performance. CPT performance differed in controls and schizophrenics, but autistics did not differ from either group. Read More

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September 1995
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Neuroimaging in infantile autism.

J Child Neurol 1994 Apr;9(2):155-61

Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

Metabolic findings using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) and correlative anatomic findings with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were characterized in 13 children with infantile autism. Four of 13 patients had both an abnormal FDG-PET and an abnormal MRI, whereas seven of 13 patients had both a normal FDG-PET and a normal CT or MRI. Sixteen of a total of 195 brain areas qualitatively examined with FDG-PET had a hypometabolic abnormality on PET. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/088307389400900210
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088307389400900210DOI Listing
April 1994
7 Reads

[Cerebral glucose metabolism in autistic children. Study and positron emission tomography].

Acta Neurol Belg 1988 Mar-Apr;88(2):75-90

Laboratoire de Tomographie par Emission de Positrons, Université de Louvain, Belgique.

Brain glucose metabolism was measured in 18 autistic children, using high resolution positron emission tomography (PET Scan), with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as tracer. Measurements were performed on an ECAT III tomograph (CTI). Global brain glucose utilization in the autistic population was slightly more elevated than in young adult volunteers, particularly in frontal cortical regions, an observation previously reported for adult autists (Rumsey et al. Read More

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July 1988
9 Reads
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