64 results match your criteria PET Scanning in Autism Spectrum Disorders


Cerebral Expression of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 in Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences-Child Psychiatry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Multiple lines of evidence suggest that dysfunction of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR) plays a role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet animal and human investigations of mGluR expression provide conflicting findings about the nature of dysregulation of cerebral mGluR pathways in subtypes of ASD. The demonstration of reduced mGluR expression throughout the living brains of men with fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common known single-gene cause of ASD, provides a clue to examine mGluR expression in ASD. Read More

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Striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in autism spectrum disorder and its relation with social defeat: an [F]-FDOPA PET/CT study.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 13;11(1):47. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Rivierduinen Institute for Mental Healthcare, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Alterations in dopamine signalling have been implied in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and these could be associated with the risk of developing a psychotic disorder in ASD adults. Negative social experiences and feelings of social defeat might result in an increase in dopamine functioning. However, few studies examined dopamine functioning in vivo in ASD. Read More

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January 2021

A simultaneous [C]raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of striatal dopamine binding in autism.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 11;11(1):33. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, USA.

The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired motivation to seek out social experience early in life that interferes with the development of social functioning. This framework suggests that impaired mesolimbic dopamine function underlies compromised responses to social rewards in ASD. Although this hypothesis is supported by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, no molecular imaging study has evaluated striatal dopamine functioning in response to rewards in ASD. Read More

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January 2021

Microglia mediated neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 11 29;130:167-176. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Clinical Nursing Teaching and Research Section, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although the precise pathophysiologies underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not yet been fully clarified, growing evidence supports the involvement of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of this disorder, with microglia being particular relevance in the pathophysiologic processes.

Objective: The present review aimed to systematically characterize existing literature regarding the role of microglia mediated neuroinflammation in the etiology of ASD.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted for records indexed within Pubmed, EMBASE, or Web of Science to identify potentially eligible publications. Read More

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November 2020

Tracing the History of the Human Translocator Protein to Recent Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Imaging.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 08 23;11(15):2192-2200. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, United States.

The human 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has been widely used as a measure of glial activation in health and disease. With the continuous progress of radiotracers with increased affinity and selectivity, associations between TSPO expression, disease severity, and progression have been examined, particularly in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, findings in psychiatric disorders have prompted reassessment of the interpretation of regional TSPO expression differences in the brain, specifically with respect to potential neuroinflammatory components. Read More

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Recommendations to distinguish behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia from psychiatric disorders.

Brain 2020 06;143(6):1632-1650

Department of Neurology, UCLA Medical Centre, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA.

The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a frequent cause of early-onset dementia. The diagnosis of bvFTD remains challenging because of the limited accuracy of neuroimaging in the early disease stages and the absence of molecular biomarkers, and therefore relies predominantly on clinical assessment. BvFTD shows significant symptomatic overlap with non-degenerative primary psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorders and even personality disorders. Read More

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[C]PBR28 MR-PET imaging reveals lower regional brain expression of translocator protein (TSPO) in young adult males with autism spectrum disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 05 19;26(5):1659-1669. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Mechanisms of neuroimmune and mitochondrial dysfunction have been repeatedly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To examine these mechanisms in ASD individuals, we measured the in vivo expression of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), an activated glial marker expressed on mitochondrial membranes. Participants underwent scanning on a simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) scanner with the second-generation TSPO radiotracer [C]PBR28. Read More

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Prevalence and Characteristics of Sensory Processing Abnormalities and its Correlation with FDG-PET Findings in Children with Autism.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 11 15;86(11):1036-1042. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of Sensory processing abnormalities (SPAs) in children with autism and to study if there is any correlation between sensory processing abnormalities with FDG-PET findings in children with severe autism.

Methods: One hundred children, aged 3-12 y, diagnosed as Autistic spectrum disorder; ASD (DSM-V) and 100 age and sex matched controls were studied. SPAs were detected using Short sensory profile (SSP) questionnaire. Read More

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November 2019

A Protocol for Sedation Free MRI and PET Imaging in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Jul;49(7):3036-3044

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) present unparalleled opportunities to investigate the neural basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, challenges such as deficits in social interaction, anxiety around new experiences, impaired language abilities, and hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli make participating in neuroimaging studies challenging for individuals with ASD. In this commentary, we describe the existent training protocols for preparing individuals with ASD for PET/MRI scans and our own experience developing a training protocol to facilitate the inclusion of low-functioning adults with ASD in PET-MRI studies. Read More

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GABA receptor availability is not altered in adults with autism spectrum disorder or in mouse models.

Sci Transl Med 2018 10;10(461)

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.

Preliminary studies have suggested that γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA) receptors, and potentially the GABA α5 subtype, are deficient in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, prior studies have been confounded by the effects of medications, and these studies did not compare findings across different species. We measured both total GABA and GABA α5 receptor availability in two positron emission tomography imaging studies. Read More

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October 2018

PET imaging of synaptic density: A new tool for investigation of neuropsychiatric diseases.

Neurosci Lett 2019 01 31;691:44-50. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

PET Center, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is expressed ubiquitously in neurons of the central nervous system, and is the binding target of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam. Because of the availability of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands targeting SV2A, there is increasing enthusiasm on the use of SV2A PET to study a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. This review discusses the recent development of radioligands for PET imaging of SV2A and their potential use in the research and diagnosis of CNS diseases. Read More

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January 2019

Therapeutic use of carbohydrate-restricted diets in an autistic child; a case report of clinical and 18FDG PET findings.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 08 11;33(4):1187-1192. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that has been used successfully in the treatment of refractory epilepsies for almost 100 years. There has been accumulating evidence to show that the KD may provide a therapeutic benefit in autism spectrum disorders, albeit by a yet-unknown mechanism. We report a case of a 6-year-old patient with high-functioning autism and subclinical epileptic discharges who responded poorly to several behavioural and psychopharmacological treatments. Read More

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Molecular imaging of autism spectrum disorder.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2017 12 12;29(6):530-554. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

c Section of High Resolution Brain Positron Emission Tomography Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science , School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism. Read More

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December 2017

Oxytocin Fails to Recruit Serotonergic Neurotransmission in the Autistic Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2018 12;28(12):4169-4178

Institute of Cognitive Sciences Marc Jeannerod, UMR 5229, CNRS & University of Lyon, France.

Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide involved in affiliation has been shown to enhance social skills in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nevertheless, OT improvements seem ephemeral. Animal research has demonstrated OT action on serotonin (5-HT), an interaction that we also found in the healthy human brain. Read More

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December 2018

A distinct microRNA expression profile is associated with α[C]-methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET uptake in epileptogenic cortical tubers resected from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Jan 7;109(Pt A):76-87. Epub 2017 Oct 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by hamartomatous lesions in various organs and arises due to mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC mutations lead to a range of neurological manifestations including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and brain lesions that include cortical tubers. There is evidence that seizures arise at or near cortical tubers, but it is unknown why some tubers are epileptogenic while others are not. Read More

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January 2018

[C]PF-3274167 as a PET radiotracer of oxytocin receptors: Radiosynthesis and evaluation in rat brain.

Nucl Med Biol 2017 Dec 2;55:1-6. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM, CNRS, LabEx PRIMES, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Lyon, France; CERMEP-Imagerie du Vivant, Bron, France; Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Oxytocin plays a major role in the regulation of social interactions in mammals by interacting with the oxytocin receptor (OTR) expressed in the brain. Furthermore, the oxytocin system appears as a possible therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and other psychiatric troubles, justifying current pharmacological researches. Since no specific PET radioligand is currently available to image OTR in the brain, the aim of this study was to radiolabel the specific OTR antagonist PF-3274167 and to evaluate [C]PF-3274167 as a potential PET tracer for OTR in rat brains. Read More

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December 2017

Positron emission tomography assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Apr;12(2):532-546

Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, NeuroPET Center, 11388 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite #100, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.

Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. Read More

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Integrated multimodal network approach to PET and MRI based on multidimensional persistent homology.

Hum Brain Mapp 2017 03 17;38(3):1387-1402. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Finding underlying relationships among multiple imaging modalities in a coherent fashion is one of the challenging problems in multimodal analysis. In this study, we propose a novel approach based on multidimensional persistence. In the extension of the previous threshold-free method of persistent homology, we visualize and discriminate the topological change of integrated brain networks by varying not only threshold but also mixing ratio between two different imaging modalities. Read More

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Nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation for a patient with self-injurious behavior and autism spectrum disorder: functional and structural changes of the brain: report of a case and review of literature.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2017 01 3;159(1):137-143. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

The aim of this report was to investigate the clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the functional and structural changes in the brain after DBS. We present a 14-year-old boy with ASD and self-injurious behavior (SIB) refractory with medical and behavioral therapy. He was treated by bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) DBS. Read More

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January 2017

A systematic review of molecular imaging (PET and SPECT) in autism spectrum disorder: current state and future research opportunities.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015 May 12;52:56-73. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Harvard, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are techniques used to quantify molecular interactions, biological processes and protein concentration and distribution. In the central nervous system, these molecular imaging techniques can provide critical insights into neurotransmitter receptors and their occupancy by neurotransmitters or drugs. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of studies that have investigated neurotransmitters in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while earlier studies mostly focused on cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism. Read More

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Platelet SERT as a peripheral biomarker of serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system.

Curr Med Chem 2013 ;20(11):1382-96

Human Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences Research Group, Neurosciences Research Program, IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Alterations in serotonergic activity have been observed in many pathological conditions, including neuro psychiatric diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter(SERT) in the brain clears 5-HT from extracellular spaces, modulating the strength and duration of serotonergic signaling.Outside the central nervous system, it is also present in platelets, where it takes up 5-HT from plasma, keeping levels very low (i. Read More

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Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism.

J Clin Neurosci 2013 Mar 7;20(3):373-6. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul University, Arpaemini/Fatih, İstanbul 34093, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients diagnosed with infantile spasms and autism. This study includes 90 patients who were diagnosed with infantile spasms at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in the Istanbul University Medical Faculty between 1995 and 2007. Of the 90 patients, 15 patients who were diagnosed with autism using the Autism Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale and a control group of nine patients without autism but with infantile spasms underwent PET examination. Read More

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Persistent brain network homology from the perspective of dendrogram.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2012 Dec 19;31(12):2267-77. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, Korea.

The brain network is usually constructed by estimating the connectivity matrix and thresholding it at an arbitrary level. The problem with this standard method is that we do not have any generally accepted criteria for determining a proper threshold. Thus, we propose a novel multiscale framework that models all brain networks generated over every possible threshold. Read More

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December 2012

5-HT2 receptor distribution shown by [18F] setoperone PET in high-functioning autistic adults.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012 ;24(2):191-7

Department of Radiology, the Thompson Center, University of Missouri, MO, USA.

The serotonergic system is implicated in disordered emotional behavior. Autism is characterized by impaired processing of emotional information. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is also critically involved in brain development, and abnormal brain synthesis of serotonin is observed in autism. Read More

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November 2012

The brain GABA-benzodiazepine receptor alpha-5 subtype in autism spectrum disorder: a pilot [(11)C]Ro15-4513 positron emission tomography study.

Neuropharmacology 2013 May 21;68:195-201. Epub 2012 Apr 21.

King's College London, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, PO Box 50, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK.

GABA (gamma-amino-butyric-acid) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It has been proposed that the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are the result of deficient GABA neurotransmission, possibly including reduced expression of GABAA receptors. However, this hypothesis has not been directly tested in living adults with ASD. Read More

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[Brain imaging of infantile autism].

Arch Pediatr 2012 May 6;19(5):547-50. Epub 2012 Apr 6.

Unité Inserm U1000, service de radiologie pédiatrique, hôpital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Paris-Descartes, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75743 Paris cedex 15, France.

Understanding of brain structural anomalies seen in children with autism has considerably progressed since the apparition of MRI and functional imaging. All the results are converging toward the description of anatomical and functional anomalies in the regions of the so-called "social brain". Statistical analyses show diminution of gray matter in the region of the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Read More

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The 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's disorder: A PET study with [¹¹C]MDL 100907 and [¹¹C]DASB.

Psychiatry Res 2011 Dec 12;194(3):230-234. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Montefiore Medical Center, University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Evidence from biochemical, imaging, and treatment studies suggest abnormalities of the serotonin system in autism spectrum disorders, in particular in frontolimbic areas of the brain. We used the radiotracers [(11)C]MDL 100907 and [(11)C]DASB to characterize the 5-HT(2A) receptor and serotonin transporter in Asperger's Disorder. Seventeen individuals with Asperger's Disorder (age=34. Read More

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December 2011

Computing the shape of brain networks using graph filtration and Gromov-Hausdorff metric.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2011 ;14(Pt 2):302-9

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The difference between networks has been often assessed by the difference of global topological measures such as the clustering coefficient, degree distribution and modularity. In this paper, we introduce a new framework for measuring the network difference using the Gromov-Hausdorff (GH) distance, which is often used in shape analysis. In order to apply the GH distance, we define the shape of the brain network by piecing together the patches of locally connected nearest neighbors using the graph filtration. Read More

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November 2011

Feature selection and classification of imbalanced datasets: application to PET images of children with autistic spectrum disorders.

Neuroimage 2011 Aug 10;57(3):1003-14. Epub 2011 May 10.

CEA, Neurospin, LNAO, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Learning with discriminative methods is generally based on minimizing the misclassification of training samples, which may be unsuitable for imbalanced datasets where the recognition might be biased in favor of the most numerous class. This problem can be addressed with a generative approach, which typically requires more parameters to be determined leading to reduced performances in high dimension. In such situations, dimension reduction becomes a crucial issue. Read More

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Brief Report: alterations in cerebral blood flow as assessed by PET/CT in adults with autism spectrum disorder with normal IQ.

J Autism Dev Disord 2012 Feb;42(2):313-8

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Specific biological markers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have not yet been established. Functional studies have shown abnormalities in the anatomo-functional connectivity of the limbic-striatal "social" brain. This study aimed to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest. Read More

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February 2012